Sept 25th-Sept 30th
Sept 25th-Sept 30th EBIO 1040-01
Popular in Evolutionary Biology: Diversity of Life
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha R on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1040-01 at Tulane University taught by Michael Doosey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology: Diversity of Life in Biology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Intro to Kingdom Animalia or Aero ot t By n a y 3937 0 Learning Goals 0 Understand 5 key transitions in animal evolution 0 Know what a body cavity is amp how the coelom develops 0 Become familiar with basic animal divisions amp taxonomy I General Features of Animals 0 Heterotrophic Multicellular No cell walls lack rigid cell walls amp are typically more flexible Active Movement move more rapidly amp complexly Diversity of Form Diversity of Habitat I Most occur only in the sea but many occur in freshwater amp land 0 Sexual Reproduction most animals reproduce sexually o Embryonic Development I Zygote first undergoes a series of mitotic divisions that produces a ball of cells blastula O Tissues Basic Challenges Faced 0 Find amp digest food 0 Find a mate amp reproduce 0 Maintain balance with fluids amp salts O Circulate nutrients 0 Remove waste products 0 Kingdom Animalia O Subkingdom Parazoa I Phylum Porifera sponges O Subkingdom Eumetazoa I quotRadiataquot radial symmetry I Clade Bilateria bilateral symmetry III Protostomes III Deuterostomes 0 Evolution of the Animal Body Form o 5 KEY TRANSITIONS I Symmetry D Parazoa Sponges lack definite symmetry DD Eumetazoa have a symmetry defined along an imaginary axis drawn through the animal39s body III 2 Main Types 0 Radial Symmetry 0 Body parts arranged around central axis 0 Can be bisected into 2 equal halves in any 2D plain 0 Will look the same from every angle 00000 Sept 25th Page 1 ltgt Sessile Organisms tend to have radial symmetry 0 Advantages b Awareness of food mates in all directions b No investment in limbs wings etc and how to use them 0 Disadvantages b Limited to food that floats by can39t move gt Can39t escape danger b How to reach your mates b How to disperse offspring 0 Solutions gt Capture prey b Defend yourself gt Rely on external fertilization gt Have a motile larva stage 9 Bilateral Symmetry 0 Body has right amp left halves that are mirror images bottom top etc 0 Only the sagittal plane bisects the animal into 2 equal halves 0 Advantages b Cephalization Sense of organs at one end anterior 9 For humans head is on top 9 More efficient shape for moving through environment Animals tend to become cephalized as they develop a head a brain amp a central nervous system b Evolution of a definite brain area b Motile organs tend to have bilateral symmetry Actively seek out food amp mates Run away from predators Animals in motion have a specific direction 0 Animal awareness becomes concentrated in the direction of motion sense organs are right up front 9 Fig 332 compares Bilateral amp radial I Tissues El Subkingdom Parazoa sponges 9 Lack defined tissues amp organs El Subkingdom Eumetazoa 9 Have distinct amp welldefined tissues 0 Cells have characteristic morphology I Body Cavity Sept 25th Page 2 I Only in eumetazoa El During embryonic development produce 3 Germ Layers 9 Outer ectoderm body coverings amp nervous system 9 Middle mesoderm skeleton amp muscles 9 Inner endoderm digestive organs amp intestines El Body Cavity fluid filled cavity that is isolated from external environment 9 Evolution of efficient organ systems was not possible until there was a cavity for accommodating amp supporting them I 3 Basic Kinds of Body Plans among Bilateria 9 Acoelomates No body cavity 9 Pseudocoelomates Body cavity between mesoderm amp endoderm 9 Coelomates Body cavity entirely within the mesoderm ltgt Referred to as the coelom 9 Fig 333 CI Advantages 9 The body