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by: Brittany Ballog

HNF150-VitaminLearningNotes.pdf HNF 150

Brittany Ballog
GPA 3.0
Intro to Human Nutrition
k. alaimo

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Intro to Human Nutrition
k. alaimo
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNF 150 at Michigan State University taught by k. alaimo in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Nutrition in Nursing and Health Sciences at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes VITAMINS I What is a Vitamin Organic contains carbons essential have no calories Minerals elements on the periodic table a 2 g 0rganic 5 8 la a H i E E Q Nutrients e e e e e g E o I 2 E I I I I I I H I I Minerals I Water I I A Types of vitamins Fatsoluble A D E K o Stored in fats and liver and can be toxic at high doses Watersoluble B vitamin Thiamin Ribo avin Niacin Folate Vitamin 812 Vitamin B6 Biotin Pantothenic Acid and Vitamin C 0 Travel throughout the body and extra is excreted 0 Not very common to be toxic B How Vitamin Recommendations are Set Middle EAR and D dzll quot9 339 arequot Teleratile Upper Merlel llilelte Lewail Ee llme ted leverage Safety LIL Fleeem mended Fleeluirement equele E timat d gwElr g intelze recommended Intelte Requirement may em I 3 43 Fleealtimenajezl g g I Inlahee f E D D Mariel E E 239 2 eager Z z a r E Ww mlml ww Dein req LIiremente lunitel39d e36 Delin req Llirem enle eell39d ey I E I INllthllelnte EHEIFW HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes ll Fat Soluble Vitamins Found in fats and oils of foods Require bile for absorption Absorbed by the lymph Travel through the body associated with protein carriers Stored in liver and fat until needed The body can survive for weeks without consuming fat soluble vitamins Can be toxic if take in too much Diverse roles in body A Vitamin D 1 Facts NOT an essential nutrient because the body can produce vitamin D from SUNLIGHT Sunlight exposure affected by Air pollution Homebound City living Season Clothing Sunscreen Geography Time of Day 2 Functions 3 Hormone blood calcium and phosphorous levels 0 Supports healthy bones Immune system brain heart pancreas skin reproduction 3 De ciency Rickets kids softening of bones so they become bow legged protruding chest stomach ribs Osteomalacia adults low calcium intakes little exposure to sun continually breastfeeding babies 4 Toxicity can be toxic at high doses ve times the RDA it deposits calcium all over the body and not just the bones 5 Food Sources sunshine Vitamin Dfortified milk seafood sheH sh 6 You can obtain Vitamin D from going to tanning salons HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes B Vitamin K 1 Functions 2 0 Blood clothing Koagulation o Synthesizes key proteins that blood needs to clot Bone formation 0 Synthesizes key protein and works with Vitamin D 2 Dietary Sources Cauli ower Cabbage Spanish Lettuce Canola oil Soybeans Kale Nuts seeds oils 3 De ciencies are very rare newborns or if taking antibiotics 4 If you can t make bile you can t absorb Vitamin K C Vitamin A 1 Facts m fatsoluble vitamin to be discovered 3 forms of vitamin A are active in the body 0 retinal form of retinol from betacarotene in animal and human bodies an antioxidant nutrient o retinol stored in the liver 0 retinoic acid form of retinol from betacarotene in animal and human bodies an antioxidant nutrient Plants contain precursors beta carotene and other carotenoids Too much carotene hands can turn orange by carrots 2 Functions Vision immune system maintenance of body linings and skin bone and body growth normal cell development and reproduction 2 Vision Retina where you detect light Cornea outermost part Prevent night blindness Fianna HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes Rhodopsin detects light at the retina loses a little of Vitamin A each time this happens Immunity needed for epithelial cells Bone Growth dismantling of bones reshaping 3 De ciency Night blindness if a light is ashed then a person will not be able to recover fast and see clearly Keratin normal protein of hair and nails Keratinization accumulation of keratin in a tissue Xeropthlamia cornea has become hard and leads to andness Most common de ciency 4 Toxicity overdoses and toxicity are possible and cause many serious symptoms hair loss rashes weakened bones hip fractures if pregnant a lot of vitamin A can cause birth defects 5 Food Sources milk carrots sweet potato spinach cooked beef liver mango apricot butter eggs sh oil D Vitamin E 1 Facts alphatocopherol most biologically active form of Vitamin E de ciency is rare when people can t absorb fat or low fat diets 2 Functions Antioxidant Nerve development Immune system protects white blood cells from oxidation Needed for human and animal reproduction 3 Food Sources nuts oils mayo canola oil sun ower oils wheat germ sun ower seeds very high Ill Antioxidants A Which vitamins are antioxidants Vitamin A and Vitamin E HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes B What is Oxidation Reaction of oxygen with fatty acids DNA protein or cholesterol oxidation results in molecule losing an electron can form Free Radicals injury to tissues C What are Antioxidant vitamins vitamins that donate electrons to free radicals stabilize free radicals and stops chain reaction reduce injury to tissues D How Do Antioxidant Vitamins Work THE THEDRT OF FREE mama AND DISEASE FI ce l39Lclll39CcrllJlifi i39l iall39tli39i exclm riai39am Paaraimlic lam 55435 any a acmlm arai trial1 tj i i circular