HNF150-BodyBasicsLearningNotes.pdf HNF 150
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNF 150 at Michigan State University taught by k. alaimo in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Nutrition in Nursing and Health Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Learning Notes BODY BASICS De nition of Cell smallest unit of life All living things made up of cells The body s cells need 3 Energy Oxygen and Nutrients water De nition of Tissues groupings of specialized cells muscles nerve blood De nition of Organs groupings of tissues heart liver brain SYSTEMS OF THE BODY A Circulatory and Lymphatic System 2 Types of BODY FLUIDS 1 Blood and 2 Lymph contains white blood cells Functions 2 1 Supply energy oxygen and nutrients 2 Carry away waste materials Arteries carry blood containing fresh oxygen from heart to tissues Veins carry blood with carbon dioxide from tissues to heart Red Blood Cell carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide Lymphatic has own separate vessels Extracellular uid uid residing outside the cell that transports materials to and from the cells Adequate circulation requires 3 Enough uid Cardiovascular activity Good Nutrition B Hormonal System Chemical Messengers Hormones a regulatory substance in an organism and transported in tissue uids such as blood to stimulate speci c cells or tissues into ac ons Glands organ in the body that secretes particular chemicals for use in the body or for discharge into the surroundings HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Learning Notes Examples 1 Insulin is secreted by pancreas a gland when blood glucose is too high Insulin tells the muscle and other cells to remove glucose from blood and store it 2 Glucagon is secreted by the pancreas when blood glucose low Glucagon tells the liver to release stored glucose into the bloodstream How can nutrition can affect hormonal balance Fasting FeedingEating Exercising What do hormones regulate Appetite Digestive System Menstrual cycle Body s reaction to stress C Nervous System also part of body s communication system Consists of Brain spinal cord and nerve cells Role of nervous system in hunger Controlled by the brain Fight or Flidht Response Stress Response Combination of Hormonal and Nervous System the body s intrinsic hormone and nerve mediated reaction to danger Another name for the ght or ight response Stress Response When we detect danger 1 Nerves release neurotransmitters 2 Glands release the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine 3 Every organ of the body responds and metabolism speeds up 4 Liver releases glucose from stores 5 Fat cells release fat SPRING 2014 HNF150 Learning Notes Prof Alaimo Heart races pupils of eyes widen muscles tense digestion shuts down breathing quickens blood pressure rises D Immune System MAUNUTRITlEIN HIEEASE Malnutrition and intention worsen asi ill I other I flu rtlmr mainMillion and dismal Immune system body s defense system against infection and sickness Most important immune system cells white blood cells in blood and lymph Nutrient de ciencies and toxicities can impair immunity E Digestive System Digestion breaking down and absorption of food Basic Tastes 5 Sweet Sour Bitter Salty Umami Savory Flavor is determined by smell texture temperature etc 2 Types of Digestion 1 Mechanical Digestion Peristaltic Wave relaxing in front and contracting behind The muscular stomach Esophageal Sphincter allows food to go into the stomach but doesn t allow anything to go back up into the HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Learning Notes esophagus food is stored in the top of the stomach a mixture of food in the stomach is called chyme as it goes down through stomach the pyloric valve or sphincter squirts out into small intestine Digestive Tract Flexible muscular tube that digests food and absorbs its nutrients and some nonnutrients l 26 feet long Consists of 7 Mouth oral cavity Down Esophagus into stomach into small intestine moves into large intestine or colon nally held in rectum then squeezed out through anus 2 Chemical Digestion triggered by the sight and smell of food tells brain were about to eat and triggers salivary glands that were about to eat chew the food food is mixing with saliva start digesting starch or carbohydrate stomach adds acid enzymes and uid in order to digest protein we need to denature that protein one way body does this is mixing that protein with acid lines the stomach with mucus so we don t digest our own stomach stomach needs acidity to work but small intestine can work with the acidity secrete enzymes in small intestine and also where major absorption happens next food moves into the large intestine a holding place pass ber that hasn t been digested then discreted through rectum and anus Ural cavity 39ll39angua a Eaapmagua H H Sta mach i duct Large ilntaallzina r39 calm intaatina 1333 Wadsworth Publishing CampanyIIT Major site for digestion of food small intestine Digestion from Mouth to Anus MEMORIZE PICTURE OF GIRL ROLLAR BLADING HNF150 Prof Alaimo SPRING 2014 Learning Notes Mouth chews and mixes food with saliva swallowing little chemicals Salivary glands donate a starchdigesting and fatdigesting enzyme Stomach adds acid enzymes uids churns mixes grinds food Small intestine secretes enzymes that digest carb fat protein Pancreatic duct conducts pancreatic juice into small intestine Pancreas releases bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid that enters the small intestine Liver bile that facilitates digestion of fats Gall bladder stores bile until needed Large intestine colon reabsorbs water and minerals passes waste Rectum stores waste prior to elimination Anus holds rectum closed opens to allow elimination pH Values lower the number more acidic higher the number less acidic 7 neutral Absorption to take in as nutrients are taken into the intestinal cells after digestion the main function of the digestive tract with respect to nutrients Transit Times Time in mouth less than 1 minute Time in stomach about 12 hours Time in small intestine 78 hours Time in colon 1214 hours Digestion of a sandwich Mouth crushed mashed mixed with saliva before swallowing carbdigesting enzyme begins to break down the starch to sugar each swallow causes a peristaltic wave Stomach starches still being digested and then mixed with gastric juices then becomes chyme then enters the small intestine Small intestine some bile from liver breaking down of fat protein and starch enzymes are produced to nish the process then absorbed into blood and lymph HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Learning Notes F Excretory System Lungs Liver Kidneys removing things from the body What do kidneys need 4 things Nephrons the working units in the kidney consisting of intermeshed blood and tubules Adjust the blood s composition in response to the body s needs disposing of everyday wastes and helping remove toxins G Storage System Liver Muscles Fat Cells What are the three important organs of the storage system and what do they store Glycogen and fat are two forms of nutrients stored in the body and the liver muscles and adipose tissue as the body tissues that store them Glycogen storage form of carb energy glucose Adipose tissue the body s fat tissue consisting of masses of fatstoring cells and blood vessels to nourish them