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by: Brittany Ballog

HNF150-LipidsLearningNotes.pdf HNF 150

Brittany Ballog
GPA 3.0
Intro to Human Nutrition
k. alaimo

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Intro to Human Nutrition
k. alaimo
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNF 150 at Michigan State University taught by k. alaimo in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Nutrition in Nursing and Health Sciences at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes Lecture Notes LIPIDS I Basic Facts A Fat is more caloriedense than protein or carbohydrate 9 kcalg versus 4 kcalg B Fat improves satiety the satisfaction of feeling full after a meal C Some fats are essential to our health because the body cannot produce them vitamins minerals certain amino acids certain fatty acids D TYPE of fat is very important to health because not all fats are equal E Fats aid in absorption of fatsoluble vitamins thus you cannot survive without at least some fat ll Usefulness of Fats Fats in the Body Fats in Food Energy stores Nutrient Muscle fuel Energy Emergency reserve Transport Padding Raw materials lnsuation Sensory appeal Cell membranes Appetite Raw materials Satiety Texture Store fat in a fat cell called Adipose stored as a droplet then it gradually enlarges Ill Types of Lipids 3 Triglycerides three fatty acids and a glycerol backbone A Formation of Triglycerides glycerol A triglyceride formed from I glycerol 3 fatty acids 3 fatty acids of differing lengths HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes Lecture Notes B Differ by 2 characteristic of end result of the Fat the longer the chain length the more solid and Firmer at room temp and vise versa 1 Long chain fatty acids tend to be solid at room temp 70 F or 21 C 2 The more saturated the fat is in a container the more solid at room temperature the fat will be 70 F or 21 C 3 The more unsaturated the fatty acids the more liquid the fat will be at room temp 70 F or 21 C C Saturated a fatty acid carrying the max possible number of hydrogen atoms a saturated fat is a triglyceride that contains three saturated fatty acids 0 Animal sources beet fat cheese butter lard chicken fat 0 Plant sources palm coconut cottonseed D Unsaturated fatty acid that lacks some hydrogen atoms and has one or more points of saturation an unsaturated fat is a triglyceride that contains one or more unsaturated fatty acids 0 Monounsaturated sources olive oil canola oil one double bond Polyunsaturated sources corn oil soybean oil saf ower oil and sun ower oil 2 double bonds Shorter chain and unsaturated lipids fewer than 6 carbons Longer chain and saturated lipids 1418 carbon atoms E Hydrogenation process of adding hydrogen to the double bond to more fully saturate a fatty acid Notes HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes Lecture Notes 2 con gurations of a unsaturated fatty acid twist and turn and more liquid and room temperature and also turned into trans con guration where left over hydrogen is on each side F Trans Fatty Acids fat that contain any number of unusual fatty acids formed during processing Food Sources processed foods cookies frozen pizzas Phospholipids two fatty acids a glycerol backbone and phosphorous containing acid A Composition glycerol heads fatty acid tails watery uid Notes Emulsi er EX quot7397 Glycerol heads mayo helpS blend I water and fat 2 Fattyr acud tails Watery fluid Emulsi er substance that mixes with both fat and water and permanently disperses that fat in water forming an emulsion Sterols complex lipids such as cholesterol play roles as part of bile vitamin D the sex hormones and other important compounds plant sterols in foods inhibit cholesterol absorption A Composition large complicated molecules Example Vitamin B 3 HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes Lecture Notes a Fat Digestion triglyceride digestion in the GI tract A Mouth hard fats begin to melt in babies saliva secretes An enzyme but we loose that as we get older B Stomach not much happens in the stomach turning mixes with water and acid even though the enzyme in infants can work in the stomach not very important for adults 2001 BrooksCole a division of Thomson Learning Inc Thomson Learning is a Fat m Enzym e Waite ry V N GI juices g V i Em ulsified tat 5 Emuls ifie39d fat quotamt Sma39wzmeB iblgg iamp io thi go mg iiiyl w iig lig iine lEiiie s em ulsiiying action oonver is After em ulsiiieaiion the infymes i ees BI L rning is a trademark used herein under license 9 a enzymes at M 7 germihee D H Emuem d H H H I 7 I i 39 amp IT ITEMS H H c o e IEH H e o H H o c 5 H V H WW iE H 9 WNWamp 39I39I II C O C 39 H HGO 6 39 Ill H H HuTgonc 39 H H C O il lHlO C r 391 H H L5 O H F39sCir dc hr na H Triglyceride MortuglyceridL T 2 city acids Tite triglyceride and two molecules Cf water are split Titese products may pass into the intestinal cells but and 751quot pieces combine tn give two terry acute and a sometian the n13r1039ytm39irtn is Split wirlh mtntlann inunnuglyuer rcie n39IIuleLtLile LEI WLELEI L give Ll lIirLl ILnLly LILJllLI LIilLl glyueiul r3113 acids mm noglycerides and glycerol are eoscrbed into intestinai cells D Inside Intestinal Cells The fats face another watery barrier of mucus that coats the absorptive lining of the digestive tract depends on bile and the balls of digested lipids The bile shuttles the lipids across the watery mucus layer and waiting on the absorptive surfaces on cells of the intestinal villi The cells extract the lipids and the bile may be used again 2001 BrooksCole a division of Thomson Learning Inc