HNF150-PregnancyLearningNotes.pdf HNF 150
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNF 150 at Michigan State University taught by k. alaimo in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Nutrition in Nursing and Health Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes PREGNANCY 1 When is nutrition important for expecting mothers 3 Before during and after pregnancy nutrition is important Before and after pregnancy are often overlooked for a healthy mom and baby but are equally important as during 2 Preparing for Pregnancy Prepregnancy weight Uterus needs to be healthy to support growth of placenta Prevention of neural tube defects Placenta an active metabolic organ supports baby through umbilical cord gets oxygen and nutrients to baby while gives waste from baby to mom Energy and nutrient stores supply the developing fetus as a priority over mom ingt 3 Nutrition during Pregnancy A Fetal Development appropriate maternal weight gain more women with poor diet and gaining too much weight B Gestation Length 40 weeks is full term infants grow 20x longer and 50x heavier C Critical Periods windows of organ formation Organs develop during speci c time period lack of energy may cause improper growth Nutrition deprivation during a CP impairs development and a fully recovery never occurs Normal Development An adverse influence felt late temporarin ilmpairs development but full recovery is possible An adverse influence felt early permanently impairs development and a full recovery never occurs r i I HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes 4 Nutrient Requirements During Pregnancy Energy increases 300 kcals during 2nCI and 3rd trimester now eating for two No extra calories needed during rst trimester Ex tuna sandwich One extra serving of food guide pyramid groups More for teenagers underweight women and active women Protein increases from nonpregnant to at least 609 BUT most women eat this much anyway Carbohydrate 50 of calories baby needs glucose Fat Omega 3 associated with brain development omega 6 fatty acids important I Comppr icnn n39F Millrichl Dnr nmmnnr iafinnc 39Fnr39 nnnrnnnant pregnant and la Energy I Ilt I Energyallcwance during pregnancy Ie ler Errcl ancl Ercl I tI39Imeetere nc r I aclcli tienal IquotItamIn I I allcwence I5 I creeiclecl during f39l am39n D g the let trimeeter Vitamin E Thiamin I eiegrlaan I F39I39c lein ll Niacin I HEBquot I 39 39 l lenIEI Eenant ElIcftln I I feet at 193 Ibr a weman F39antciil39IenIc acid I I 24 Beam Elgar griikamin B I i F39reg II I 3 I 39 I Lactating FDIEIE I II Vitamin Ell I n Immune I I iuIiIamin I Ealc iLIm F I Ieeel rcerue lalegnee iLIm The increaeecl Iran I lt need lcr iren in pregnancy canncfl mm a be maths diet I I by emetlng etcree I Therelcre ircn IE EI39HE I I eupplemen tc are a I ECZ l39l39l 39lEl39lEiE Zi EEIEH39U T39 I I during the Encl encl 3rcl trimeetere I I I I2 LI39I IE ICE Cl LI39I IE n E III M L CI SPRING 2014 Lecture Notes HNF150 Prof Alaimo Folate 600 mcg important BEFORE mom becomes pregnant folate helps cells divide o Folate recommendations for women who can become pregnant 3 daily supplement of 400 mg folic acid eat folate forti ed foods eat folate rich foods Folate prevents neural tube defects like spina bi da because 50 of pregnancies are unplanned it is important to eat enough now H39en39nel vetehe Spine hiide vertebra Spinal defeetfeide wterrey39ifieer If ephe lee 39iJiEt39ll39 Epinehi de mp view 7 i t eentreld39ierrher epinel v if membrane fluid t H ehded euppnrtiee B tITIQ henee ef the eeitehree Nien nelly the hen eenlre member eleeeeflly In the eerieuefmn metm here memhrerree 3 1 te eneeee the spied eerd end its eurremding rneIThreneeendflid In eerie tilde the lee heliree ef the elr henee that eheuld eerrq ete the eeeanent Id the end feil te and fluid heee bulged 1hrth the Em and newee ere Etlm Eld i e39 li lji39 leading te eerne degree ef perelya39e end eften lie men39lel reterde lien Folate food Sources leafy greens oranges legumes liver Adequate 812 assists folate Calcium intake requirement does NOT increase during pregnancy 0 RDA 1000 mg gt18 years 0 Intestinal absorption doubles early in pregnancy stored in mother s bones 0 Later pregnancy transfer of calcium from mother s bones to fetus bones 300 mgday HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes Magnesium RDA slightly higher bonesmuscle building Iron 0 RDA 27 mg gt18 yo regular RDA is 18mg for women 0 Absorption of iron increases 3 times 0 Menstruation ceases to keep iron 0 Fetus stores enough iron to last rst 36 months of life breast milk very low in iron Zinc o Zinc de ciency associated with low birth weight 0 Zinc and iron compete for absorption 0 Protein foods contain zinc 5 Factors that Increase Nutritional Risk during Pregnancy Are young adolescents growing themselves and another person Have had many previous pregnancies Short intervals between pregnancies body not recovered Lack nutrition knowledge food insecure little family support Consume inadequate diet