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Introductory Psychology

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by: Marina Goulas

Introductory Psychology PSY 101

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Psychlogy > PSY 101 > Introductory Psychology
Marina Goulas
GPA 3.67

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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marina Goulas on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Michigan State University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see in Psychlogy at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/27/15
982015 Prologue and Chapter 1 Leslie Baldwin sign up for experiments lbaldwinmsuedu The story of psychology 0 What is psychology 0 What humans do why they do it 0 Study of different parts of the brain 0 You might think of psychology as the study of mental disorder such as depression And psychologists do indeed study psychological disorders and the best way to treat them 0 But this isn t all psychologists study 0 Psychology The science of behavior and mental processes 0 Behavior Any action of an organism that we can observe and record and many actions qualify 0 Ex A student making a response to a question on an exam online class vs inside class Studying problematic drinking in college survey asking college students about their drinking Studying neurological responses with and EEG Chimp vs human on memorizing numbers check speed and accuracy of each The marshmallow test have it now or wait and get two later 0 Mental processes Internal subjective experiences including sensations perceptions dreams thoughts and feelingsmental processes are private they are internal 0 We infer unobservable mental states such as feelings from observable behaviors In this sense behavior is a window on the mind 0 Science an approach to gaining understanding of the natural world through systematic observation 0 Anything in the natural world falls in the purview of science hurricanes mars bees and human behavior 0 The particular approach that is used to determine the phenomenon doesn t guarantee what you are doing is scientific 0 Systematic there is an order or a process to what you are doing Psychology Roots 0 Hermann Ebbinghaus 0 Said psychology has a long past but a short history 0 Aristotle suggested that knowledge grows from experience 0 Impossible to pinpoint exact date when psych emerged as a scientific disciple 1879 German professor Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory devoted to psychological research 0 We take issue with every treatment of psychology that is based on simple self observation or on philosophical presuppositions quote in his book principles of physiological psychology 0 We need to take the same discipline approach to answering questioning that were used in other disciplines and use it to get answers to how the mind works and how we use it 0 Edward Titchener 0 Introduced structuralism and aimed to identify the basic elements of the mind in the same way that chemists had identified the basic elements of nature 0 William James 0 Thought about the minds functions For Ex He argued that the function of consciousness is that it enables us to consider our past and to adjust our present circumstances accordingly 0 Establish the scope of psychology and what the field should cover 0 Psychology is the Science of Mental Life both of its phenomena and of their conditions The phenomena are such things as we call feelings desires cognitions reasoning and decisions and the like 0 Francis Galton 0 Thought about individual differences in psychological traits and invented tools and statistical techniques to study them 0 Invented weather maps finger printing the psychological test wanted to know if there was a biological genetic basis for differences among people that affected intelligence Contemporary Psvchologv 0 Psychology s three main levels of analysis 0 Biological In uences 0 Natural selection of adaptive traits 0 Genetic predispositions responding to environment 0 Brain mechanisms 0 Hormonal in uences 0 Psychosocial in uences 0 Learned fears and other learned expectations 0 Emotional responses 0 Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations 0 Socialcultural in uences 0 Presence of others 0 Cultural societal and family expectations 0 Peer and other group in uences 0 Compelling models such as media 0 Biological psychologist study the link between the brain and behavior For example what brain region regulates sexual behavior 0 Developmental psychologist study how our behavior and thinking changes from womb to tomb For example why do certain types of memory decline with age 0 Cognitive psychologists study how people perceive the world and how they form new memories think and solve problems ash bulb memory 0 Social psychologist study how we interact how we view and affect one another in social interactions Tvpes of research in psvchologv 0 Basic research aim is to increase knowledge of some phenomenon to build theories 0 Applied research tackles practical problems like how to select individuals who are likely to succeed in a particular job Ex who to drive a plane or direct a plane Aregs of practice 0 Counseling psychologists help people cope with challenges of all sorts including academic vocational marital etc 0 Clinical psychologists assesses and treat mental emotional and behavioral disorders of all varieties 0 Human factors psychologists use principles of perception and cognition to design devices and interfaces that people interact with speedometer on a car which we use 0 Industrial psychologists study the relationship between people and their working environments to increase productivity improve personnel selections and promote job satisfaction best way to