Greek Theater-Alexander the Great
Greek Theater-Alexander the Great Hist 101
Popular in Western Civilization I
Jasmene Monique Ramirez
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jasmene Monique Ramirez on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 101 at University of New Mexico taught by Professor Davis-Secord in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization I in History at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Notes 91720159222015 Philosophy Medicine and Theater in Classical Greece Theater arose during the archaic period as part of festivals to honor Dionysus Famous Tragedians writers of the greek Tragedies were Aeschylus Sophocles he wrote the Oedipus trilogy which I highly recommend Great drama and Euripides One famous comedy writer was Aristophanes The festival to Dionysus was called the Dionysa All citizens were welcome to attend and writers who wanted to participate had to submit three tragedies and a comedy to be eligible The motivation for participating in the theater was to attain a coveted literary prize The general themes that the plays covered changed from involving just heroes and traditional greek mythology to cover social themes Fun fact all actors in these plays were male Males would even play the female roles in the plays The play itself would consist of a chorus which was 1220 male actors narrating drama and three or more male actors playing other roles Medicine Asclepius was a demigod He was the son of Apollo and was known to heal people in their sleep Greek people who had exhausted the traditional medical care that had done nothing to cure their ills would go to the asclepeion as a last resort where they spent the night and when they awoke would hopefully have been visited by Asclepius and been healed Hippocrates of cos was one of the rst thinkers in history to try and nd a scienti c basis for sickness He questioned the idea that sickness was retribution from the gods or of supernatural forces He developed the theory of the four bodily humors which consisted of yellow bile black bile blood and phlegm His theory stated that if the four bodily humors became unbalanced this caused sickness Hippocrates is also known for the Hippocratic oath which is the oath doctors take today to do no harm PhHosophy Stoa long collimated building which was often the site of philosophical discussion Sophists teachers of language rhetoric logic and reasoning Protagoras was a sophist who stated quotman is the measure of all thingsquot Sophists believed that there was no absolute truth Socrates was part of the opposition to the sophists and his philosophical though focused on nding ultimate reality and ultimate truth Socrates was sentenced to death by the Athenian court on charges of atheism and corrupting the youth He was also known as the Gad Fly because he would wander about the agora and asking random people questions about their beliefs in an effort to encourage them to question their world paradigm He was sentenced to death by drinking hemlock poison Plato was a student of Socrates who after Socrates was sentenced to death developed a hatred of democracy He starts his own school in Athens called the Academy Plato s ideas involved the problem of universals and the Theory of forms The theory of forms states that we cannot ever know anything in its entirety He demonstrates this idea in a writing called the allegory of the cave In this story a group of men are chained to a rock and they face the back of a cave There is a re behind them which casts light onto the back of the cave The men are convinced that they are perceiving the truth of existence when they see shadows crossing the back of the cave This is all they know But one day one of them manages to escape and when he returns he tries to convince the others that there is far more to the world than what they see on the back of the cave He fails however because the others think he is mad unable to fathom anything other than what they have seen and what they know by looking only at the back of the cave In a sense Plato states that our understanding is limited and we only see the shadows of ultimate reality Plato also believes that education is a recollection from our time in the world of forms which is absolute not subjective We exist in a perfect world of forms where we know things like quotUltimate Chairquot and then forget them upon birth until we through our education and experience can begin to reconstruct this idea that we have forgotten Plato also wrote on what he viewed would be the perfect government system in a document called quotThe Republicquot in which only enlightened quotguardiansquot were allowed to make major decisions This may stem from the fact that he blames democracy and the uneducated masses for sentencing Socrates to death Aristotle was a student of Plato39s and goes on to start his own school called the lyceum Aristotle was what we today would call a renaissance man of academia He was interested in and studied just about anything and everything His main focus however was logic and logical argumentation He was a proponent of observation and empiricism in which he uses observations to create theories He opposed plato39s idea of universals and forms and focused on particulars He believed that instead of being born with the knowledge of quotuniversal chairquot we create these categories through what he called the four causes which include material formal efficient and nal Hellenistic Philosophy Stoicism Highest good is considered to be peace of mind Virtue reason and natural law Pursuit of truth is a human virtue Stoics believed in mastery of emotions Think of them like Vulcans from Star Trek Like Vulcans stoics have emotions but they are just really good at controlling them Epicureanism the highest good is happiness which was freedom of fear absence of pain and moderation in the enjoyment of pleasure Skepticism highest good was also peace of mind brought about by withdrawing from the pursuit of absolute truth and knowledge and ceasing to worry about good and evil One major tenant of this school of thought was the idea that one cannot trust his or her senses Corinthian war post Peloponnesian 395387 BCE 2nCI Athenian League 378 BCE Sparta installed oligarchies in city states and began behaving as the Delian league did This made the city states bitter towards Sparta so Athens created a new league and led the rebellion Thebes 379 BCE Thebes overthrew Spartan oligarchy The city state rose in military power Interesting fact Thebes had a group of 600 soldiers called the Sacred band They were 300 pairs of homosexual warriors Thebes had the idea that warriors would ght harder if they had the motivation of ghting to protect their lover on the battle eld than they would if they fought for strangers They defeated Sparta and began to take over other city states Philip of Macedon Macedonians lived to the north of Greece Greeks considered them barbarians Macedonians practiced polygamy but subscribe to the Greek religious framework Philip of Macedon was a patron of Greek art and philosophy and tried to ingratiate himself with the larger Greek culture He began to assert dominance by marching and conquering to the south He claimed to be the champion of Greek freedom over Sparta Philip reorganized his military along the lines of a cavalry This cavalry was called the companion cavalry and was loyal to Philip only He founded the city Philippi in East Macedonia and participated in the Olympic games winning horseracing Philip had a son named alexander and revived the Persian threat notion He planned an invasion of Persia but he died before he could carry out the plan Of cial cause of death was sickness but some suggest he may have been poisoned After his father39s death Alexander took over He modi ed and carried out his father39s plan to invade Persia According to legend alexander was tall strong attractive a good drinker and entertainer and was taught by Aristotle He likened himself to Achilles and loved the idea of glory He never lost a battle Alexander conquered Egypt Persia Media Parthia Bactria and other territories spanning all the way to India He died returning from India of Malaria It is also rumored that he may have been poisoned Alexanders 4 commanders divide his territories and they become the Hellenistic Kingdoms Ptolematic Egypt Alexandria was the capital Depictions done in Pharonic styles Seleucid Asia Capital was Antioch Antigonid Macedonia lncluded Macedonia and Greece Commanded Aegean trade Greek culture permeated throughout the Hellenistic kingdoms and there was a great revival of information all over the world
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