araascs make 0 41 chcmicallg rcacl iac airman Thia initialca a rapid Q Thc rxcaulr i a injury ic lisaascc Q and iil39iimaicly ircc radical allaclta ia1ly acir l DNA dcal mctiari chain and inc icrmalicn ci rrarc diacaaca and Eiaaua prcicin ra chclcaicrcl rr39alaculca rcaclian frcc radicala aging lcn ring clhcr l39rcc radicals marrian in call rrcmhranc llama 33mm and Dancing I rliaacliarj lhcm l l fldlm prccanccrauc 39 ITIFJEIllI s39 a changca in caa dcgcncral inn r caiclalinn cl hlc39rarl I crl icr diacaaca ii r halcmcml inii ia39ii rug cicaa laarlihg 1c l ll hcarl cliacacc taxman l39rcc lall39yquot acida D H535 cr chalcaicral quotvi I amin E 39Ir39iiarrih E ataca the chain rcacticn icy changing 1hr namrc al that lrcc radical IV WaterSoluble Vitamins Dissolve in water Easily absorbed and excreted Not stored extensively in tissues Seldom reach toxic levels Cooking and washing with water can leach them out of food Best to eat average requirements over 3 days A Vitamin C 1 Facts Ascorbic acid form of Vitamin C Scurvy 2 Functions 0 Antioxidant prevent oxidation of food 0 Prooxidant triggers reactions involving oxygen HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes Collagen a cofactor of enzymes 0 Iron prevents iron from becoming oxidized and increases the absorption of iron 3 De ciency breakdown of collagen loss of appetite growth cessation tenderness to touch weakness bleeding gums loose teeth swollen ankles and wrists tiny red spots Anemia Scurvy no appetite stop growing weak bleeding gums 4 Sources sweet red pepper brussels sprouts grapefruit sweet potato orange juice green pepper broccoli strawberries bok choy 5 Toxicity supplements kidney stones overload of iron digestive upsets nausea abdominal cramps excessive gas diarrhea B B Vitamins 1 thiamin Bl ribo avin Bz niacin B3 folate Bg vitamin 812 cyanocobalamin vitamin B6 pyridoxine biotin pantothenic acid 2 Functions metabolism coenzyme small molecule that works with an enzyme to promote the enzyme s activity help the body use fuels from carbs fats proteins C Thiamin 1 Function energy metabolism nerve processes muscle action 2 De ciency a Beriberi i Wet with edema ii Dry without b WernickeKarsakoff Syndrome alcoholics 3 Food sources green peas baked potato whole wheat bagel enriched pasta enriched cereal sun ower seeds beef liver pork chop HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes D Ribo avin means yellow color 1 Function energy metabolism light sensitive 2 De ciency smooth and swollen tongue corners of mouth become in amed and cracked 3 Food sources meat vegetables cottage cheese milk spinach mushrooms beef liver pork chop enriched cereal E Niacin 1 Function energy metabolism 2 De ciency Pellagra very rough skin cracked symptoms diarrhea dermatitis dementia death Tryptophan amino acid 3 Food sources meats protein food baked potato tuna pork chop mushrooms enriched cereal whole grains 4 Toxicity and Pharmacology niacin ush dilation of the capillaries of the skin with tingling that can be painful niacin is in question of use in medicine liver injury digestive upset impaired glucose tolerance F Biotin and Pantothenic Acid 1 Function energy metabolism synthesis of lipids neurotransmitters steroid hormones and hemoglobin 2 De ciency abundant in food little risk of de ciencies 3 Food sources cereal chocolate egg yolk avocado legumes milk nuts pork eggs broccoli kale mushrooms poultry potatoes HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes F Folate 1 Function helps cell synthesize DNA and helps create new cells 2 De ciency Megaloblastic anemia results from the inhibition of DNA synthesis during red blood cell production lowered immunity abnormal digestion During pregnancy you need Folate otherwise the baby can get NTD neural tube defects spine problems Spina Bi da smaller brain mental retardation death shortly after birth 3 Food sources asparagus legumes beets spinach pinto beans whole grains lentils enriched cereal fresh food G Vitamin B12 1 Function helps cell synthesize DNA with Folate for new cell production protects nerve 2 De ciency Pernicious anemia type of megaloblastic anemia damaged nerve sheaths paralysis malfunctioning of nerves and muscles intrinsic factor produced by stomach needed for absorption 3 Food sources dairy meat sh eggs H Vitamin B6 1 Function Helps 0 Convert AA s to other nonessential AA s Tryptophan to niacin Synthesize hemoglobin and neurotransmitters Release glucose from glycogen Immune function Fetal brain development 00000 2 De ciency general symptoms nausea exhaustion weakness insomnia greasy dermatitis 3 Food sources meats fruits vegetables HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes 22714 Cancer in the US 2nOI leading cause of death in US lifetime risk 0 1 in 2 for men 0 1 in 3 for women 0 increase with older age and low SES Most common cancers for men prostate more common but less mortality lung colorectal Most common cancers for women 0 breast lung colorectal Carcinogenesis unregulated cell growth undifferentiated cells initiation promotion progression 0 cancer metastasis Diet for cancer prevention 0 plant based diet HNF150 Prof Meat SPRING 2014 Alaimo Lecture Notes 0 rich in vegetables fruits whole grains legumes nuts seeds tea bene ts 0 vitamins and minerals o phytochemicals 0 ber 0 low meat intake red and processed meats 0 increase risk of colorectal cancers 0 beef pork lamb hot dogs lunchmeat pepperoni Diet that increases cancer risk western diet Alcohol increases risk 10


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