Chapter14LateMedievalItaly.pdf ARTS 2560
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by yaya on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARTS 2560 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by TBA in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see ART HISTORY II: FROM RENAISSANCE TO POSTMODERN in Art at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
142 NICOLA PISANO pulpit of the baptistery Pisa Italy 1259 1260 Marble 1539 high gagntafts E IZE IE Gicittcu39s biblical fresccues inthe Arena Chapel ccunsist 039 38 fra n ed panels depicting the ll ES cit the Virgin her parents and esus The clran atic Betrayal 3quot Jesus is one episcude cutthe assmn cycles A 1413 Gicittcu39s 3939isicn cut the Last Liclgn ent fills the west wall abcwe the entrance tc the Are na Chapel The Pacluan banker Enrich Scrcuuegni built the chapel tc atcune lCIl39 the rrcneerncler39s sin cut usury m Gicuttcl wa s a picuneer in pursuing naturalistic apprcna ch tcn representing figures in spaces In Lamentstimi set in a landscape he the classicaltraditicln cit depicting scIn e figures frcun the rear I 144 GIOT I39O on Bounoua interior of the Arena Chapel Cappella Scrovegni looking west Padua Italy 13051306 C U q l r I 0 39t m 1 145 BONAVENTURA BERLINGHIERI Saint Francis Altarpiece San Francesco Pescia Italy 1235 Tempera on wood 539 x 339 8 l 0 ufl llil 39 Mam 309 we met V r 39E39 a I illiaimmmum 1 l 0 9 g 1 39 co i l l 146 CIMABUE Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets from Santa Trinita Florence ca 12801290 Tempera and gold leaf on wood 1239 7quot x 739 4quot Galleria degli U izi Florence Cimabue was one of the first artists to break away from the maniera greca Although he relied on Byzantine models Cimabue depicted the Madonna39s massive throne as receding into space E NICOLA PISANO pulpit of the baptistery Pisa Italy 1259 1260 Marble 1539 high 1 M a C a r nlll iilliiquotail u a 3sr Vp s 0 or f9 b 3 UN 4 323 3 a agonizing of the pulpit gures res in Pisa NO ca 12501320 h pulpits His career carved singlehand it in Pisa s cathedral own example of the eluding in addition nes from the life of related scenes FIG digni ed presenta ulptor arranged the of the scene are features not found in Nicola Pisano s interpretation The father worked in the classical tradition the son in a style derived from French Gothic styles were two of the three most impor tant ingredients in the formation of the distinctive and original art of 14thcentury Italy Painting and Architecture The third major stylistic element in late medieval Italian art was the Byzantine tradition see Chapter 9 Throughout the Middle Ages the Byzantine style dominated Italian painting but its influence was especiallystrong after the fall ofConstantinople in 1204 which pre cipitated a migration of Byzantine artists to Italy 147 PIETRO CAVALLINI Last Judgment fresco on the west wall of the nave of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere Rome Italy ca 1290 1295 A pioneer in the representation of fully modeled figures seen in perspective with light illuminating their faces and garments Pietro Cavallini of Rome may have influenced Giotto di Bondone FIG 141 148 GIOTTO DI BONDONE Madonna Enthroned Ognissanti Madonna from the Chiesa di Ognissanti All Saints Church Florence ca 1310 Tempera and gold leaf on wood 1039 8quot x 639 8quot Galleria degli Uf zi Florence E4 GIOTTO DI BOND ONE Lamentation Arena Chapel Cappella Scrovegni FIG 11415i Padua Italy ca 1305 Fresco 639 6quot x 639 quot Giotto painted Lamentation in several sections each corresponding to one painting session or giornata Artists employing the buon fresco technique must complete each section before the plaster dries 1411 DUCCIO DI BUONINSEGNA Life oflesus 14 panels from the back of the Maestc z altarpiece FIG 1410 from Siena Cathedral Siena Italy 13081311 Tempera and gold leaf on wood 739 x 1339 Museo dell Opera del Duomo Siena On the back of the Maestd altarpiece Duccio painted Jesus s passion in 24 scenes on 14 panels beginning with Entry into Jerusalem FIG 1411A at the lower left through Noi me tangere at top right 1mentatlon Worsnlpers could always View both sides of the Maesta because the high altar stood at the center of the sanctuary The New Testament scenes on the back of the altarpiece reveal Duccio s powers as a narrative painter In Betrayal 0f Iesas FIG 1412 com pare FIG 149B for example the artist 1412 DUCCIO DI BUONINSEGNA Betrayal of Iesus panel on the back FIG 1411 of the Maesta altarpiece FIG 1410 from Siena Cathedral Siena Italy 1308 1311 Tempera and gold leaf on wood 139 10quot x 339 4quot Museo dell Opera del Duomo Siena In this dramatic depiction of Judas39s betrayal of Jesus the actors display a variety of individual emotions Duccio here took a decisive step toward the humanization of religious subject matter LORENZO MAITANI Orvieto Cathedral looking northeast Orvieto Italy begun 1310 The pointed gables over the doorways the rose window and the large pinnacles derive from French Gothic