PSYC 316 Week 5 Notes
PSYC 316 Week 5 Notes PSYC 316
Popular in Intro-Psycpathology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Karikomi on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 316 at Northern Illinois University taught by Simon Jencius in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro-Psycpathology in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
Reviews for PSYC 316 Week 5 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/27/15
PSYC 316 Week 5 Monday 21 September Chapter 4 cont d DSMS has 4 new disorders characterized by symptoms that have historically been linked to OCD Hoarding Disorder 26 Affects older adults 5594 more than younger adults 3444 HairPulling trichotillomania 12 0 Female Male 101 SkinPicking Disorder Excoriation 14 About 75 are women BodyDysmorphic Disorder httpwwwadaaorgunderstandinganXietyrelatedillnessesother relatedconditionsbodydysmorphicdisorderbdd Added with the hopes that this will stimulate more research on these topics Chapter 5 Disorders of Trauma and Stress Wednesday 23 September 1 Stress and Anxiety Response A Stress has two components 1 2 Stressor event stimuli that cause psychological stress Stress Response an individual s reaction to the stressor a In uenced by Primary and Secondary Appraisals 1 Primary What is the challenge What challenges Will occur how much harm is involved 2 Secondary Can I handle this and how b Individuals that believe they possess the ability and resources to cope are more likely to respond well and deal with stressors more effectively Arousal and m are natural reactions to perceived threats a Fear includes physical emotional and cognitive responses Stress reactions and the fear that follows play a role in Psychological Disorders a Individuals Who experience many stressful events are more prone to the development of anxiety and other psychological disorders B Stress Coping and the Anxie Response 1 Extraordinary stress and trauma play more of a central role in certain psychological disorders a Acute Stress Disorder PTSD light b PostTraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD c In some cases the Dissociative Disorders 1 Dissociative Amnesia forgotten pieces of an event that took place a httpwwwminddisorderscomDelFiDissociativeamnesiahtml 2 Dissociative Identity Disorder DID a httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvZLONXZquKllt 3 DepersonalizationDerealization Disorder two or more distinct identities or personalities are present in an individual Personalities may take control of the individual Sufferer experiences extreme loss of memory that cannot be explained by simple forgetfulness a Depersonalization subjective experience of the outside world unreal b Derealization sense of self unreal C The Stress Response Fightor Flight or Freeze 1 Stress Response Activates the Hypothalamus through Two systems a Sympathetic Nervous System a group of autonomic nervous system ANS nerve bers that prepare for ght or ight 1 Shallow breathing heightened BP increased HR etc 2 This is then offset by the parasympathetic nervous system of the ANS which returns the body to homeostasis Rest and Digest b Endocrine System glands that secrete hormones 1 HPA pathway also ght or ight the Hypothalamus signals the Pituitary gland which then stimulates the Adrenal cortex releases corticosteroids stress hormones into the bloodstream ANS and Endocrine Svstem produce arousal and m reactions through two pathways a Sympathetic Nervous System Pathway When we face something we perceive as dangerous the hypothalamus excites the Sympathetic Nervous System which directly or indirectly stimulates key organs When the perceived danger passes the Parasympathetic Nervous System returns the body processes to normal b HypothalamicPituitaryAdrenal Pathway When we experience stress the hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex to release stress hormones corticosteroids into the bloodstream When we face something we perceive as dangerous the hypothalamus excites the Sympathetic Nervous System which directly or indirectly stimulates key organs When the perceived danger passes the Parasympathetic Nervous System returns the body processes to normal Each Person Has Their Own a Unique pattern of biological response b Way of experiencing fear and arousal c Level of general arousal and anxiety trait anxiety 1 Normal general response system to anxiety d Identi cation of situations as threatening state anxiety 1 Situational challenges can contribute to response system II Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder A Many people experience temporary feararousal after an upsetting event but if this persists it may be ASD or PTSD 1 Usually involves threat or actual injury to self or others a But these events don t always result in ASD or PTSD b So what factors lead to pathology 1 Type of stressor domestic violence rape war natural disasters etc B Acute Stress Disorder ASD symptoms begin immediately after the event and last for ltlmonth 1 Approximately 80 of Acute Stress Disorder cases will become PTSD a httppsychcentralcomdisordersacutestressdisordersymptoms 2 Aside from the differences in the onset and duration of ASD and PTSD the symptoms of both disorders are almost identical a Intrusive Thoughts andor Memories 1 Stressful memories and dreams dissociative reactions to reminders distressing reactions to reminder physiological reactions to reminders b Avoidance 1 Avoid memories thoughts people places andor things that remind the person of the event c Changes in Thoughts and Mood Following Event 1 Amnesia for event or event details negative beliefs about self others or the world negative thoughts about the causes or consequences of the event negative emotional state lack of interestpleasure in activities detachment from others numbness or can t feel positive emotions d High Levels of Arousal or Reactivity 1 Irritabilityangry outbursts reckless behavior hypervigilance strong startle response dif culties concentrating sleep problems C PostTraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD symptoms begin shortly after event but can last months or years after D What Triggers ASD and PTSD 1 35 current prevalence 7 9 lifetime prevalence a 23 will seek treatment though this often depends on the trauma type b Women Men 21 20 women 8 men develop disorders after trauma c About 12 of cases improve within 6 