HNF150-WaterandMineralsLearningNotes.pdf HNF 150
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNF 150 at Michigan State University taught by k. alaimo in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Nutrition in Nursing and Health Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes WATER I Major Functions of Water carries nutrients cleanses tissues and blood solvent chemical reactions lubricant around joints shock absorber body temperature DTWUOWP ll Dehydration A Occurs When too much water is lost from the body and is not replaced First sign is thirst when about 5 of body uid is lost Other signs headache fatigue confusion forgetfulness increased HR Effects Mild loss lt5 body weight Severe loss gt5 body weight Thirst Pale skin Sudden weight loss Bluish lips and ngertips Rough dry skin Confusion Dry mouth Rapid shallow breathing Rapid pulse Weak rapid irregular pulse Low blood pressure Shock Lack of energy Seizures Impaired kidney function Coma Reduced urine output Death Ill Regulation of Water Water is regulated in the body by your senses dry mouth The Hypothalamus which senses concentrated blood low blood volume or low blood pressure and signals the pituitary gland to release hormone to the kidneys to conserve water Lastly by kidneys which monitor sodium concentration HNF150 2014 Prof Alaimo SPRING Lecture Notes IV Water In Body A Where Water Comes From Water Input B in order of decreasing amounts Food Water created by metabolism Liquids Where Water Goes Water Output in order of decreasing amounts Evaporation of sweat Moisture of exhaled breath Urine and Feces V Recommendations A VI Adequate Intake men 1930 yo 37 Liters women 1930 yo 27 Liters Actual Fluid Consumption 81 of total water men 30 litersday 13 cups women 22 litersday 9 cups Water Types A Soft v Hard soft water contains more sodium hard water contains more magnesium and calcium Bottled v Tap Bottled Water Tap Water Disinfection Required No Yes Con rmed E coli banned No Yes Testing for Bacteria 1week hundredsmonth Filter for pathogens No Yes Test for Organic Chemicals 1year 1quarter More info at httpwwwnrdcorgwaterdrinking HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes MINERALS I What Are Minerals A Major Minerals a lot in B Trace Minerals small body amounts 1 Calcium 1 Iodine 2 Chloride 2 Iron 3 Magnesium 3 Zinc 4 Phosphorus 4 Selenium 5 Potassium 5 Fluoride 6 Sodium 6 Chromium 7 Sulfur 7 Copper 8 Manganese 9 Molybdenum ISaleium F39hdephdrue F39dtaaeium Sulfur Stadium Iilhlerid eEl Magneeium Iren Manganese I113 Traee mineralle Edpper CI DE Idd ine 1024 IZCIZI EDD SDI iiDE EDD WEI EDIE EICICI 391 1190 1200 mdunt g 1 eunee 1 paund fhlarii39n simmers in the luh as the druidride ien Minerals in a 60Kilogram 132P0und Person Grams C How Electrolytes Govern Water Flow Electrolytes electrically charged minerals when dissolved in water 0 With equal nu mleere New addi tienal eartielee Water can Haw teeth wage dl dieedleed partielee are added te inereaee aereea the dieider but te nde en bath eidee eli a water the deride ntratian en te metre Frdm aide it he aide permeable dieider water eide E Partielee eanndt E where there ie a greater leeela remain edual Haw aeraee the dieider deneentratidn di dieaeleed 3 Ifin the eaee at Fluid ineide partielee The referee at and auteide a eell the water indreaeee n aide El divider ie a cell and the deededtratierre en membrane eidee 293 and E became mual HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes Gall We mbrane Eliitsiitle Notes cell membrane transports protein K potassium inside cells Na Sodium outside of cells Transman protein Hey DF alaesium ncliurn Electrolyte Balance ll Iodine A Function Thyroxine hormone made by the thyroid gland responsible for BMR less thyroxine low energy levels B Sources iodized salt processed foods seafood seaweed foods grown in iodinerich soil C De ciency Weight gain Goiter thyroid gland enlarges Cretinism physical and mental retardation that is not reversible Low energy sluggish Delayed growth in children D Toxicity can also cause Goiter Ill lron every living cell plants and animals contains iron A Function Oxygen carrying cells HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes 0 Hemoglobin red blood cells 0 Myoglobin muscle cells Helps many enzymes use oxygen Needed to make new cells amino acids hormones and neurotransmitters B De ciency Stores of iron goes down but no change in function Iron de ciency anemic less hemoglobin shortness of breath low energy tired apathetic not interested in learning cold lose work capacity and productivity inability to pay attention C Recommendations 0 Men 18 8 mgday Women 1950 18 mgday 0 Pregnant women 27 mgday D Sources 1 Food Sources clams muscles shell sh oysters legumes whole grains enriched cereal Heme iron bound to hemoglobin meat sh poultry Nonheme iron plants E Nonheme Iron Absorption phytates polyphenols calcium lead low iron de ciency and likelihood with lead absorption F Lead Poisoning lead displaces minerals such as iron and calcium 0 infants and children absorb 510 times as much lead as adults 0 lead injures kidney nerves brain and other organs 0 to prevent lead poisoning o in homes built before 1978 wash oors and windowsills weekly adequate iron and calcium to complete lead absorption prevent children from chewing on painted surfaces wash children s hands bottles and toys often wipe soil off shoes before entering house ask doctor if child should be tested for lead do not use handmade imported or old ceramic mugs for hot or acidic beverages do not use lead crystal decanters for storing alcohol or other beverages 000000 0 HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes 0 in older houses run cold water for a minute before drinking 0 remove lead foil from wine bottles G Calculating Iron Absorption 1 Vitamin