Smoke or use alcohol or drugs puts baby at risk Lactose intolerant or other special needs Underweight or overweight at conception Twins or triplets increased nutrient requirements Gain insuf cient or excessive weight during pregnancy Low education WIC program Women Infant Children supplemental food program For pregnant women through child turning 550 of all babies in MI participate in WIC Qualify is under 185 of the poverty line Get nutrition counseling and debit cards for certain foods Supplements for AtRisk Women Folate Vitamin 36 Vitamin f litmin n Cnlriiim nnnr Irnn 6 Weight Gain Recommendatio Underweight women 2840 lbs i Normal weight 2535 lbs Overweight women 1525 lbs Obese women at least 13 lbs f Wei3M gain iiiIQ inure153114 hit E i Eiit 2 J 39 irltlw ll39 39ll39 39 l El RR uidardum quot Hermite 1 lr39y v lrlglwseil39liulncd apply 51 quot v I lie rquot it this EL ELEM 39 7 i ii lul ilt areEl uhma am EUFJ39Jl l39ig medals quot Ih ii 5413535 HNF150 Prof Alaimo SPRING 2014 Lecture Notes Food Cravings and Aversions Due to changes in taste and smell sensitivities May be due to nutritional de ciencies Pica eating non food items ice laundry starch Morning Sickness Arise slowly Dry toast or crackers Gum hard candies Small frequent meals Avoid offensive odors When nauseous do not drink citrus milk water coffee or tea Physical Activity Recommendation Components of weight gain during pregnancy 7 Should women be physically active during pregnancy YES some modi cations may be needed be active before pregnancy and continue activity during talk to doctor about starting activity Hydration is important Some good activities include walking and swimming 8 Food cravings and aversions during pregnancy Due to changes in taste and smell sensitivities hormones May be due to nutritional de ciency Morning sickness perhaps caused by hormones not only in mornings 0 00000 Arise slowly Dry toast or crackers saltinessalt on tongue Gum hard candies Small frequent meals Avoid offensive odors When nauseous do not drink citrus milk water coffee or tea HNF150 Prof Alaimo SPRING 2014 Lecture Notes Heartburnconstipation hormones relax smooth muscles small frequent meals good with water and ber foods 9 Low Birth Weight De nition birth weight lt55 lbs Premature born early Full term due to nutritional de ciency other things More African American babies have low birth weights than white Americans More likely to die before 1 year May have 3 lower lQother brain impairments short stature and educational disadvantages Causes 6 poor nutrition genetics disease conditions smoking alcohol drug use multiples twins triplets 10 Avoidances During Pregnancy Smoking some medicinal drugs illegal drugs environmental contaminants supplement megadoses dieting caffeine alcohol A Smoking and second hand smoke 0 000000 0 Can kill a fetus i mothers nutritional status baby s nutritional status nicotine and cyanide are toxic to fetus restricts blood supply to fetus slows growth low birth weight birth complications SIDS Sudden infant death syndrome ETS Placenta previa an effect of smoking during pregnancy where placenta covers cervix which may cause bleeding and is life threatening B Drugs Seek the advice of a health professional before taking ANY drug or herb Example aspirin and ibuprofen Illegal substances nervous system damage behavior problems irritability mentalphysical damage learning disability C Supplements Many vitamins and minerals are toxic in high doses Vitamin A can cause birth defects D Dieting 3 No low carb no fasting could go into ketosis adequate nutrition essential to fetal development HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes E Caffeine Mixed results in literature May increase spontaneous abortion and lower infant birthweight Recommendation limit 300 mgday 3 SMALL cups coffee watch soda and energy drinks F Alcohol A sudden dose of alcohol can halt delivery of oxygen through umbilical cord Alcohol slows cell division Alcohol during rst months of pregnancy can cause brain damage Alcohol interferes with placental transport of nutrients Alcohol can damage sperm and ovum a Ferehead 7 77 V 39 harmrimeeewrg forehead U r 39 1msae l I I V emrtypcurped e 1 a quotw will 39 v quotFl en dnds bridge Ai v1 I if V w Fie39f d hiiji ME l 13 quotFil quotEdrgurflal len d uppar ral lam3 cIn e e lld squot keeping eyelids 39 Dpwnward shutof eyee Fetal Alcohol Unusually39srnall eyes andfor aye upenlrgs l 5 Emn Slg39nedneee quot quot quot j 7 lrEbility tplpcue Wel irgeyeequot i r quot gt LI quot Ups A Absence of groove in upper lip flat upper lip j Tl39l39ri upper Ip AiZ39LV39 til ifi gtr39i39 7 V39rahugaji 9 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Effects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 6 limits oxygen to baby slows cell growth mental retardation nervous system problems birth defect irreversible brain damage facial abnormalities vision impairments low Apgar score re ex test 9 Alcohol Recommendations NONE Stop drinking as soon as PLAN to become pregnant