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Europe and the world(I

by: Marina Goulas

Europe and the world(I IAH 202

Marketplace > Michigan State University > Geography > IAH 202 > Europe and the world I
Marina Goulas
GPA 3.67
Europe and the world

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Europe and the world
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marina Goulas on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAH 202 at Michigan State University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Europe and the world in Geography at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
0992015 Peoples and Empires Mapping Euronean Empires The Mediterranean world Mapping 0 Geography The division of space The naming of place 0 History The division of time periodization The naming of events 0 Narrative Story Discoursethe way the story is told the style and the treatment of the events the way we talk about things 0 Cognitive Subjectself Ideology Orientalism and Empire Edward Said Orientalism 1978 Orientalism reinforced and was reinforced by the certain knowledge that Europe or the West literally commanded the vastly greater part of the earth39s surface Europe went from dominating 35 of the world to 85 of the world The two greatest empires were the British and the French 0 Three main empires were the British French and Spanish European Empires 1914 0 Mexico Central America Mongolia Afghanistan and China were the countries that were not taken over Orientalism as Discourse Orientalism has 3 meanings academic study of the eldlanguage and culture imaginative thing travelers were writing stories and drawing paintings about the places they went They were inspired by the Middle East is a discourse on the way we talk about the orient praise the orient but comment on how it hasn39t evolved Michel Foucault and idea on orientalism and discourse analysis Discourse limits what can be thought and said about the Orient The interchange between the academic and the imaginative 18th century starting point Michel Foucault and discourse analysis European culture they had direct colonies managed and produced the Orient Discourse limits what can be thought and said about the orient Europe gained strength 9142015 Power Point B The Grand Tour Started be tourism in these places like Egypt to see the pyramids and mummies and spades Historic sites of Egypt Historic sites of the bible Medieval Europe Tourist trade where ppl get exposed to exotic things Timelines of Empires in the Mediterranean World online Macedonian Empire 359168 BCE Alexander the Great went to India Afghanistan Persia Iraq seria he went all around Roman Republic and Roman Empire 27OBCE 476 AD Covered northern Mediterranean British Empire The French Empire The Ottoman Empire Europe and coast top of Africa Review 1 2 3 Name 4 diff ways of mapping empire discussed in this lecture Geography historical narrative and cognitive mapping According to Edward Said European empires controlled what percentage of the earth in 1914 From 1815 to 1914 European control of the earth expanded from 35 to 85 What is the tittle and topic of Edward Said s book that describes writing about Asian and Middle East as discourse 4D quotThe Story of the Warriot and the Captivequot Dructultft the Barbarian warrior who enters Ravena the Byzantine city The Yorkshire woman the captive who lives happily among the Argentine lndians How does the story illustrate some of the main ideas of Pagden39s book on empires and People Empires offer a combination of opportunities and restraints The importance of cities in the formation of empires Greek word polls and Latin word civitas Fear of the rootless and homeless and yet humans are movers and migrants What is the contrast in story between the two characters De ning Empire The word and its meaning Empire from the Latin word imperium supreme power involving both command in war and the magistrates right to execute the law Sovereignty until 18th century Government over vast territories Diversitv of peooles customs and beliefs Cosmopolitan and universal Tallyrand Empire is quotthe art of putting men in their placequot De ning Empire From alexander the great Empire as metaphor quotEmpire has become as much a metaphor as the description of a particular kind of societyquot 0 Today the word is generally used as a term of abuse although one that is also often tinged with nostalgia De ning Empire to the present Empire as a mode of Political Oppression quotA denial by one peoples of the rights above all the right to self determination of countless othersquot 0 quotThey are created by conquest and conquerors have always attempted to keep those they have conquered in subserviencequot quotAchieved by mixture of simple m and some kind of ideologyquot The ideologies of empire Civilization and greatness Empire as civilization quotCivilization the lure of a more desirable more comfortable and in nitely richer way of lifequot In the case of the Spanish French and British empires the ideology of civilization was reinforced by differing brands of Christianity In the case of the Ottomans the ideology was sam In contrast with civilization is barbarism Empire as greatness Homeric poems The Iliad especially the narrative of the Trojan War inspires Alexander the great and provides the model of war for conquest The story of Alexander the great brings together knowledge and understanding and power and the Greeks will be a source and foundation for the Roman Empire Alexander and Julius Caesar subsequently as sources of inspiration and models for the later the Holy Roman Empire the British Empire and the French empire Empire Virtue Glory and war From the Latin vir which means man quotmeant courage in battlequot Caesar quotthe title for autocratic rulers of one kind or another until the twentieth century the tsars if Russia and the German Kaiserquot Associated with quotgloryquot or the esteem and admiration of others acquired often in