C helps the absorption of iron 2 MFP Factor meat sh and poultry helps the absorption of iron 3 Animal vs Plant 0 Phytates compounds in plants that bind to iron and prevents its absorption 4 Heme vs nonHeme Iron IV Zinc A Functions 0 works with proteins to help enzymes 6 makes put of cells genetic material make heme help the pancreas with its digestive functions help metabolize CHO protein to fat moves vitamin A from inner storage dispose free radicals helps to regulate expression in protein synthesis B De ciency Growth retardation Impaired immunity Digestive problems Poor appetiteimpaired taste Poor eyesight C Toxicity excreted easily degenerate muscle D Food Sources beef oysters clams mussles crab whole grains enriched cereals V Selenium A Functions 2 Activates thyroxine Assist enzymes that work with Vitamin E to prevent free radical formation and oxidative damage HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes B Food Sources Most people get enough selenium because it s in meat shell sh vegetables and grains VI Fluoride A Not an essential nutrient C Functions inhibits dental caries deposits in bones too suppresses plaque bacteria and reduces it promotes remineralization C Sources drinking water B Fluorosis too much uoride in water when teeth are developing can cause uorosis irreversible to prevent uorosis young children should not swallow toothpaste VII Chromium A Function works with insulin to regulate and release energy from glucose VIII Copper A Functions 5 Helps form hemoglobin and collagen Component of several enzymes Assists in reactions that release energy Works with proteins to regulate activity of certain genes Component of an enzyme that helps control damage from freeradicals D Rare de ciency disturbs growth in children E Food sources organ meats seafood nuts IX Molybdenum and Manganese A Function part of enzymes X Calcium 0 Most abundant mineral in the body HNF150 2014 Prof Alaimo SPRING Lecture Notes 0 99 of calcium in the body is stored in the bones and teeth bones are active living tissue A Other major functions 4 nerve transmission blood pressure blood clotting muscle contraction and heartbeat enzymes neurotransmitters and hormones B Recommendations RDA39S O adolescents 1300 mgday women and men 1950 yo 1000 mgday women and men 51 yo 1200 mgday C Osteoporosis reduction of bone mass of older persons n which the bones become porous and fragile very common especially in women important to increase bone density when younger so that you have more available when you start losing bone mass reduces height compression of spine Risk factors for osteoporosis P P FP NE Preventing osteoporosis FP P FP NE early menopause before the age of 45 eating disorder as a preteen or teen Caucasian or Asian ethnicity small body frame family history of osteoporosis certain medications and conditions that interfere with bone mineral density adequate calcium intake adequate vitamin D and vitamin K adequate protein but not too high maintain a healthy weight but not too I LI limit alcohol eat less saltsodium don t smoke 7 39 39 I 39 T i ienl i 1 stren porn sis HNF150 SPRING 2014 Prof Alaimo Lecture Notes 8 caffeine cola other soft drinks 9 increase physical activity D Calcium Paradox US highest highest calcium consumption in world but highest osteoporosis rates Africa lowest calcium consumption but lowest osteoporosis rates C Food Sources dairy greens nuts seeds legumes broccoli sardines XI Phosphorus A Functions 5 Bones and teeth Phosphorous salts are critical buffers and help maintain acid base balance of cellular uids Component of the DNA and RNA Energy metabolism Phospholipids Component of some proteins B Food Sources milk cottage cheese sirloin steak salmon navy beans legumes and seeds best source is animal foods XII Magnesium A Functions 6 Assists in enzyme function Energy metabolism Affects metabolism of potassium calcium and vitamin D Protein formation Muscular relaxation Provides resistance to tooth decay F Food Sources any plant that s green in hard water soy milk yogurt spinach bran cereal oysters meats black beans avocado legumes soy vegetables fruits G Deficiency vomiting diarrhea HNF150 2014 Prof Alaimo XIII Sodium SPRING Lecture Notes B Functions 4 Principal POSITIVE ion OUTSIDE the body cells Maintains volume of uid OUTSIDE of cells Major role in maintaining uid and electrolyte balance Acidbase balance Muscle contraction and nerve transmission C Recommendations 1 AI sodium 500 mgday salt 13 gday UL sodium 23 gday salt58 gday 3 DG Consume less than 2300 mg approximately 1 teaspoon of salt of sodium per day 0 Choose and prepare foods with little salt At the same time consume potassiumrich foods such as fruits and vegetables D Preventing Hypertension hypertension is increased pressure in the vascular system 0 DASH Diet Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension been shown to reduce hypertension high in fruits and vegetables Other strategies to reduce hypertension 1 2 3 00 reduce salt intake eat more fruits vegetables and whole grains increase calcium potassium magnesium and vitamin C lowfat dairy foods fruits citrus fruits leafy green vegetables and grains limit alcohol don t smoke increase physical activity relaxationmeditation maintain healthy weight E Where Does Sodium in US Diet Come From 10 HNF150 2014 Prof Alaimo SPRING Lecture Notes processed and packaged foods 75 unprocessed 40 like milk salt added in cooking 15 XIV Potassium A Principal positive ion inside of the body cells B Functions 3 Principal POSITIVE ion INSIDE the body cells Maintains volume of uid INSIDE the cells Major role in maintaining uid and electrolyte balance Critical to maintaining a heart beat D Food Sources milk baked potato lima beans bananas sh honeydew melon 11
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