select people for particular jobs Theory Practice Chapter Review 0 What is psychology and what types of research do psychologist conduct 0 When and how did psychological science begin 0 What are psychologic levels 09102015 Chap 1 Thinking critically about psychology The need for psychological science Did we know it all along 0 We have the field is because a lot of what psychologists have discovered con icts with common sense 0 After something happens it seems obvious what should have been done only happens after it happens EX After the first two murders at Virginia Tech and before the massacre many people say it was obvious that the university should have locked down campus Hind sight Bias Common sense describes what has happened after the fact more easily than it predicts what will happen before the fact A thought Experiment 0 Tell one group of people that psychologists have found that separation weakens romantic attractions Asked to imagine why this is true what do you suppose people will say They will say I already knew that Out of sight out of mind 0 Tell another group of people that separations strengthen romantic attraction Say it s obvious that absence makes the heart grow stronger 0 So both make sense so it needs to be tested to prove which is right Can do a survey or collect data on behavior to answer the right questions common sense won t give the answer why we need psych Also need psychology because it makes the world a better place to live Ex The innovations the lime green truck In metropolitan areas there are firetrucks that are yellow instead of red Why is this the case 0 The rationale perceptual psychologists discover that the human visual system is most sensitive to light with wave lengths between 510 and 570 nm which corresponds to the color of lime green Works better at night too The Result lime green fire trucks are more than three times less likely to be in traffic accidents than red fire trucks Solomon amp king Ex The innovation the sequential police lineup procedure in which a witness is shown suspects one at a time instead of all at once simultaneously 0 0 Problem is people make relative judgments when all 6 people are there at once The one guy looks more closely related to the person than the rest of the suspects The rationale psychologist Gary wells discovery that when shown sequential lineups people make absolute judgments which lead to much lower rates of misidentification The result sequential lineups cut eyewitness misidentification in half compare to simultaneoulsty Need psychology because our common sense is not a good way to answer questions and makes the world a better place to live The scienti c method Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organize observations Theory lhypothesis Hypothesis a testable prediction implied by a theory 0 EX We want to see what the reason for depression is We may theorize that the cause of depression is low selfesteem one s feelings of selfworth We might hypothesize that depression and selfesteem will correlate negatively People who have a high level of selfesteem are less likely to be depressed than people that have a lower level of selfesteem Test this through questionnairessurveys We might test this hypothesis by seeing if people who receive a low score for selfesteem tend to receive a high score for depression Generating g research question 0 Everyday observation one source of research questions psychology is simply observing the world around you and asking questions about why people think and behave as they do 0 Ex In the 1960 s social psychologists john Barley and Bibb Latane were horrified by the brutal murder of a woman named kitty Genovese It was widely reported that dozens of neighbors witnessed or were aware of the attack but no one helped Barley and Latane hypothesized that ant given bystander is less likely to give aid to a victim if other bystanders are present In a series of studies Barley and Latane found that this is indeed the case Every victim thinks someone else will do something Generating a research question 0 Personal experience like you psychologist want to understand their own tendencies limitations and foibles 0 Replications seeing whether a basic finding can be observed again with different participants and under different circumstances 0 After the original study of the bystander effect there were dozens of followup studies Establishing operational de nitions 0 Operational definition a specific statement of the procedures used to define research variables so as to allow others to replicate the original observations 0 An operational definition of intelligence might be the number correct on tests of verbal spatial numerical and reasoning abilities Choosing a research design 3 types methods of research designs 0 Descriptive 0 Correlational 0 Experimental 2 types of settings 0 Lab 0 Field 0 Descriptive methods 0 The case study an in depth investigation of a single or very few subjects human or nonhuman Problem with this study The subjects may not represent other members of the population 0 Ex Though a 30 year case study Irene Pepperberg concluded that African Grey parrot Alex could name and categorize objects and comprehend numbers up to six 0 Ex Though a series of case studies often his own children Jean Piaget developed an in uential theory of cognitive development which assumes that cognitive functions unfold through a series of distinct stages Like object permanence 0 The survey an investigation of many cases in less depth by asking people to report opinions and behaviors Get all sorts of people wider range of answers 0 A survey is a technique for ascertaining the selfreported attitudes opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questions a representative sample of people 0 Representative