NHM 101 Notes- Week 5
NHM 101 Notes- Week 5 NHM 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Libo Tan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro Human Nutrition in Environmental Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Nutrition Notes Week 5 Dietary Carbohydrates small amounts of monosaccharides glucose fructose Disaccharides maltose sucrose lactose Polysaccharides starch fiber not digestable carb digestion begins in the mouth none occurs in the stomach most digestion occurs in the small intestine starch maltose Maltose glucose Sucrose glucose fructose Lactose glucose galactose Enzymes Pancreatic amylase Maltase Sucrase Lactase End products monosaccharides glucose fructose galactose Large Intestine Fibers remain and attract water Carb Absorption Primarily into blood and transported to liver Glucose cells for energy Lactose Intolerance Causes Lactase declines with age only 30 of adults have enough Lactase deficiency intestinal Villi are damaged by disease medications prolonged diarrhea Most people with it can consume up to 6 grams of lactose blood sugar and primary energy source Body Energy Series of reactions break down glucose 0 Release of energy Excess glucose stored as glycogen 0 Blood glucose rises after a meal 0 When blood glucose decreases liver breaks down glycogen and releases it into blood 0 Muscles break down glycogen to use themselves If we do not provide the body with enough carbohydrates burn fat for energy red blood cells and brain cells rely only on glucose make glucose from body protein glucogenesis If too much CHO excess glucose fat Blood Glucose normal level after fast7099mgdL Blood glucose homeostasis regulated by insulin and glucagon 0 Both secreted by pancreas o Insulin I High blood glucose insulin released more glucose from blood to cells level returns 0 Glucagon I Low blood glucose glucagon released I 9signals liver to break down glycogen level returns Diabetes and Hypoglycemia Diabetes blood glucose remains above normal after a meal due to inadequate or ineffective insulin Type 1 pancreas does not produce enough insulin Type 2 cells do not respond to insulin Hypoglycemia Blood glucose drop below normal range Symptoms weakness rapid heartbeat sweating anxiety hunger Intake Half natural sugars Other half added sugars 1 Obesity and chronic diseases Nutrient Deficiencies 3 Dental Caries N Added sugar ingredients corn syrup dextrose fructose honey lactose malt syrup nectars raw sugars sucrose Artificial Sweeteners high intensity little needed 7 approved by FDA Dietary sources grains legumes fruits veggies Assists blood sugar management Prevent type 2 diabetes Prevent heart disease Enhance large intestine health Protect against colon cancer providing energy is not primary function made up of amino acids contain CHNO all have same basic structure Central C atom Hydrogen atom Acid group COOH Amino group NHZ Side group varies with each amino 20 different amino acids different shapes characteristics 9 essential histidineisoleucine leucine lysine methionine phenylalanine threonine tryptophan and valine Cannot be synthesized in the body but required Amino acids are linked together to form proteins Condensation reactions Linked by peptide bonds Dipeptide 2 amino acids tripeptide 3 amino acids polypeptide multiple amino acids protein Primary structure amino acid sequence 0 20 linked in a variety of sequences secondary structure polypeptide shapes 0 sections twist into specific shapes tertiary polypeptide tangle Quaternary multiple interactions Shapes9 specific tasks Breakdown Denaturation Protein uncoil and lose shapes due to heat agitation acid Lose ability to function Digestion Location Enzyme Source of enzyme Function Break protein into Stomach Pepsin Stomach cells smaller polypeptides Break polypeptide Proteases Pancreas into tri and di Small peptides intestine Break most tri Outer membrane of Peptidase small Intestine cells and dipeptides into amino acids End products amino acids di and tripeptides End Products amino acids primary tri di Absorption specific carriers transport amino s into cells one in cell9 used for energy synthesize needed compounds others sent to liver Structural Building blocks of skeleton muscle etc 0 All cells Collagen most abundant connective tissues Catalysis enzymes 0 EX Digestive Regulation Hormones Messenger molecules that elicit response to restore normal conditions Some hormones are proteins Insulin and glucagon Functions of Protein Regulation of uid balance Can leak into interstitial space edema o Regulatorsof acidbase balance I Proteinsbuffers Antibodies defend against disease source of energy and glucose Breakdown of protein amino s energy Protein Metabolism protein turnover continuously broken down and made breakdown releases amino s with dietary protein amino acid pool body does not have storage site for extra protein When intake exceeds need fat Too much protein weight gain When need rises body breaks down Protein and Health Protein Deficiency o Slowed growth brain dam kidney immunity Protein Excess 0 Heart disease I Saturated fat 0 Cancer I Red meat 0 Osteoporosis I Protein increases and calcium excretion increases 0 Kidney Disease Protein Quality 1 Digestibility a Plant 7090 b Animal 9099 c SoyLegumes more than 90 2 Amino Acid Composition High quality animal soy Low quality Plant 9 complimentary proteins Ex Rice and beans Recommended Intake 1035 of cal 50175 grams RDA 08gkg body weight