battle War as the de ning feature of Roman Empire no separation between civil society and the militia Legacies of Rome in modern Literature 0 Joseph Conrad Heart of Darkness 9162015 PowerPoint B Universal Empire conquering oceans and spreading the world The legacies of classical Greece and Rome and medieval Charlemagne empires came together under the Habsburgs especially Charles V who ruled from 1500 to 1558 At its greats extent Charles V empires included Germany central eastern Europe Holland Italy Spain and the colonies in the Americas Key terms of Charles v empire Universal and Cosmopolitan Inspired by the conquest of the Americas to reach beyond the limits of the known world The beginnings of maritime empire especially trans Atlantic The European conquest of the globe through colonial settlement missionizing and the slave trade But also European competing form settler colonies in the period between the 14905 and 1760s Conquering oceans a Global world 0 Mapping the globe quotThe Romans the Mughals the Chinese even the Spanish and the ottomans all had very different visions of the planetquot If the limits of Europe were unclear those of Africa Asia and America were frequently only mythicalquot Henry the Navigator and the 15 th century Portuguese voyages to Africa India and China Columbus transAtlantic voyages The new division of the world in the interests of Empires the Tordesillas line quotThe two Iberian empires Spain and Portugal truly encompassed the entire globe They had come closer to creating a single global economy than had ever been done before They distributed populations across continents and Spreading the word Civilizing the barbarians Christianity and conquest Roman notion of piety Latin pietas devotion loyalty trust adherence to the laws often associated with warfare and love of homeland or patria Christian notion of piety and virtue quotsubmissiveness before godquot and quotall ethic of renunciationquot Early modern Christian empires blurred the line of church and state Christianity as an ally of Empire a universal creed spread by priests and missionaries who accompanied conquerors settlers and traders in their voyages beyond Europe The Spanish debate between las casas who defended the rights of the Indians of the Americans and Sepulveda who argued that war against the Indians was just because they were subhuman Decline of the Iberian empires 17th Century The Spanish empire was not governed by economic principles no monetary policies no concept of wealth management and no understanding of surplus or scarcity supply of old and silver from the Americans produced a surplus and lowered the value Treaty of Westphalia 1648 and the Europe of nations The division of Europe into northern protestants and southern catholic The rise of England France and Holland as new maritime imperial powers The spread of enlightenment ideals liberty equality justice in gov and the emergence of selfgoverning republics 18th century Social change Empires of Liberty and Trade 18th century Freedom of people and trade Reformation New protest and capitalist empires especially England and HoHand A new educated merchant class civilizing and humanizing power of commerce Commerce as means to international peace Trading empires that relied on wealth rather than military might A new way of building colonial settlements The discourse of new empires quotnot to exploit Empires of liberty and trade Reformation New protestant and capitalist empires especially England and Holland A new educated merchant class civilizing and humanizing power of commerce Commerce as means to international peace Trading empires that relied on wealth rather than military might A new way of building colonial settlements The discourse of new Empires quotnot to exploit the resources of the defenseless peoples of the nonEuropean world but to help them to overcome paganism and primitive modes of production and of course the tyranny of other Europeansquot The 2nCI British empire Reorganization and Reform 7 years war with France 175863 Britain gains North American Colonies American War of Independence 177583Britain loses North American colonies The second British Empire Asia Africa and the paci c New discourse of Empire commercial benevolent and liberal Edmund burke quotthere is not any more dif cult subject for understiand of men then to govern a large empire upon a plan of liberty But the example of the British East India Company 176051876 and the trail of Warren Hastings governor general of Bengal Paradox of Modern Empire Empire and Slavery All empires are slaveowning societies but not all forms of slavery are the same In Rome quotpeoplequot meant citizens and did not include slaves In the classical European era slaves came from all places Europe Asia and Africa and could rise to positions of authority The origin of modern slavery is in 1444 with the Portuguese shipment of African slaves Modern slavery was central part of the new forms of Empire the colonial plantation sugar Small local African slave trade became a massive global slave trade in the context of European imperialism More paradoxes of empire slavery and abolition The religious argument for slavery slavery is saving the soul of heathens a civilizing mission Masterslave relationship changes from the classical to the modern Slaves in antiquity were conquered people in a quotjust warquotex Slavery was from of punishment for opposing Rome Enslaved Africans in the modern era were de ned in racist terms as less than human as heathens as savages But the racist argument was weak Even the slave master expected Africans to have human capacities understand and communicate And Africans also engage in rational thought and rebelled against their enslavement Rise of the abolitionist movements Humanitarian arguments and decreased pro tability of slave trade but also the changes in empire in the late 18th century Limits of abolitionist movement African are humans and have rights but are not equal