sample one that accurately portrays the population of interest if we don t have a representative sample our conclusions can be wrong I Ex Headline in newspaper Dewy republican Defeats Truman democratic what s wrong is Truman won the elections Did a pole and all poll results said Dewey would win by a landslide so the newspaper posted this headline before the votes were counted People doing the polls would call people asking who they would vote for through one these polls showed Dewy would win In 1948 not everyone has a telephone Republicans have more money than democratic which was the case during this time The poll O was biased because not everyone had a telephone back then so the wealthiest people republicans would have telephones Pollers were contacting more republicans than democrats who were less likely to have a telephone Naturalistic observation recording behavior in its natural environments and describing it in detail 0 Ex Primatologist Jane Goodall used naturalistic observation to study chimpanzees She concluded Observations made in the natural habitat helped to show that the societies and behavior of animals are far more complex than previously supposed 0 Psychologists have used naturalistic observation to study effects of social interaction on people s behavior One study found that people laugh 30 times more often in social situations than in solitary situations 0 Experimental Methods 0 0 Purpose is to explore cause and effect by manipulation one or more factors while holding other factors constant Variable anything that can uctuate Whether it s rainy or sunny warm or cold or whether a person is male or female or in a good mood or bad mood are all examples Independent variables aspect of the situation or of individuals that can vary independently of other variables The variables whose effect is being studied 0 Ex Online vs Classroom instruction an aspect of the situation for a student whose effect on learning we are studying Situational variable because it depends on the situation Also person independent variables male or female age ethnicity 0 We manipulate the independent variable by putting people in one class and people in the other Or another situation is a class with lights on or off and how it affects paying attention Dependent variable the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable 0 Ex Score on test from each of the two groups of people is going to vary it is the dependent variable 0 Example Do breast feeding children have a later impact in their life The independent variable is whether mothers are assigned to an experimental condition in which their children breast feed or to a control conditions in which they feed their children formula Age six children take an intelligence test The dependent variable is the child s score on an intelligence test at age 6 This is the measureable aspect of psychological functioning that we think may be in uenced by the independent variable Random assignment assigning participants to experimental and control groups by change thus minimizing preexisting differences between the groups that could affect the dependent variable Don t use random assignment we don t know if there are other factors affecting the experiment not the factor that is being tested on Extraneous variables Cause I Effect 9152015 Sometimes it s not possible to conduct and experiment For example it isn t possible to assign a child to be male or female for the purpose of an experiment O Other times it s unethical to conduct an experiment For example it would be unethical to assign people to be exposed to polluted air or nonpolluted air for the purpose of seeing whether pollution has a negative effect on mental functioning 0 Correlational Methods 0 O O Correlational methods purpose is to observe naturally occurring relationships between variables Correlation coefficient a statistical index 1 to l of the relationship between two variables Scatter plot a graphed cluster of dots each of which represents the values of two variables The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship while the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the relationship 0 Three types of correlation positive correlation as one variable goes up the other variable goes up Negative correlations as values for one variable increase the values for the other variables go down No relationship it s all over the place Correlation and causation We might theorize that the cause of depression is low selfesteem ones feelings of self worth Correlation does not imply causation two reasons directionality problem and third variable problem Think that level of selfesteem causes level of depression But it could also be the cause that your level of depression causes the level of your self esteem This is called the directionality problem when we have the correlation between two variables it possible that 1 causes 2 or that 2 can cause 1 The third variable problem the two variables are both related to a third variable which is causing the correlation 0 Ex Number of storks seen during the winter and number of babies born in the fall are correlated that s where the story of where babies comes from The correlation to these two variables are a third variable when the winter is cold the storks go to the roof tops to get warm When the winter is cold humans have the tendency to stay indoors and one thing leads to another This is a spurious correlation a false correlation Research ethics Is it ethical to experiment on people 0 The Milgram Experiments 0 0 He studied human behaviors and wanted to know how people could do bad things to other people wanted to see how people could be so awful towards each other Was it that Eichmann and his accomplices in the Holocaust had mutual intent in at least with regard to