Chapter One Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Hope on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 211 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Jacob Schreckengost in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro to Neuroscience in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Saturday December 12 y Chapter One Neuroscience Past Present and Future The Origins of Neuroscience Ancient Greece discovered clear correlation between structure and function of brain Hippocrates most influential scholar believed that the brain was not only involved in sensation but is also the seat of intelligence Aristotle still believed that the heart was the source of intelligence so this view was not accepted yet Roman Empire Galen embraced Hipprocratic view of the brain discovered location of cerebrum and cerebellum from sheep dissections also stated that cerebrum was concerned with sensation and perception while the cerebellum controlled muscles discovered that sensations were registered and movements were initiated by movement of humors to or from the brain ventricles via the nerves which were believed to be hollow tubes like the blood vessels From the Renaissance to the Nineteenth Century Versalius added more detail to the structure of the brain but ventricular localization remained unchallenged In the 17th century French inventors began developing hydraulically controlled mechanical devices these devices supported the notion that the brain could be machinelike in function meaning fluid forced out of the ventricles through the nerves may literally pump you up and cause movement of limbs Saturday December 12 y Descartes was a proponent of this mechanical theory for he proposed that brain mechanisms control human behavior to the extent that this behavior resembles that of beasts believes that the human mind is distinct from the brain itself later other scientists broke away form focusing on the ventricles and started focusing on the fact that the brain is divided into gray and white matter the complete neuroanatomy was done by the end of the 18th century it was recognized that the nervous system had a central division brain spinal cord and a peripheral division nerve networks in body an important development is that the same general pattern of bumps gyri and grooves sulci and fissures could be identified on the brain in every individual this pattern enables the division into the four lobes frontal parietal occipital temporal What we know at the end of the 18th century injury to brain can disrupt sensations movement thought and can cause death the brain communicates with the body via nerves the brain has different identifiable parts which probably perform different functions the brain operates like a machine and follows the laws of nature 19th century Franklin Showed that nerves in the body are like wires and they conduct electrical signals to and from the brain Localization of specific functions to different parts of the brain Bell and Magendie used experimental ablation method in which they destroyed parts of the brain to identify the functions of other parts Saturday December 12 y Gall proposed that the propensity for certain personality traits could be related to the dimensions of the head called phrenology Flourens was critical of phrenology Broca found Broca s areathe part of the frontal lobe responsible for speech The Evolution of Nervous Systems Darwin proposed his theory of common ancestry and natural selection Neuroscience Today Levels of Analysis Reductionist approach works to break down the complex study of the brain into levels of analysis Molecular Neuroscience different molecules play different roles that are crucial for brain function messengers allow neurons to communicate with one another sentries that control what materials can enter and leave neurons conductors that orchestrate neuron growth Cellular Neuroscience focuses on studying how all the molecules work together to give the neuron its special properties Systems Neuroscience constellations of neurons form complex circuits that perform a common func on ex vision or voluntary movement Behavioral Neuroscience Saturday December 12 y determines how neural systems work together to produce integrated behavior and what parts of the brain are affected by certain actions Cognitive Neuroscience understanding the higher mechanisms responsible for high levels of human mental activity The Cost of Ignorance Nervous System Disorders AIZhEimer s a progressive degenerative disease of the brain characterized by dementia and always fatal Cerebral Palsy a motor disorder caused by damage to the cerebrum at the time of birth Depression a serious disorder of mood characterized by insomnia loss of appetite and feelings of dejection Epilepsy a condition characterized by periodic disturbances of brain electrical activity that can lead to seizures loss of consciousness and sensory disturbances MS a progressive disease that affects nerve conduction characterized by episodes of weakness lack of coordination and speech disturbance Parkinson s a progressive disease of the brain that leads to difficulty in initiating voluntary movement Schizophrenia a severe psychological illness characterized by delusions hallucinations and bizarre behavior Spinal paralysis a loss of feeling and movement caused by traumatic damage to the spinal cord Stroke a loss of brain function caused by disruption of the blood supply usually leading to permanent sensory motor or cognitive deficit
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