HNF150-FoodSafetyLearningNotes.pdf HNF 150
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNF 150 at Michigan State University taught by k. alaimo in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Nutrition in Nursing and Health Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
HNF150 Prof Alaimo SPRING 2014 Lecture Notes FOOD SAFETY 0 Food Safety Overview B Safe Food the practical certainty that injury will not result from eating a certain food C FoodBourne IllnessFood Poisoning illness transmitted to humans through food and water caused by poisonous substance or infectious agent main reason is from germs F Toxins Ways to Get Sick 5 Bacteria Viruses Parasites Protozoa Toxins Microorganisms 1 Bacteria tiny onecelled creatures that get nutrients from their environments in order to live not all bacteria are bad 2 Viruses can t live outside living cells need to be in or on a living thing like a plant animal or person in order to grow and reproduce Protozoa onecelled organisms that love moisture and often spread diseases through water Parasites an organism that grows feeds and is sheltered on or in a different organism while contributing nothing to the survival of the host produced by microorganisms 1 2 enterotoxin poisons that act upon mucus membranes such as those of the digestive tract neurotoxin poisons that act upon cells of the nervous system 0 Bacteria 9 Bacteria Love 3 Warmth 40140 F moisture nutrients HNF150 Prof Alaimo SPRING 2014 Lecture Notes MO Foods Symptom Preventio E Coli Raw meat Diarrh a Boil water milk juice vomiting water produce stomach arhn Shigellosi Fruits and Diarrhea Wash hands 5 veggies water fever and produce stomach boil water arl n Stomach Shell sh Flu Cook food Flu thoroughly Salmonel Raw eggs Diarrhea Cook Ia meat lots of vomiting thoroughly other foods fever Pasteurize stomach and headache Campylo Raw meat and Diarrhea Cook milk Vomltlng thoroughly fEVerr Pasteurize stomach ache Listeriosi Raw meat and Flu Cook 5 milk seafood thoroughly soft cheese Pasteurize Viruses MO Foods Symptoms Prevention Stomac gg dvjigggs Flu with Check up on h H contaminated by headache restaurants u handlers produce AVOId raw oysters Oysters H Shell sh baked Diarrhea Cook eApa 9 d5 or Other vomiting thoroughly S foods I fever contaminated by Stomach ache HNF150 Prof Alaimo SPRING 2014 Lecture Notes 0 Parasites MO Foods Symptoms Prevention Trichinosis Worms in raw Diarrhea Cook food pork and game Vomltlng thoroughly stomach ache feven 2 weeks later muscle pain edema weight loss etc Cryptospo Water produce DIarrhea Wash hands r juices fever and produce ql39nmarh hnil wath Cyclospor Water produce Q aghea Wash hands vomiting and produce v ml In s omac bonl water achefeven muscle aches weight loss 0 Protozoa Short onset Traveler s Diarrhea MO Foods Symptoms Prevention Traveler s Water soft Diarrhea Cook food diarrhea cheeses raw vomiting thoroughly meat raw food stomach ache pasteurize boil water wash produce HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes 0 Toxins Toxin Foods Symptoms Prevention Botulism Lowacid canned Nervous Proper canning fOOdS system double throw away vision can t damaged cans swallow Staphyloco Meats eggs B l aFlJN aS Etc39 Cook CCal mayo salads fever stomach thoroughly39 cream lled ache vomiting refr39gerate promptlv L IJCIDLI ICD rnlndtul that toodeborne lllness ls a real posslbillty and take steps to prevent it RETAIL GROCERY AND RESTAURANT SALES Owners and employees must follow the FDA s tood code on now to prevent foodborne lllnesses Establlshments must pass local health inspections and traln statt ln sanltatlon PROCESSING Pr ssors must tollow FDA guidellnes ncernlng oontarnlnatlon cleanllness and educatlon and trainan of workers and must monltor for satety at critical control pelnts use HACCP see text 53 in 1 l l Ml TRANSPORTATION 2mm 55 Clean Cold food must be W kept cold at all tlmes G Pasteurization treatment of food milk with heat suf cient to kill pathogens but not bacteria that cause spoilage H HAACP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point producers packers distributors and transporters must identify critical control pointsquot in their procedures where risk of food contamination is high 0 then develop and implement procedures to prevent loss of control at critical points 0 since HAACP food poisoning has dramatically decreased HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes I Consumer 1 Purchasing Foods 0 Do not purchase leaking or bulging cans jars packages or jars that is not rmly sealed 0 Frozen foods should be solidly frozen 2 At Home 0 Keep hot foods hot 0 Keep cold foods cold 0 Keep raw foods separate 0 Keep your hands and kitchen clean J For Foods safe time out 2 hours washing your hands well and often will kill germs 0 