the goals of the Holocaust Or were they caught up in this crazy situation Is it the case that good people can in the wrong situation do awful things and to what extent 0 People signed up for a study of memory so either you are the teacher or assigned the learner They wanted to study the effects of punishment on learning So two people each got assigned a part randomly The learner gets hooked up to an electric shock in one room and the teacher gets put in front of the machine controlling it and he says a list of words to the learner and the learner needs to recall the words in the order So each time the learner make a mistake the teacher shocks him the voltage gets higher and higher to eventually fatal The teacher believes he s shocking the person if you protest the experimenter in the white coat tells him to continue The question was how far each of the subjects would go 65 followed orders when commanded to proceed 0 Research ethics 1 Obtain informed consent 2 Protect them from harm 3 Maintain confidentiality 4 Debrief Chapter 2 The Biology of the Mind Biological Psychology 0 Basic assumption Everything psychological is biological 0 The basic question What is the role of the brain in behavior and thnking 0 From the brain and from the brain only arise our pleasures hoys laughter jests as well as our sorrows pains griefs and tears Hippocrates 0 Phrenology a popular but wrongheaded theory 1800s that claimed that bumps on the skull could reveal mental abilities and character traits as specific as the desire to have children and spirituality 0 The goal of contemporary biological psychology is to study the link between biological activity and psychological events Neural Communication Neurons Know the basic structure of the nerve cell picture of it in the book Cell body dendrites axon myelin sheath neural impulses terminal branches Two major types of neurons 0 Sensory neurons carry messages from the body s tissues and sensory organs inward to the brain and spinal cord for processing 0 Motor neurons carry messages from the brain and out to the body s tissues Neural communication How do neurons communicate with each other 0 When a neural impulse reaches the terminal of an axon it triggers release of neuro transmitters into the synaptic gap 0 Know about these neurotransmitters acetylcholine dopamine serotonin norepinephrine GABA Glutamate 0 Each of the brains neurotransmitters has designated pathways where it operates The Nervous System 2 major subsystems peripheral and central nervous system 0 Peripheral nervous system 0 Somatic nervous system enables voluntary control of skeletal muscles 0 Autonomic nervous system controls our glands and the muscles of our internal organs 0 O Sympathetic system expands energy accelerates heart rate raises blood pressure Parasympathetic system conserves energy decelerates heart rate lowers blood pressure etc 0 Central Nervous system 0 Comprises the spinal cord and brain The Brain 0 Understanding the link between brain function and psychological function is enormously complex The average brain has around 40 billion neurons each with around 10000 contacts with other neurons for around 400 trillion synaptic connections 0 Methods and tools of discovery 0 0 Clinical observation making observations of patients who have experienced brain damage and noting the effects on their behavior and thought processes This makes use of case studies How has their thinking and behavior been affected by brain damage Ex Phineas Gage worked on railroad construction crew Job to make sure the charges was set for blasting the rock in the mountain away When he did this one the rods blasted up through his cheek bone and out of his skull He didn t lose consciousness when this happened He lived many years after but gage was no longer gage so his personality got altered as a result Frontal lobe of our brain is where we control our anger Ex Lesions and transections HM underwent a surgical procedure to take away part of his brain to fix his epileptic seizures Most of his hippocampus He became anterograde amnesia when a person has impairment in the ability to form new memories Retrograde amnesia loss of memory from the past is the other type but he could remember his past he just couldn t form new memories He could recognize the famous people before he had his surgery but not the famous people that appeared after his surgery Declarative memory involves conscious recollection of things that happened to us in the past Indeclarative memory memory involved no conscious recollection Ex Little girl that kept getting bad seizures so they removed half of her brain only done to young children Done in an early age the other side up the brain takes the functions of the side that was removed O Transcranial magnetic stimulation procedure for inducing temporary lesions in which magnetic field is passed over a particular brain region Neuroimaging techniques 0 O O Electroencephalogram EEG Provides amplified tracings of waves of electrical activity in the brain Device that detects and records the electrical impulses Functional Magnetic resonance imaging fMRI Detects changes in blood oxygenation in different brain regions 0 Tour the brain 0 Older brain structures Brainstem O The medulla is the base of the brainstem that controls involuntary functions such as heartbeat and breathing The reticular formation filters incoming stimuli from the spinal cord and relays information to other areas of the brain The thalamus receives information from all the senses except smell and routes it to higher brain regions e g from eyes to cortical areas for vison The cerebellum is little brain is attached to the rear of the brainstem it helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance also plays a role in learning motor skills The limbic