months remainder can persist for many years 2 Individuals with low incomes are twice as likely to eXperience one of the stress disorders than individuals with higher incomes E Risk Factors Besides Gender 1 Trauma Tvnes a Interpersonal forms of Victimization 1 Why women have higher risk for these disorders 2 13 of physicalsexual assault victims develop PTSD 3 94 of rape victims develop acute stress b Combat formerly considered shell shock or combat fatigue 1 29 of Vietnam veterans 2 Similar rates for veterans of current wars Afghanistan Iraq those with multiple deployments have much higher risk for these disorders a Individuals with multiple deployments have much higher risk for developing PTSD 3 Reactions to wartom environment c Disasters or serious accidents 1 Experiencing disasters earthquakes oods res etc Civilian traumas have been implicated in stress disorders at least ten times as often as combat traumas Natural disasters occur more often d Victimization 1 Individuals who have been abused or victimized often experience lingering stress symptoms a Ongoing victimization and abuse within the family may also lead to the development of stress disorders b Around 1 in 6 women is a victim of rape c Psychological impact is immediate and may be longlasting d Study Results 94 of rape survivors developed an acute stress disorder within 12 days following the assault e Research more than 13 of all victims of physical or sexual assault develop PTSD As many as half of all individuals exposed to terrorism or torture may also develop PTSD i The prevalence of these sources of traumatic stress are increasing in our society F Other Predictors l Bioloqical Processes trauma triggers biological changes in the brain and body particularly repeated exposure a Changes in norepinephrine NE and cortisol functioning b Damage to the hippocampus and amygdala Personalitv and Attitudes a Those with preexisting high anxiety or neuroticism high negative affect more likely to develop these disorders b Negative world views predict these disorders c Those with generally positive attitudes tend to do better considered resilient or hardy Adverse Childhood Experiences a Poverty b Psychological disorders in the family c Childhood exposure to assault or abuse or a catastrophe Social Sunnort a Those with limited support networks are much more likely to develop these disorders Why 1 Sense of loneliness 2 After trauma victims may isolate themselves 3 Being around others who have experienced similar trauma can help Multicultural Factors a Example Hispanic Americans mat be at particular risk 1 Cultural belief systems cultural emphasis on social support and relationships fatalism associated with Catholicism Prolonged Exposure Therapy Edna Foa Going back to trauma memory Tell and retell trauma story Listen to trauma narrative Repeated exposure gt change to emotional cognitive behavioral processing Friday 25 September G Effective Treatment Approaches 1 Exposure the gold standard in treatment Evidencebased but MUST be executed PROPERLY a Imaginal telling the story b In Vivo going to the scene c The focus is on reprocessing the emotions associated with the event Coqnitive components that address faulty assumptions about the trauma have been added a This wouldn t have happened if I was wearing a bra b I can never trust anyone again Medications antianxiety antidepressants can be somewhat helpful but not on their OWIl Exposure Treatment EvidenceBased but MUST still be EXECUTED PROPERLY III Dissociation A Dissociation Separation of normally related mental processes 1 2 3 Very heterogeneous diverse phenomenon Wide spectrum of severity Not necessarily caused by a traumatic event sometimes occurs as an adaptive process B Dissociative Disorders Disorders characterized by memory loss and identity change Dissociative features commonly result from trauma But trauma is NOT REQUIRED for a diagnosis of a dissociative disorder like it is for acute stressPTSD The United States of Tara Memory is kev to our identity o For those with these disorders one part of the memory seems dissociated separated from the rest Several kinds are represented in the DSM l Dissociative Amnesia DID formerly MPD DepersonalizationDerealization Dissociative Amnesia cannot remember important information usually trauma related about their lives a Memory loss is almost always biographical whereas memory for facts is normally m 1 It s dif cult to determine how common it is b Why 25 of the class likes to study DID Dissociative Identity Disorder DID a Development of two or more distinct Subpersonalities 1 Each personality has a unique set of behaviors attitudes emotions and memories 2 One sub personality is usually dominant primary or host and appears more than others b Many clinicians think it is extremely rare or ineXistent altogether 1 Many argue that it is Iatrogenic effect of bad therapy a Do not want to evoke disorder or cause harm to the subject b Many cases come to attention only after the person is in therapy 2 Many argue that other diagnoses are more appropriate Is DID real a Same groups of therapists have been making most of the diagnoses l Iatriogenic created by this subset of therapists 2 Suggestability and creativity are strong predictors of DID b Rates of DID skyrocketed after the release of Sybil l or awareness c Number of alters per client has increased dramatically 1 Now often over 100 d Extremely rare outside of North America 1 Where most of the media occurs a Sociocultural Factors Iatriogenic effects contributing to the prevalence of these disorders 4 Models for Explaining Dissociation a Psychodynamic SLIDES b Behavioral View 1 Forgetting is negatively reinforced by a drop in anxiety dissociation is an escapee behavior 2 Statedependent learning 3 Selfhypnosis can help forget facts events identity 5 DepersonalizationDerealization Disorder a Recurrent depersonalization episodes 1 Feeling detached from body or unreal andor 2 Feel that one s environment is unreal or detached b To be a disorder these need to be experienced recurrently cause distress and interfere With one s functioning c Not many explanations for Why this occurs 1 NOTE transient feelings depersonalizationderealization are quite common False memory retrieval can be induced Elizabeth Loftus just by the way a question is posed EXAM 1 Chapter 15 Big Ticket Items
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'