cavity made possible the development of advanced organ systems 9 Coelomates developed a circulatory system to flow nutrients amp remove wastes 9 Closed Circulatory System Blood moves continuously through vessels that are separated from body fluids 9 Open Circulatory System Blood passes from vessels into sinuses mixes with body fluids amp reenters the vessels El Coelom An internal body cavity a fluid filled space that runs throughout the body of higher animals 9 Advantages 0 quotTube in a Tubequot 0 Allows fluid circulation within coelom ltgt Fluids are relatively incompressible so the coelom acts as a hydrostatic skeleton ltgt Digestion can be independent of movement 0 More space for internal organs 0 More space to store gametes I Patterns of Development CI The Basic Bilaterian pattern of development 9 Mitotic cell divisionsceavages of the egg form a hollow ball of cellsBlastula ltgt Blastula indents to form a 2layer thick ball with b Blastopore Opening to outside b Archenteron Primitive body cavity I Segmentation repeated parts throughout the body I The combination of bilateral symmetry and a linear quottube Sept 25th Page 3 in a tubequot body plan opens up a new evolutionary pathway segmentation El Parts of the body can become specialized to perform different functions leading ultimately to the most successful organisms arthropods amp chordates El Advantages 9 Allows redundant organ systems in adults such as occurs in the annelids 9 Allows for more efficient amp flexible movement because each segment can move independently El Segmentation appeared several times in the evolution of animals 0 Bilaterians can be divided into 2 Groups 0 Protostomes1st mouth develop the mouth first or near the blastopore I Anus if present develops either from blastopore or another region of embryo O Deutrostomes 2nd mouth develop the anus first from the blastopore I Mouth develops later from another region of the embryo This split in animal evolution occurred at least 540 million years ago They also differ in 3 other function embryological features I Cleavage pattern of embryonic cells gt El Protostomes Spiral Cleavage El Deutrostomes Radial Cleavage I Developmental fate of cells gt El Protostomes Determinate development cleavage 9 Embryonic cell has a destiny 9 Take one cell gtLoss of all cell tissues that would come from that cell El Deutrostomes Indeterminate development cleavage 9 Embryonic cells can become anything 9 Take one cell away others compensate 0 Can grow a twin from the one cell taken away I Formation of Coelom El Protostomes When the endoderm splits Schizocoely El Deutrostomes When the endoderm pinches off Enterocoely 0 Figure 334 V important 0 Traditional Classification of Animals 0 Multicellular animals metazoans are traditionally divided into 36 distinct phyla based on shared anatomy amp embryology 0 Kingdom Animalia I Subkingdom Parazoa lacks symmetry amp tissues El Phylum Porifera I Subkingdom Eumetazoa Has symmetry amp tissues El Phylum Cnidaria El Phylum Ctenophora El Clade Bilateria Sept 25th Page 4 0 Current Phylogeny O The traditional animal phylogeny is being reevaluated using molecular data Animal phylogeny developed from morphological molecular life history amp other types of relevant data I Some parts of this phylogeny aren39t firmly established I New studies are constantly appearing often with somewhat different conclusions LOOK AT FIGURE 331 amp comprehend it Sept 25th Page 5 Phyla Porifera amp Cnidaria Monday September 28 2015 945 AM 0 Learning Objectives 0 Understanding deep divisions with Kingdom Animalia 0 Know characteristics of Porifera Cnidaria amp Ctenophora 0 Know the classes of Phylum Cnidaria amp learn the life cycle of Scyphozoa 0 Kingdom Animalia O Subkingdom Parazoa I Phylum Porifera sponges O Subkingdom Eumetazoa I Clade quotRadiataquot El Phylum Cnidaria jellyfish corals etc