system includes the Hippocampus This is involved in acquisition of memoires Amygdala This regulates fear and aggression Hypothalamus which regulates the four F s 0 The cerebral cortex is at least 23 of total mass 0 Like bark on a tree it 2 mm deep layer 0 Convoluted wrinkled 0 Structure and functions of the cortex 0 Each brain hemispheres is divided into four lobes that are separated by prominent fissures Frontal lobe temporal lobe occipital lobe parental lobe all these lobes are on each side of the brain Occipital lobes involved vision contains visual cortex Where information from the sensory neurons leaving the eyes ends up Damage to the visual cortex disrupts consciousness Temporal lobes involved in hearing understanding language and storing autobiographical memories contains auditory cortex Wemicke s area spans the region between temporal and parietal lobes Parental lobes involved in sensations of touch pain and temperature contains somatosensory cortex The sensory cortex parental cortex receives information from skin surface and sense organs Frontal lobes involved in motor functions language and memory and executive functions higher thought processes reasoning planning controlling our emotions The motor cortex is the area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements more brain surface is used for specific parts of our body in motor and sensory cortex Brocas area is involved in producing speech Mapping the motor cortex Wilder Penfield was able to map the motor cortex in wideawake patients by stimulating different cortical areas and observing the body s response 0 Association areas are found it all four lobes and are responsible for integrating information linking sensory inputs with stored memories Unlike the motor cortex and sensory cortex probing association areas doesn t trigger any observable response But these areas are responsible for specific functions For example damage to association areas in the frontal lobe can alter a person s personality removing inhibitions and disrupting the ability to plan and reason so after his accident gage was no longer gage as his physician commented Brainstem the oldest and innermost region of the brain which is responsible Limbic system associated with emotions and drives and memory formation Cerebral cortex convoluted mass that enables higher level Chapter review 0 What di biological psychologist study Brain behavior relationships 0 How does neural communication occur Neurons and neural transmitters 0 How do biological psychologist study brainbehavior relationships 0 What are major structures of the brain Older structures brain stem limbic system and cerebral cortex Chapter 6 Sensation and perception Sensation and perception The study of how the world out there gets in how we construct internal representation of the external world Sensation refers to the stimulation of the sensory organs by physical energy from the eternal world and the conversion of this energy into neural signals Transduction the conversion of energy into neural signals Perception refers to our interpretation of what we sense based on experience expectations and surroundings They can and often work in harmony but sensation and perception are not the same thing Ex People who suffer from prosopagnosia cannot perceive human faces but they can perceive objects like an apple or cell phone The gorilla experiment in intentional blindness Sensing the world basic principles Thresholds 0 Absolute threshold the minimum stimulation necessary to detect physical stimulation half the time that is a particular light sound pressure taste or odor Sensory systems 0 Vision The absolute threshold for human vision is equivalent to the amount of energy emitted by a single candle on a completely dark night form 30 miles away while that for hearing is equivalent to the amount of energy emitted by the tick of a watch at 20 feet Changes among individuals and species like woman smell things better than men dogs can tell smell things better than humans Signal detection I Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between physical characteristics of physical stimuli and our perceptual experiences of them and makes use of signal detection to measure absolute thresholds and other properties of sensation and perception physical worldlight sound pressure sugar Psychological world brightness volume weight sweet I In a signal detection task across a number of trails stimuli of different intensities are presented The test takers task is to indicate when he or she perceives the stimulus and absolute threshold is the intensity of which he or she is correct 50 of the time The above graph shows that the absolute threshold for vision is about 12 lumens I Stimuli below the absolute threshold are subliminal literally below threshold and we are in uenced by subliminal stimulation I EX Subjects rated people in photos as more attractive if they were followed by subliminal presentation of a positive image instead of a negative image Even though you don t consciously perceive they still affect your rating I The effects of subliminal stimulation are eeting and there s no evidence for powerful enduring effects on behavior such as those that would have to occur to make someone get out of their seat and buy popcorn or change how they vote 0 The stimulus input light energy Wavelength refers to the distance between one wave peak and the next and determines hue color long wavelength short frequency reddish colorsshort wavelength long frequency purple blue Intensity refers to the amplitude and the light wave its height and determines brightness shorter wavelength high frequency bluish colors long wavelength low frequency reddish colors 0 The eye know the picture 1 The light enters the eye through the cornea the clear