Psychology 1410 - Intelligence
Psychology 1410 - Intelligence Psy-1410-007
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carley Olejniczak on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy-1410-007 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
Ch. 7 Intelligence What makes humans more intelligent than other animals? Comparative Psychology o Comparing humans to other animals and how they are similar and different Example: are humans the only species that uses tools? Some animals can use tools as well Theory of Mind o Awareness of one’s own mental process and the mental processes of others Examples: Self-awareness Relationships Empathy Communication Mirror Test o Self-recognition is a form of intelligence Place child in front of mirror with a paint smear across face If the child sees itself in the mirror and tries to wipe off the smudge, it can be assumed that the child recognizes its own reflection as themselves If the child doesn’t try to wipe it off, or simply grabs at the mirror, they probably do not know that they are seeing themselves and they think that it is another child o Animals typically do not pass the mirror test Example: dogs do not usually realize it’s their reflection in a mirror Example: elephants and other very smart animals DO pass the mirror test Shared Attention o When a baby points to something, they want you to look with them at an object elsewhere o When you point to something for a dog, the dog will only look at your pointing finger Language o Humans can speak in multiple languages o Chimps can speak sign language Human working vocab: approx. 10,000 words Primate working vocab: approx. 1,000 words (KoKo the monkey) o Critics Noam Chomsky Steven Pinker What is Intelligence? Many different conceptualizations The knowledge to efficiently use and reason about the world in a flexible manner in different environments Cognitive Assessment Taking a type of cognitive trait and observe it, then make an interpretation of that cognitive skill Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) o Viewed intelligence as a unitary construct o Developed first comprehensive intelligence test o Innovated use of statistics (e.g. correlation) James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944) o Brought Galton’s work to the USA o Mental Tests and Measurement Such as ACT Taking an individual’s test results and comparing them to the “norm group” results, and see where that individual falls Features of Standardized Tests Norm referenced o Examples: SAT ACT GRE LSAT IQ: Full Score IQ made of up - Verbal IQ o Verbal Comprehension Index Vocab, similarities, info, comprehension o Working Memory Index Arithmetic, digit span, letter-number sequencing Performance IQ o Perceptual organization Index Picture completion, block design, matrix reasoning o Processing Speed Index Digit-symbol coding Symbol Search Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III: IQ test for kids o Tests both Verbal and Performance IQ o The Norm Group should resemble who the test is related to Can’t compare a 10 year old’s results with a norm group of 30 year olds Test Development o Foundation: reliability and validity o Statistical reliability or intelligence tests Based on test-retest correlations .80 or higher is acceptable IQ tests are usually in the .85 to .95 range o Validity of intelligence tests Normal Distribution o Bell curve Average IQ score: 100 68% of people are in the range of 85-115 Below average = intellectually disabled Above Average = giftedness o Learning profile of individuals is more important to psychologists than an IQ score Intellectual Disability 50-70 – Mild 35-55 – Moderate 20-40 – Severe <20 – Profound How “well” does IQ predict? IQ and life outcomes o Correlating IQ and: School grades (+.50) Level of education (+.60 to +.80) Financial Success Health Predictive Validity Can never be perfect Interpreting Intellectual Test Scores Misuses of IQ tests o Immigration laws Unfair – given only in English, not proctored by psychologists, and not specific for their age/gender/or given circumstances o Innate intelligence Believed in innate intelligence Believed in class boundaries based on IQ scores <100 = jobs without prestige or monetary rewards 75-85 = semiskilled laborers >75 – unskilled laborers o Classifying races There are differences of education level between different ethnic groups in the US Nature vs. Nurture o How do hereditary and environmental forces contribute to IQ differences? o They both work together o Can depend on genetics and how your parents raised you