I Phylum Ctenophora comb jellies I Clade Bilateria 0 Subkingdom Parazoa 0 Animals lacking tissues therefor lacking organs amp definite symmetry O 7000 marine species 150 freshwater species 0 Various Growth Forms I Larval sponges freeswimming El Mobile stage uses various means such as cilia to help them move around I Adults remain attached Sessile immobile 0 Cell Types I Truly Multicellular I 3 functional layers in quotvasequot 1 Outer Epithelium 9 Water comes in ostia amp exits osculum 2 Mesohyl Gelatinous proteinrich matrix in between the choanocytes and the epithelial cells of a sponge Mesoglea 9 Spicules Rigid calcium carbonate or siliconbased needles 0 Help sponges keep their shape 0 Used by taxonomists to classify sponges 0 Get image of different kinds 9 Spongin Reinforcing tough protein fibers 9 Amoebocytes Cells on the mesohyl that can perform differing functions 0 Digest transport amp store food 0 Transport sperm to eggs 0 Secrete spicules these support the sponge39s body quotSkeletonquot ltgt Feeding cells Choanocytes transfer food to amoebocytes 3 Choanocvtes Collar Cells Feeding Cells Sept 28th Page 1 00000 0 Faces the internal cavity Flagellated contributes to water circulation Joint action of choanocyte flagella moves water through the sponge Engulfs amp digests food from passing water Delivers food oxygen amp gametes Carries off waste primarily in the form of ammonia I Figure 337 CI Process Overview 0 Phylum Porifera 1 2 3 4 Water enters through ostia outer pores Water passes of the choanocytes Water enters the spongocoel central cavity Water exits through the osculum I Lacks tissues amp organs I Reproduction El Asexual 0 Fragmentation El Sexual 0 0 Releases gametes into water Larva is planktonic eventually will settle amp transform into adult I Plankton Small organisms that float or drift in great numbers in bodies of salt or fresh water I Flagella of choanocyte pulls food up against the outside mesh of the collar I Choanocytes feed by phagocytosis 0 Subkingdom Eumetazoa 0 Animals with distinct tissues 0 Symmetry O Embryos have distinct layers I nner endoderm Forms gut I Outer ectoderm Forms the epidermis amp nervous system I Middle mesoderm Forms the muscle amp skeleton I Only in bilateral animals 0 Divided into 2 monophyletic Groups I quotRadiataquot El Phyla Cnidaria Ctenophora I Clade Bilateria I All remaining animal phyla O Phylum Cnidaria I Overview I I I I I Hydrozoans Coral Anemones 9100 species Greek knide nettle Ancient group Precambrian 580 million years ago The most primitive of the eumetazoans I Anatomic Structure amp Characteristics Sept 28th Page 2 I A major evolutionary innovation in cnidarians is extracellular digestion of food inside the animal 9 Digestion takes place partly in gastrovascular cavity 9 Cells then engulf fragments by phagocytosis El Cnidarians use Nematocysts to capture prey 9 Mechanism of discharge unknown 9 Some carry venom 9 This is what creates a jellyfish sting 9 Figure 338 CI Bodies have distinct tissues but no organs 9 No reproductive circulatory or excretory systems I Diploblastic Having only 2 embryonic cell layers Endoderm amp Ectoderm No mesoderm O 2 Layers to Body Wall 1 Epidermis 2 Gastrodermis b Mesoglea between layers not mesoderm MesogleaMesohyl b Lines the gastro cavity 0 Figure 339 shows body plan amp dimorphic life cycle 9 Body plan has single opening leading to gastrovascular cavity 0 Site of digestion 0 Most gas exchange takes place here 0 Where waste is discharged 0 Formation of gametes takes place here I Dimorphic Life Cycle I Have 2 very different forms in their life cycle a Polyp Cylindrical amp sessile b Medusa Umbrellashaped amp freeliving I Cnidarian Life Cycle I Some cnidarians occur only as polyps amp others exist only as medusa but many alternate between these 2 forms I In general in species having both polyp amp medusa in