coating that protects the eye 2 The light passes through the pupil small adjustable opening surrounded by the 3 iris a colored muscle that gives you your eye the color and dilates or constricts in response to light intensity 4 through a process called accommodation the lens focuses the light on the retina The retina The light sensitive inner surface of the eye containing receptor rods and cones in addition to layers of other neurons that process visual information Cones enable color vision and are concentrated in the fovea the retina s areas of central focus they help us see during the day Rods enable blackandwhite vison and are concentrated away from the fovea and help us see at night The light energy triggers neural impulse in rods and cones and then in bipolar and ganglion cells Ultimately neural impulses are transmitted in the brain via the optic nerve the bundle of nerve fibers that exits each eye 0 Visual information processing After it exits the eyes visual information percolates upward to the brain Feature detectors in the occipital lobe receive information from the optic nerves and respond selectively to the specific features of a scene such as edges lines angles and movements Feature detectors then pass information to areas that respond to more complex patterns such as faces houses etc know this from neural imaging research Feature detection by implanting electrodes in cats brains and recording activity of specific cells feature detectors were first identified by David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel a discovery for which they were awarded a Nobel Prize in 1978 More recently the areas that respond to more complex patterns have been pinpointed using neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI For example the region that responds to faces is called the fusiform face area Parallel Processing the brain is a masterful at multitasking also known as parallel processing Information about color movement form and depth is processed simultaneously by different brain regions image in book of divers 0 Color vision Hearing Imagine world without color People with a condition called achromotopsia lack color vision rare except on an island called Pineglap 10 ppl have it YoungHelmholtz theory we have cones specialized for perception of three colors red green blue and patterns of firing across these cones give us our perception of different colors For example when both redsensitive and greensensitive cones are stimulated we see yellow 0 The stimulus input sound waves 0 The Ear l The outer ear funnels sound waves to the eardrum 2 the bones of the middle ear amplify and relay the vibrations through the oval window into the cochlea 3 the resulting pressure changes in the cochlear uid cause the basilar membrane to ripple bending the hair cells on the surface where brain processes neural impulse so the hairs are the nerve cells when they move action potentials are emitted to the brain Loudness is determined by the wave s amplitude and our experience of loudness is determined by the number of hair cells in the inner ear activated great amplitude bright colors loud soundsSmall amplitude dull colors soft sounds The amount of energy in a wave which is determined by the wave s amplitude relates to the perceived loudness and is determined by the number of hair cells in the inner ear activated Pitch is determined by the waves frequency and our experience of pitch is determined both by which hair cells are activated highpitched tones and by the frequency of neural signals traveling up the auditory nerve lowpitched tones short wavelength high frequency Long wavelength low frequency Because we have two ears sounds that reach one ear faster than the other causes us to localize the sound Other important sense Touch Pain Skin sensations include pressure warmth cold and pain but there is no simple relationship between what we feel at a given spot and the type of specialized nerve ending found there Sensors in the skin as well as the joints tendons bones and ears the enable kinesthetic sense your sense of the position and movement of your body parts and a companion vestibular sense monitors position and movement of the head Biological in uences sensory receptors called nociceptors detect hurtful temperatures pressure or chemicals Psychosocial in uences our mental state can in uence the degree to which we experience pain Sociocultural in uences our perception of pain varies with the social situation and cultural traditions we tend to perceive more pain when others also seem to be experiencing it Pain is multi determined Taste gustation technical term for taste Each of our taste buds contains 50100 receptor cells which differ in terms of which molecules they respond mostly to sweettasting saltytasting etc Sensory neurons that differ in what they respond to 5 different types of tastes sweet salty sour bitter umami Smell olfaction technical term for smell Airborne molecules reach receptors at the top of your nose Sniffing swirls air up to the receptors The receptor cells send messages to the brains olfactory bulb and then onward to higher regions of the brain Among the 12 million people who responded to a National Geographic scratchand sniff survey a women and younger adults most successfully identified six sample odors Smokers and people with Alzheimer s Parkinson s or alcohol dependence typically experience a diminished sense of smell Information from the taste buds travels to an area not far from where the brain receives olfactory information which interacts with taste Taste and smell go together Chapter review What is the difference between sensation and perception How does psychologist study sensation and perception What is the basic anatomy of the eye and where does transduction happen Happens