Conditions of Infancy and Their Nutrition Management
Conditions of Infancy and Their Nutrition Management FDNS 4050
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 4050 at University of Georgia taught by Alex K. Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
FDNS Chpt 9 Notes cont 09272015 Conditions of Infancy and Their Nutrition Management Infants at Risk New challenge we now have a greater number of children with certain conditions surviving because of advances in health care therefore more infants need specialized care 0 A lot of times the care is achieved by trial and error oKey questions regarding infants o How is the baby growing o Is the diet providing all required nutrients o How is the infant being fed 0 Any child who is growing there is some degree of nutrient adequacy 0 Remember that preterm infants have lower requirements of nutrients than normal healthy babies Energy and Nutrient Needs 0 A typical infant s DRI for energy is 108 calkg oBased on the condition of the baby the infant will need more or less energy o Increased calories required for difficulty breathing infections temperature regulation fever and recovery from surgery oFor preterm infants their energy need is higher because they have catching up to do oChildren with spina bi da or down syndrome have a lower metabolic weight therefore they need less calories o Children with down syndrome tend to be overweight because parents tend to feed them the same amount as a healthy baby because they have weak bones and muscles oEnergy needs o AAP suggests 120 calkg for preterm infants oThe European Society for Gastroenterology and Nutrition gives a caloric range of 110135 calkg o Recovering infants may need as much as 180 calkg Babies between 3437 weeks are healthy preterm babies their energy needs tend to be very similar to that of full term healthy babies 0 The more preterm the baby the higher the energy needed for the baby 0 When using a chart made for a healthy baby for a preterm baby must adjust with age subtract 15 months from baby s age that s their quotnew agequot and you must feed the baby according to this age 0 After about 6 months the child should have caught up to normal size 0 Protein 0 152 gkg adequate if growth or digestion not affected 0 3035 gkg required for preterm or recovery from illness 0 4 gkg may be needed for ELBW 0 Increased protein helps catch up with weight needed for baby 0 Protein Sparing Action we can only spare protein for its primary action growth and development when there is sufficient energy from carbs and fat If there is not adequate carbs and fat the body uses protein for energy and growth is compromised Hydrolyzed protein used to help with digestion because babies GI tract development is compromised when preterm Speci c amino acid formulas such as for PKU Provide up to 55 calories from fat Lowfat diet rarely required Mediumchain triglycerides MCT bene cial to VLBW and ELBW infants because of low pancreatic and liver enzymes Essential fatty acids and DHA and AA important Fats also provided from breast milkformula o Vitamins and Minerals 0 O 0 Growth May need additional vitamins and minerals to support quotcatch upquot growth or during recovering from illness Humanmilk forti ers provide additional calories and nutrients Preterm infant formulas may have higher amounts of vitamins and minerals 0 Tracking growth re ects nutritional status for most infants 0 Additional methods to use if underlying conditions exist include 0 O 0 Growth charts for speci c diagnosis Biochemical indicators Body composition 0 Head circumference o Medications that impact growth 0 Growth in Preterm Infants 0 In the last weeks of pregnancy the most weight is gained by the baby therefore preterm babies have extremely low body fat 0 Variety of growth charts Olsen Intrauterine Growth charts specialized growth charts Fenton chart preterm charts 0 All preterm growth charts show head circumference as main indicator of healthy recovery 0 Does intrauterine growth predict outside growth 0 Depends on intrauterine environment growth restriction fetalorigin errors and unknown factors such as toxins and air poHqun 0 Interpretation of Growth 0 Rate of growth frequently used to measure improvement in preterm or sick infants 0 Microcephaly or macrocephaly may affect body composition and growth 0 Great variability in growth of infants
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