Safety Considerations for Foods K Fruits and Vegetables 1 rinse thoroughly in cold running water to remove microbes Rough skins melons should be scrubbed with a brush before cutting Cut away bruised or damaged areas Throw away moldy foods Juices that have not been pasteurized may contain harmful bacteria Some experts recommend avoiding uncooked sprouts 99quotKPUN L Meat and Poultry Cook thoroughly to kill bacteria Ground meats should be cooked welldone Use a thermometer to test the internal temperature of meats and poultry Defrost meats in fridge or microwave Safe Temperatures 91 SNN I 40 F Safe refrigerator temperature bacteria survive but F 8W 39 m 2123939F Boiling point ot water mummy SIOWIV39 1mm 40 140 F da nger zone ill l39 t l iz39f create mum I 200 lengths Oftimel temperature sorne when bacteria multiplies r t ml39lggfgggpe39fg nayi 7 39 survive but do not a 130 multiply POULTRY lLlGHT MEAD 3 Helrigeratorlfreezer 1m thermometer 0 F is safe freezer temp 40 F is refrigerator safe tempr l EBBS GFDUND 39 BLEEAHD t instantread FRESH PORK 145 ALL TYPES e t j 1 140 F Sate temperature quot 7 W BEEF39Ii39EItL 39 160 Digital for holding hot food POP39Up ANDLllMB A t Bacteria may survive but do not multiply 40quot 140 F Danger zone H l bacteria multiva quickly 1 mats i sears min GHUPS lMEDlUM Friar Dial ovensafe I39 ch Oven safe ther mo met er HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes g g Belle Handling lnetruntins 3955 mm 33331 3933 WNW NEW quot IHIs was l39quot39l39ll II3II39L39i ll 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crackers canned spreads and cheeses fresh uncut fruits and vegetables 3 Aged and hard cheeses can last for 12 hours 4 Be wary of mayo salads 5 Use a thermal bag and freeze beverages 0 Honey 1 Main concern is Clostrio ium botuinum HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes 2 Adults are usually protected 3 Infants under 1 year should never be given honey P Food and Seafood 1 Mercury and other heavy metals Naturally occurring 0 Industrial waste 0 Both fresh and saltwater sh Nervous system 0 Recommendation for pregnant women nursing mothers and young children Iberia chemicis LaeH 2 PCBs and other contaminants Ingredient in pesticides dyes adhesives etc 0 Manufacturing halted in 1977 0 Both fresh and saltwater sh 0 Cancer systemic effects Lem 0 Reproductive and developmental problems 313 Farmed salmon E39f lil l l 393 gt Remove skin and fat when preparing phlilrton 39 sh 3 EPA and FDA Advice for Women who are Pregnant or Might Become Pregnant Nursing Mothers and Young Children 0 Do NOT eat shark sword sh king mackerel or tHe sh Eat up to 12 ounces 2 average meals a week of a variety of sh and shell sh that are lower in mercury 0 Five the most commonly eaten sh that are low in mercury are shrimp canned light tuna salmon pollock and cat sh 0 Another commonly eaten sh albacore white tuna has more mercury than canned light tuna So when choosing your two meals of sh and shell sh you may eat up to 6 ounces 1 average meal of albacore tuna per week 0 Check local advisories about the safety of sh caught by family and friends in your local lakes rivers and coastal areas If no advice is available eat up to 6 ounces 1 average serving per week of sh you HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes catch from local waters but don t consume any other sh that week 4 Sushi 0 Only eat fresh sushi no leftovers Do not eat sushi that has a shy smell sushi and sashimi should be rm and springy to the touch o If you make your own sushi you need to keep it as fresh as possible If possible try to package your sh on ice and the sooner you prepare your sushi the better 0 Do not make sushi with fresh water sh such as trout largemouth bass cat sh etc Fresh water sh have been known to have parasites but the salt in ocean water prevents these types of parasites in salt water sh 0 Many types of sushi are cooked California rolls shrimp smoked salmon cucumber etc Q Safe Fridge Storage Times 1 12 Days raw ground meats breakfast sausage raw sh and poultry 2 35 Days raw steaks roasts chops cooked meats veggies mixed dishes ham slices mayo salads 3 1 Week hardcooked eggs opened bacon or hotdogs smoked sausage 4 24 Weeks raw eggs in shell unopened bacon or hotdogs dry sausages most aged and processed cheese 5 2 Months opened mayo most dry cheeses HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes Traveling Before you travel go to wwwcdcgovtrave and nd out what precautions you should take Talk to your physician about medications Wash your hands often with soap and water 0 Eat only canned or cooked foods Wash raw fruits and vegetables in boiled water 0 Skip salads Water and ice may be unsafe Take disinfecting tablets or boil water Don t use ice 9 Boil it cook it peel it or forget it