in the retina of each eye How does color vision occur according to trichromatic theory Trichromatic theory same and younghelmhotz theory have cones that are sensitive to red blue and green light Different patterns of firing along these receptors that give rise to the colors we see What is the basic anatomy of the ear and where does transduction happen Vascular membrane What are some major phenomena associated with other senses Chapter 3 Consciousness What is consciousness 0 A slippery concept which psychologists have tried to define for more than a century 0 Our awareness of ourselves and our environment States of consciousness 0 Occur spontaneously 0 Daydreaming 0 Drowsiness O Dreaming 0 Physiologically induced 0 Hallucinations 0 Orgasm 0 Food or oxygen starvation 0 Psychologically induced 0 Sensory deprivation 0 hypnosis 0 meditation Key functions consciousness serves plan for the future control our thoughts to achieve goals control our behavior The brain and consciousness 0 Cognitive neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity lined with our mental processes including consciousness 0 Brain activity in a patient showing no outward signs of conscious awareness after being asked to imagine playing tennis and moving around her home 0 Dual processing 0 Perception memory thinking language and most other aspects of psychological functioning operate on two levels The high road conscious deliberate processing of which we are aware The low road unconscious automatic processing of which we are unaware One of the first psychologists to recognize this was Sigmund Freud Freud argued that much of our behavior is driven by unconscious drives Patients with a condition called blind sight have no awareness whatsoever of any stimuli like the square above but are able to process aspects of a visual stimulus such as location 0 Selective attention 0 A mental spotlight that focuses conscious awareness on a very limited aspect of all that you experience Imagine trying to study for this course in a busy coffee shop Selective attention is what allows you to concentrate on what you re trying to study and to filter out irrelevant sights and sounds If we are distracted we can even miss things that happen right before our eyes a phenomenon called in attentional blindness In one experiment ppl were shown a video of ppl passing a ball and didn t notice the guy in a gorilla suit or the change blindness experiments Selective attention and accidents Research by psychologist David Strayer indicates that driving while talking on a cellphone is as dangerous as driving drunk 0 Sleep and dreams 0 Circadian Rhythm Occur on a 24hour cycle and include sleep and wakefulness Termed our biological Clock it can be altered by artificial light Light triggers the suprachiasmatic nucleus to decrease morning melatonin from the pineal gland and increase evening it at nightfall Sleep stages Measuring sleep about every 90 minutes we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages which researches identify by measuring brain activity eye movements and muscle tension Awake but relaxed when an individual closes his or her eyes but remains awake brain activity slows down to large amplitude and slow regular alpha waves Stages 12 during early light sleep the brain enters a highamplitude slow regular wave form called theta waves A person who is daydreaming show theta activity Stages 34 during deepest sleep brain activity slows down There are large amplitude Stage 5 after reaching the deepest sleep stage 4 the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1 Although still asleep the brain engages in lowamplitude fast and regular beta waves much like awakearoused state Most vivid dreams happen in this stage Dreams can occur in any sleep stage but the most vid dreams are reported in stage 5 REM During this stage you are essentially paralyzed The brains tem blocks messages of the motor cortex Test review Behavior Major historical figures in psychology Hermann ebbighaus pshycology has a long past Whilhem wundt father of psychology first laboratory Titchner structiolism classify elemtns of thinking Whilliam james Galtan individual differences 3 main levels of analysis Biological cognitive social psychologists 2 types of research basic research and applied research Areas of practice clinical human factors psychologists industrial Chapter 1 Research methods Common sense doesn t get us very far psychology makes the world a better place to live Scientific method Where psychologist get their questions personal replication Operational definition Research design several Descriptive methods case study the examples survey representative sample naturalistic observation Variable independent and dependent behavior we are actually measuring Random assignment extraneous varibales factors Correlational study Read an example of a correlation know Whether its neg or postitive Correlation and causation Directionality problem The third variable problem spurious Research ethics milgram experiment can deceive ppl in research cant do harmt 0 ppl in experiments Research ethics Chapter 2 Brain structures and regions Everything pshycological is biological Link them Phrenology didn t have it right Neuron picture Sensory neurons and motor neurons Neurotransmitters know the 6 of them Nervous system branches perpherial to somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system Symoahtetic and parasymathetick Nervous system brain and spinal cord Methods and tools of discover and examples Neuro imaging techniques What the letters stand for and basic idea of techniques Older brain structures Thamuls cerebellum Limbic system Hippocampus Hypothalamus


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StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.