to Europeans culturally Abolitionism overlaps with imperialism in the 19th century Empire race nations All empires from the classical to modern are based on the idea of many distinct peoples united under one sovereign From alexander the great to napoleon Bonaparte from Julius Cesar to Queen Victoria the unity begins in Europe and then encompasses the world quotFor his own personal philosophy Napoleon was not only the heir to Charlemagne he had also taken up the diadem of Alexander and with it had assumed the historic task of uniting east and westquot quotVictoria39s assumption of the title empress of India in 1876 was the most fully elaborated attempt the modern world has ever witnessed to recreate the ancient roman imperium The story of the moors in Spain Framing the Narrative Contexts Pa st Stanley LanePoole 18541931 was a 19th century scholar of Islamic history His life and scholarly career covered the period of British imperial expansion in the Middle East from the 18605 to the 19502 He lived and worked in Egypt in His 4 major books emphasize histories of Islamic contact with Europe the moors in span the Ottoman Empire the Mughals of India and the Barbary Coast The moors in Spain and the British in Egypt Coincident with lanePooles life is the growing British role in Egypt from 1860s to the 19505 Opened in 1868 the Suez canal was French project initiated by Ferdinand delesseps It later was under the control of the AngloFrench Britain occupied Egypt in 1882 following a rebellion lead by the Arab nationalist Ahmed Urabi See Scawan blunts 1885 personal account secret history of the English occupation of Egypt From 189597 LanePoole was an archeologist in Egypt The moors in Spain was rst published in 1886 not long after the British occupation of Egypt in 1882 Eurocentrism and Afrocentrism Eurocentrism to position Europe at the center of the world to emphasize the role of Europe of in world history to view the world from the perspective of European cultural values to dismiss or overlook other people39s histories perspectives and values often unconscious or ideological Afrocentrism a response to the racist denial of Black perspectives and dismissal of black contributions to human history an af rmation of the black origins of human cultural intellectual and political activity in the classical era a conscious political and cultural movement that emerged in the 20th century in conjunction with civil rights movements in the US Empire across Historical context quotCharlemange the second Alexander could not contemplate with composure the immunity of the Moslem power on the other side of the Pyrenees As a good Christian he was pledged to extirpate the in del and as imperial conqueror the existence of independent kingdom of Andalusia was hateful to his pridequot What kinds of connections are there between Pagdens history of European Empires and Stanley Lane Pooes the story of the moors in Spain References to classical and medieval empires How does LanePoole present the conditions Spain and more generally in Europe in the 8th century quotSpain was then under the rule of Visigoths or west goths a tribe of barbarians like the many others who overran the provinces of the Roman Empire in its declinequot quotIn begging of the 8th century when the Saracens had reached the African shore of the Atlantic and were looking across the Straits of Hercules to the sunny provinces of Andalusia the goths had been in possession of Spain for more than two hundred years there were special reasons why the Goths should improve Spain They were not only bold strong and uncorrupted by ease of life they were Christiansquot The Visigoths quotThe goths remained devout indeed but they regarded their acts of religion chie y as reparation for their vices the rich sunk in the same slough of that which had proved the ruin of the Romans and the vices of the Christian Goths rivaed if they did not exceed the polished wickedness of the pagansquot How does lane pool describe the spread of Islam especially across North Africa and into Spain quot the mohammedans or Saracens a word which means eastern were checked in Asia minor by the forces of the Greek emperor and it was not till the fteenth century that they at last obtained the longcoveted possession of Constantinople by the valor of the Ottoman Turksquot The moor Tarik and Gibraltar In 711 Musa dispatched one of his generals the Moor Tarik with 7000 troops most of whom were also moors Tarik landed on the lions rock which has ever since borne his name GebalTarik Gibraltar and after capturing Carteya advanced inlandquot Muslim conquest of spain quotTarik had pressed on to Toledo the capital of the Goths He was seeking for the Gothic nobles At Cordova he had looked to meet them but they had ed at Toledo which the Jews delivered into his hands the nobles were not to be found They had ed further and taken refuge in the mounts of the Asturias Traitors like the family of Witiza and Count Julian alone remained and these were rewarded with posts of government the country was abandoned to the Moors Spain had become a province of the vast empire of the Arab Khalifs who held their court in Damascus and swayed an empire that stretched from the mounts of India to the Pillars of Hercules gave all of Spain to the moorsquot quotleaving the regions of myth with which the Spanish chroniclers have surrounded the fall of Roderick it is a matter of sober history that the victory of the Guadalete gave all of Spain to the Moorsquot Quiz answers Charles v holy roman empire included Germany Holland Spain Italy parts of central and eastern Europe and colonies in the Americas Early modern Christian empires blurred the line of church and state quotFor nearly eight centuries under Mohammedan rulers spaoin set all Europe a shining example of civilized and enlightened state Her fertile provinces rendered double about the truefalse rst question on the second quiz


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