Thomson Learning is a Shortechai 1M 39itiiil e Raised herein under license 6 7 Manogwcerme quot quot39 Medium chem 395 fatty acids 39 V r G ceroll quot Tquot V I I 1 y y I 3 In I 7 39 39L 39 quot 539 Missile Protein I i P 5r l 7 j thylomicrens v 39l 1 i f i i z quot gm Triglyceride J L53 r Lasteal quot 39 3 l V I 39 lymph t ji Capilllary 3 a g network f2quot j 11 39 Longchain quot7 I quot 9 felt acids Blood 1ressells 7V 5 g 39 y it 5 4 a Large llipicls such as monoglycerides r Jena339 and longechlalin tatty acids rst must I l a V I merge into micelles that move into I 39 fey 2 intestinal cells Then the intestinal quot i jretiLUEL M cells assemblle the monoglyce idee 39 7 f 39j I and fatty acids into triglycerides that 7 a 1 r are incorporated into dhy llomiemrts Q 39j l 39 d that can travel through the Iynn ph To liver The end products of felt digestion are mostliy monoglyceridles some fatty acids and very little glycerol Glycerol and short and mediumchain fattyr acids can move tli rrru1llalr into the bloodstream HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes Lecture Notes Bile an emulsi er made by the liver from cholesterol and stored in the gallbladder Lipoproteins clusters of lipids associated with proteins which serve as transport vehicles for lipids in blood and lymph A Structure of Lipoproteins dumped into the lymph then the blood and then the liver Fatty acids inside membrane that contains phospholipids protein and free cholesterol as well as cholesterol bound to fatty acids Role transport fat around the body B Types of Lipoproteins 5 kinds 1 Chylomicron has a lot of fat in it and its huge made by intestinal cells to deliver fat we just ate 2 VLDL very low density liver makes fat VLDL helps deliver that to the body s cells 3 ILDL intermediate density 4 LDL low density after VLDL has deliver fat to cells tissues what s left over is the LDL still contains fat in the middle but more cholesterol and its role is to continue to deliver fat and cholesterol 5 HDL high density smaller more protein then cholesterol also produced by the liver go around to body cells take the extra cholesterol that s in the cells and bring it back to the liver used to make bile etc 9When go to doctor they measure LDL and HDL lower LDL and higher HDL LDL quotbadquot cholesterol HDL good cholesterol HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes Lecture Notes C Lipoprotein Composition r 7 Protein Cholesterol P h SDh iiipid 77m 7 2 Triglyceride LlIDiL H D L More lipid Less lipid less protein more protein 11 1 lower 32 daily brig her d ensity D Role of Lipoproteins 1 Transport triglycerides from diet chylomicron 2 Transport triglycerides from liver low density lipoprotein LDL 9 Liver will synthesize triglycerides IF 4 1 Eat too much carbohydrate 2 Increased levels of blood free fatty acids from diet 3 Consume alcohol 4 Increased insulin decreased glucagon gt sends to muscles and other tissues for energy or adipose for storage 3 Reverse cholesterol transport synthesis HDL b Using fat for energy and storage A Using Fat for energy Fat for energy for the cells can come from Chylomicrons VLDL LDL Adipose cells Notes Ketosis if glucose is not available B Glucose is necessary for complete breakdown of fat C Fat for storage fat cells c Recommendations 1 Total Fat HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes Lecture Notes A Dietary Guidelines OLD Keep total fat intake between 20 to 35 of calories with most fats coming from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids such as sh nuts and vegetable oils NEW Reduce intake of solid fats Replace solid fats with oils B Daily Values Less than 65 grams of fat per day C World Health Organization 15 30 of total calories from fat 2 Saturated Fat and Trans Fatty Acids A Dietary Guidelines Reduce intake of solid fats Replace solid fats with oils B Daily Values Less than 20 grams of saturated fat per day C World Health Organization 0 10 of total calories from saturated fat 3 Cholesterol A Dietary Guidelines None B Daily Values Less than 300 mg of cholesterol per day C World Health Organization 0300 mg of cholesterol per day IV Essential Fatty Acids EFA Table 54 Textbook Linoleic acid essential polyunsaturated fatty acid of the omega6 family Linolenic acid essential polyunsaturated fatty acid of the omega3 family full name is alpha Linolenic 1 Linoleic Acid 6 ecoisanoids biologically active compounds that regulate bod functions Sources seeds nuts grains vegetable oils corn cottonseed safflower sesame soybean sun ower poultry fat 2 Alpha Linolenic Acid 3 Sources oils canola axseed soybean walnut wheat germ dark green leafy vegetables seaweed and algae nuts and seeds especially walnuts and axseeds vegetables soybeans 3 Eicosapentanenoic acid EPA and Docosahexaenoic acid DHA HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes Lecture Notes Bene ts DHA and EPA cold water sh also breast milk DHA important for infant growth and brain development OMEGAS omega6 and omega3 compete for the same metabolic enzymes Need to eat more omega 3 Omega 3 fatty acids polyunsaturated fatty acid with its endmost double bond three carbons from the end of the carbon chain Linolenic acid High fat diet Low rate of heart disease Beeders Omega3 fatty acids Association between quot sh consumption and coronary heart disease Cardiovascular effects of omega3 fatty acids Anti coagulant anticlotting Lower BP Lower LDL Reduce in ammation Protect against irregular heartbeats Lower morality death Fish Concerns over shingbycatch non sustainable farmed sh contamination


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