life cycle the medusa forms gametes 1 Sexes separate 2 Zygote develops into planktonic planula ltgt Planula A freeswimming coelenterate larva with a flattened ciliated solid body b Coelenterate belongs to the cnidarian or ctenophora phylum 3 Metamorphosis into polyp ltgt Polyp A sessile form 4 Polyp produces ephyra or other polyps asexually ltgt Ephyra Young Medusa 5 Get image of life cycle I Cnidaria Classes El Class Anthozoa Sept 28th Page 3 Sea anemones most corals sea fans Solitary amp colonial polyps Mostly polyps Symbiotic dinoflagellates zooxanthellae photosynthesize amp provide nutrients to reef coral 9 Get image of multiple El Class Cubozoa 9 Box Jellies 9 Strong swimmers voracious fish predators ltgt Stings may be fatal to humans 9 Get image of one I Class Hydrozoa 9 Hydroids Hydra Portuguese manofwar 9 Both polyp amp medusa stages 9 Get image of one I Class Scyphozoa 9 Jellyfish 9 Medusa more conspicuous amp complex 9 Ring of muscle cells allows for rhythmic contractions for propulsion O Phylum Ctenophora I Known as comb jellies sea walnuts or gooseberries I Has 8 rows of comblike plates of fused cilia that beat in a coordinated fashion I Largest organism to move using cilia I Many are bioluminescent 0000 Sept 28th Page 4 Platyhelminthes Rotifers amp Nematodes Ch33 amp 34 Wednesday September 3D 2 15 1 2 AM 0 Learning Goals 0 Become aware of the diversity of phyla Platyhelminthes flatworms Rotifera amp Nematoda 0 Learn about the parasitic lifestyle 0 Know about human diseases caused by parasitic worms 0 Know the classes of flatworms 0 Kingdom Animalia O Subkingdom Parazoa I Phylum Porifera O Subkingdom Eumetazoa I Clade Radiata El Phylum Cnidaria El Phylum Ctenophora I Clade Bilateria El Protostomes El Deuterostomes 0 Evolution of the Animal Body Plan 0 Bilateria is divided into 2 groups I Protostomes lst mouth Develop the mouth first fromnear the blastopore I Deuterostomes 2nd mouth Develop the anus first fromnear the blastopore PROTOSTOMES 0 Clades of Protostomes All protostomes belong to either the Spiralia or the Ecdysozoa O Spiralia I Embryos develop using spiral cleavage I Mostly aquatic I Move using cilia or contractions of the body musculature I 2 Clades El Platyzoa Rotifera amp Platyhelminthes 9 Most prominent group are the flatworms platyhelminthes 0 Simple bodies with no circulatory or respiratory systems 0 Complex reproductive system 0 Includes marine amp freshwater planarians amp parasitic flukes amp tapeworms El Lophotrochozoa Bryozoa Mollusca amp Nemertea 9 2 Defining Characteristics 0 Trochopore FreeLiving larva ltgt Lophophore A horseshoeshaped crown of ciliated tentacles surrounds the mouth used in filterfeeding o Ecdysozoa I Animals that molt ecdysis I Exoskeleton present Sept 30th Page 1 I Includes 2 large groups III Arthropods III Nematodes SpiraliaPlatyzoa Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms 0 00000 Ciliated SoftBodied animals Bodies are solid aside from an incomplete digestive cavity Acoelomate Many are parasitic Others are freeliving I Marine freshwater moist terrestrial Only one opening to the digestive cavity I Muscular contractions in the pharynx allows food to be ingested amp torn into small bits Lacks Circulatory System I Uses diffusion for gas transport Gut functions in digestion amp food distribution I Ta peworms parasitic flatworms lack digestive systems III Instead absorb nutrients directly through body walls Have an excretory amp osmoregulatory system Simple nervous system I Anterior cerebral ganglion amp nerve chords I Eyespot can distinguish light from dark Reproduction I Mostly hermaphroditic I Undergo sexual reproduction I Also have capacity for asexual regeneration 2 Major Groups of Flatworms I Freeliving Turbellaria I Parasitic Neodermata III Trematoda Flukes III Cestoda Ta peworms Classes I Class Turbellaria flatworms III 3000 Species