architecture but the facade of Orvieto Cathedral masks a traditional timberroofed basilica 1414 SIMONE MARTINI and LIPPO MEMMI Annunciation from the altar of Saint Ansanus Siena Cathedral Siena Italy 1333 frame reconstructed in the 19th century Tempera and gold leaf on wood center panel 1039 1quot x 839 8quot Galleria degli U izi Florence A pupil of Duccio39s Simone Martini was instrumen tal in the creation of the International Gothic style Its hallmarks are radiant colors flowing lines and weightless figures in golden spaceless settings of the Virgin s purity Despite Mary s modesty and di idence and the tremendous import of the angel s message the scene subordinates drama to court ritual and structural experi mentation to surface splendor The intricate tracery of the richly tooled reconstructed French Gothic inspired frame and the elabo rate punchwork halos by then a characteristic feature of Sienese panel painting enhance the tactile magni cence of the altarpiece Simone Martini and his student and assis tant LIPPO MEMMI active ca 1317 1350 signed the Annunciation panel and dated it 1333 The latter s contribution to the altar O C Q ll 0 I b r t l o i Q if c Q Q 9 o s t 5 quot I my nopddJJJlJJlJIJJJlIlJlah 39 A i is ac the master corrected or redid part ot the pupils work see Artistic Training in Renaissance Italy page 426 PIETRO LORENZETTI Another of Duccio s students PIETRo LORENZETTI ca 1280 1348 contributed signi cantly to the general experiments in pictorial realism taking place in 14thcentury Italy Surpass ing even his renowned master Lorenzetti achieved a remarkable degree of spatial illusionism in his Birth of the Virgin FIG 1415 a large triptych three part panel painting created for the altar of Saint Savinus in Siena Cathedral FIG 1413A Lorenzetti painted the timber architectural members dividing the altarpiece into three sections as though they extended back into the painted space Viewers seem to look through the frame added later into a boxlike stage where the event takes place That one of the vertical members cuts across a gure blocking part of it from View strengthens the illusion In subsequent centuries artists exploited this use of 1415 PIETRO LORENZETTI Birth of the Virgin from the altar of Saint Savinus Siena Cathedral Siena Italy 1342 Tempera on wood 639 1quot x 539 11quot Museo dell Opera del Duomo Siena In this triptych Pietro Lorenzetti revived the pictorial illusion ism of ancient Roman murals and painted the architectural members dividing the panel as if they extended back into the painted space 1417 AMBROGIO LORENZETTI Peaceful City detail from E ects of Good Government in the City and in the Country east wall of the Sala della Pace FIG 1416A in the Palazzo Pubblico FIG 1416 Siena Italy 1338 1339 Fresco In the Hall of Peace of Siena s city hall Ambrogio Lorenzetti painted an illusionistic panorama of a bustling 14thcentury city The fresco is an allegory of good government in the Sienese republic 1418 AMBROGIO LORENZETTI Peaceful Country detail from Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country east wall of the Sala della Pace FIG 1416A in the Palazzo Pubblico FIG 1416 Siena Italy 1338 1339 Fresco This sweeping view of the countryside is one of the first instances of pure landscape painting in Western art since antiquity The winged figure of Security promises safety to all who live under Sienese law 1420 ANDREA PISANO south doors of the Baptistery of San Giovanni FIG 1230 Florence Italy 13301336 Gilded bronze doors 1639 x 939 2quot individual panels 139 7quot x 139 5quot Andrea Pisano s bronze doors have 28 panels with figural reliefs in French Gothic quatre foil frames The lower eight depict Christian virtues The rest represent the life of John the Baptist design In fact until the 17th century Italian builders exhibited little concern for the facades of their churches and dozens remain un nished to this day One reason for this may be that Italian architects did not conceive the facades as integral parts of the structures but rather as in the case of Orvieto Cathedral FIG 1413 as screens that could be added to the church exterior at any time ANDREA PISANO A generation after work began on Santa Maria del Fiore the Florentines decided also to beautify their 11thcentury baptistery FIGS 1230 and 1419 left with a set of bronze doors FIG 1420 for the south entrance to the building The sponsors were the members of Florence s uild of wool n m 1ft 39 i v I l a 39l 5 l39lli 1 quotl 39II39 n 9 Vo 32 cv39l039n o39v r 5 Ir 39I I 39quot Ill l Lli39ilquotquot39vll39g l Io39rl iprirwrrwrLPIvewa39tP 039 39 Kbi39i39 a ct r r l l 7 quotr39 V C quot I 4 in iii w q 4 QWH 1quot M39 II A I 1423 Doge s Palace looking north Venice Italy begun ca 1340 1345 expanded and remodeled 1424 143 8 The delicate patterning in cream and rosecolored marbles the pointed and ogee arches and the quatrefoil medallions of the Doge39s Palace constitute a Venetian variation of northern Gothic architecture
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