Notes Week 2
Notes Week 2 Anthrop 3301
Popular in Modern Human Physical Variation
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Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Notetaker on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anthrop 3301 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Douglas Crews in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Modern Human Physical Variation in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
98910 People 0 Carlton Cooncame up with more than 50 races in 1965 made quotRacial Adaptationsquot in 1982 0 Species Concept 0 Typological species de ned by xed essential morphological features 0 Biological reproductive isolationpopuation occupying a speci c niche in nature and interbreeding Terminology o Typology looking for ideal morphological quottypesquot in nature 0 Human variation thought to be due to membership within a type 0 Modern Model human variation due to interplay among genes environment culture 0 Culture human phenomenon shared and learned aspects of behavior derived via responses to environment and others social and behavioral responses to stress 0 Terms of classi cation 0 Plesiomorphyprimitive ancestral trait o Symplesiomorphyspecies share primitive traits from common ancestor mammary glands from ancestor 0 0 Apomorphyderived trait parabolic dentition Synapomorphyspecies share traits derived from common ancestor primate stereoscopic vision seeing in 3D Evolutionarily 0 0 lndividualsunits of selectionsborn reproduce die breeding populations demes units of evolution genetic changes occur as adaptations to local environments populations are the units of adaptation Demelocal population of organisms of a single species Speciesunit of extinction shown by fossil record 97 of species are extinct Adaptation 0 0 0 adaptation is a process an adaptation is an increase in reproductive success due to environmental conditions ability for culture may be genebased plasticity of a trait how fast the Not necessarily the strongest or the fastest it39s the most adaptable If an individual is selected against the entire genome lost theoreticallyall members of species share the same gene pool Realitymost mates come from local deme Chimps and humans are genetically different 0 DNA methylation contributes to phenotypic differences methylation diseaserelated phenotypescancer and autism 0 Early Estimate chimp DNA 96 same as human 4difference Humans have a high risk of CAAlzheimer39sAlDS chimps rarely develop these Genomewide methylation map prefrontal cortex 0 Humans signi cantly lower levels of methylation 0 most are promoters of protein building and cellular metabolism Chimps actually about 85 similar to humans Simple traits thought to be mostly genetic littleno outside in uenceblood type Mendelian have or not 2 alleles 3 geno39s and 2 pheno39s complete dominant and recessive Hapsburg lip and hemophilia o sickle cell anemia recessive r sickle cell disease have rr and die very young 0 PKU phenylketonuria ack of phenylalanine hydroxase r o albinism r o redgreen colorblindness xlinked r o achondroplasia Dominant D homozygote DD not compatible with life 0 Complex 0 interactions between genes environment and culture 0 pleiotropy 1 gene many effects on pheno sickle cell 0 epistasis genegtgenegtgene interaction 1 gene product masking or enhancing another 0 Proteins o Smallest protein in humans is 2 amino acids aa39s long 6 base pairs initiates developmental processes Next3 aa proteinhypothalamic factor induces release of ThyroidStimulating Protein from Pituitary TRH o Largest Titin 27k33k aa39s molecular spring in muscle passive elasticity 244 folded protein domains 0 Large protein Dystrophin muscular dystrophy gene spans about 25 MB has 79 exons and 90k base pairs takes 16 hours to transcribe mRNA 0 Protein Structure 0 Primary structure aa sequence single polypeptide chain 0 secondary aa chain folds into pleated sheets and alpha helices like with H bonds 0 Tertiary sheets and helices attract disul de bonds cysmet residues 0 Quaternary polypeptide chains fold into globular protein 0 Protein functions 0 0 0 Enzymes make chem reactions faster Structural collagen Regulatory switch genes on and off Transport apolipoproteins albumin55 plasma proteins Storage ovalbumin stores energy in eggs Receptors for hormones cytokines neurotransmitters Hormones insulin aldosterone Protective antibodies Contractile actin and myosin Spliceosomecomposed of 5 small nuclear RNA snRNA molecules U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 up to 150 proteins 0 recognizes beginning and ending of introns cuts introns out of premRNA joins exons to form mature mRNA conserved from yeast to humansbasic cellular machinery recognizes 4 short nucleotide sequences w introns Highly conservedGU polypyrimidine tract can splice out exons or leave an intron in mature mRNA on accident 0 Alternative Splicing 0 0 exon skipping is the most common form in mammals intron retention is more common in plants and simple multicellular lifesuggests that alternative splicing began as intron retention 0 average human proteincoding gene is 28K base pairs Kbp 88 exons and 78 introns exons are relatively short Humans have more introns per gene than any other organism energetically expensive to make DNA high maintenance and splicing costs Mistakes in splicing are costlycan kill 15 of human genetic disease due to failed premRNA splicing 300000 coding genesthis will probably be on the test 0 Of Mice and Men 0 humans and mice have the same number of coding genesgood for studying human genetics not for much else though same exonintron arrangement Majority protein coding loci derived from the most recent common ancestor MRCA highly conserved base pair sequences 23 and me can get your risk genes assessed with like a cheek swab 25 alternatively spliced exons in humansspecies speci c proteins and diversi cation TransposonsDNA sequences that move from place to place on chromosomes 0 50 of human DNA is in active and decaying transposons 0 Some were inserted millions of years ago others yesterday 0 These quotjumping genesquot are found in all species 0 chromosome regions with the most transposonderived sequences duplicate last 0 P element high movement capabilities in D meanogaster aka fruit ies this was incorporated from another fruit y about 80 years ago Why do P elements insert at speci c locations Who knows o Selective insertions 40 ofjumps into only 300 coding genes always at the beginning of a gene insertion sites able to function as a start site for DNA duplication Jumping occurs during DNA replication Rapid spread of Retrotransposons short DNA sequences that can selfgenerate copies of themselves and insert itself into a genome at a random position like how a retrovirus works transpose immediately after replicating preferentially insert into DNA that is not yet replicated duplicate 2x per cell cycle Jumping Genes Transposons Alus 0 One group alternatively spliced exons unique to primates which likely contributed to primate divergence primatespeci c exons from mobile Alu sequences 50 of the human genome is transposable elements Alus are the most abundant jumping genes at about 260300 bIO transposable DNA sequence quotreproducesquot itself and inserts itself into new places Alu sequences distinctive sequence ends in quotpolyA tailquot Human genome has over 14 million Alu copies continually multiply insert into new locations Rate 1 insertion per 100200 births which expands protein generating capacity Alus in 5 of alternatively spliced exons likely originated when an Alu jumped into an intron which then became an exon Today human genome contains 500k Alu elements 25k could become Alu elements
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