Mostly freeliving Dugesia Common planarian in bio labs Mostly aquatic marine Some marine species eat cnidarians amp incorporate the cnidocytes into their own epidermis I Class Trematoda flukes El 11000 Species III Endoparasites of many vertebrates III Intricate lifestyles I I I I Sept 30th Page 2 EDD D 9 Complex life cycles within intermediate hosts Highly modified parasitic flatworms 12 large suckers that attach to host Neodermis Extra tough epithelium 9 Resists digestion by their host39s enzymes Specific Species 9 Clonorchis Sinensis Chinese liver fluke ltgt nfects 20 million in East Asia 0 Spreads through using human feces to fertilize irrigated fields spreads through fish amp snails 0 Causes jaundice amp liver cirrhosis 9 Schistosoma ltgt Schistosomiasis nfects 200 million people in tropics 0 Causes anemia diarrhea amp tissuebrain damage I Class Cestoda tapeworms I I BEDS 0 Phylum Rotifera O Feeding 5000 Species Greek kestos belt Highly modified anterior end scolex with small barbs to hang on to intestinal walls of host Shows ultimate parasite strategy quotif you don39t need it get rid of itquot No mouth anus or GVC Absorb food directly from the intestinal fluid ofthe host Relies on diffusion for respiration amp excretion 9 Primitive excretory amp nervous system 0 Flame cells scolex has ganglia 9 No respiratory system Body consists of a series of segments called proglottids 2000 9 Each proglottid has a complete set of male amp female reproductive organs 0 Each proglottid can make 100000 eggs 0 One tapeworm makes 600 million eggs per year 0 Mature proglottids break off Hermaphroditic Up to 30 feet long 9 Proglottids shed in feces ltgt Proglottids scatter over grass gtcows get infected by eating grass gttapeworms form cysts in beef muscles gtinfect humans who eat rare beef I Uses crown of cilia corona to feed draws particles into the mouth I Muscular pharynx mastax grinds food I They are sessile filter feeders or raptorial pursue prey or both 0 Cephalized I Brain 1 eye spots sensory bristles Ecdysozoa Sept 30th Page 3 0 Phylum Nematoda O Consists of vinegar eels eelworms amp other roundworms O Abundant amp diverse I Marine freshwater parasitic amp freeliving Bilaterally symmetrical amp unsegmented Covered by a flexible thick cuticle that is molted as they grow Digestive system is well developed Sexual Reproduction I Sexual Dimorphism Male is small with hooked end I Internalfertilization I Indirect development egg larva adult 0 Euter I Adults consist of a fixed of cells III Caenorhabditis elegans has only 959 cells I Important in genetic amp developmental studies 0 Lifestyles I Many are active hunters prey on protists amp other small animals I Others are parasites of plants I Others live within the bodies of larger animals III Largest known nematode 9 meters parasitize the placenta of sperm whales 0 About 50 species cause human disease I Hookworms III Common in southern US III Produces anemia quotlaziness germquot I Trichinella causes trichinosis III Forms cysts in muscles III Infection from eating undercooked meat I Ascaris Lumbricoides intestinal roundworm III Infects 1 in 6 worldwide III Adult female can be 30 cm long III Rare in areas with modern plumbing I Guinea Worm Dranunculus Medinesis III Adult female worm up to 12 meters long III Intermediate host is a type of aquatic invertebrate called a copepod III Eggs are released in water gtEaten by copepod gtPeople consumed copepods when drinking water 9 Worm enters the body through drinking water contaminated with thecopepod 9 Copepod dissolves in the stomach releasing larval worms 9 Worm matures amp begins to tunnel under the skin 9 Secretes irritant that causes papules to form on ankles amp wrists I Other serious tropical nematode diseases III Filariasis El Elephantiasis 0000 Sept 30th Page 4
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