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BSC 116 Week 5 Notes- Lectures 14-16

by: Alexia Acebo

BSC 116 Week 5 Notes- Lectures 14-16 BSC 116

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 116 > BSC 116 Week 5 Notes Lectures 14 16
Alexia Acebo
GPA 3.7
Principles Biology II
Jennifer G. Howeth

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About this Document

A collection of the fifth week of notes from BSC 116 covering material from lectures 14-16.
Principles Biology II
Jennifer G. Howeth
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jennifer G. Howeth in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
Lecture 14 Concept of Behavior Often perceived as animal phenomenon 0 action carried out by muscles glandsquot Phytochromes amp Etiolation etiolatation modifications of growth form for the dark 0 no leaves 0 no chlorophyll 0 energy put into elongation deetiolation switch to typical above ground morphology 0 green leaves greening rootsquot reception phytochrome in cytoplasm many receptor type molecules in membrane light shines through membrane activates phytochrome external stimulus biological reaction transduction weak signals amplified by second messengers cGMP o activates specific protein kinase Opens gated calcium channels 0 Protein kinases act on other proteins response hormones small molecules produced in 1 part of the plant body that can be localized transported to other parts to elicit a response bind to receptors Idea of plant hormones developed from studies of phototropism in oat seedlings 0 Shape of shoot depends on receptors 0 Message carried by soluble hormone o Auxin isolated and shown to elongate dark side 8 classes of plant hormones small molecule produced in small amounts amplified by single transduction 1 Auxin and cell elongation Auxin any compound that promotes elongation of shoots controls pattern formation 0 Produced in shoot apex o Transported down stem via symplast I Too fast for diffusion too slow for phloem wrong direction for xylem Acid growth hypothesis auxin stimulates proton pumps and gene expression 0 Acidify cell walls with expansions which loosen cell wall and prepare it for expansion 0 Voltage potential brings cations into cytoplasm swell with water increase in turgor pressure I Transcription factors that produce protein stimulate growth 2 Cytokinins work with auxin to promote division and differentiation Produced in actively growing tissues 0 1 In combo with auxins promote cell division 0 2 Control Apical Dominance o 3 Slow Aging of Organs 3 Ethylene Produced in response to stress including mechanical pressure also in cells that die at maturity o 1 Triple response produced when shoot obstructed I slows elongation thickens stem curves stem horizontally o 2 Senescence programmed death of organs or entire plant I associate with apoptosis 0 3 Leaf abscission loss of leaves when water availability decreases o 4 Fruit Ripening increase in sugar cell walls broken to soften it Plant Responses to Light photomorphogenesis change shape in response to light 0 also use light to measure time positive phototropism growth toward light 0 blue light photoreceptors I shown within action spectrum I grow toward light open stomata photochrome conversion controls shade avoidance assess light quality eukaryotes maintain internal clock circadian rhythyms biological cycles not result of specific stimuli photoperiodism a physiological response today and night length in uences owering time gravitropism have statolins to determine direction of gravity thigmotropism plants respond to touch inhibits growth herbivory and pathogens can lead to systemic response Lecture 15 13 million extant species described what is an animal Multicellular heterotrophs No cell walls collagen protein for support Many cells have 0 Muscle cells contractile cells generate motion 0 Nerve cells conduct electrical impulses Characteristic reproduction Early Development Asexual occurs but less common Typically sexual diploid dominant o Diploid adults haploid gametes 0 Typically with large egg and small agellated sperm Zygote develops into gastrula o Cleavage division without growth 0 Blastula hollow ball of cells I Internal cavity blastocoel o m Direct development little version of adult mammals some insects Indirect development offspring morphologically ecologically different 9 must go through metamorphosis animals are most closely related to choano agellate protists Paleozoic Era Cambrian Explosion rapid appearance of animals in fossil record Began in ocean Ended with big extinction Mesozoic Era Age of the Dinosaurs Bounce back of animals after extinction Coral reefs mammals birds angiosperms Endcretaceous extinction wiped out dinosaurs Cenozoic Era Modern era Animals have conserved Body Plansquot because of box genes 9regulate transcription exible enough for evolution Give insight into early animal evolution 1 Symmetry 2 Tissue organization 3 Body Cavity 1 Symmetry Sponges asymmetrical Sea anemones radically symmetrical 0 Many planes with equal halves o No left right just top bottom 0 Typical of sessile or planktonic animals sit in 1 place or drift Most animals bilaterally symmetrical 0 Only 1 plane equal halves o Dorsal ventral anterior posterior o Cephalization having a head sponges are only animals that lack true tissues cells can dedifferentiate Radial bilateral animals go through gastulation o Imagination of blastopore o Archenteron embryonic gut o Endoderm tissue lining gut o Ectoderm outer layer of cells nervous system Radially symmetrical diploblasts only 2 tissue types fancy gastrula Bilateral triptoblasts have 3rd germ layer mesoderm all other organs Body Cavities of triptoblastic Animals Coelom uidfilled body cavity 0 Gut isn t your body cavity Coleomates body cavity lined with mesoderm Pseudocoelomates not completely lined with mesoderm includes endoderm Acoelomates lack a body cavity Coelomates Vary in Formation 1 Protostomes solid masses of mesoderm form expand to fill blastoceal 2 Deuterostomes mesoderm buds of endoderm or archenteron Differneces in Early Zygote Cleavage 1 Protostomes spiral cleavage determinate 2 Deuterostomes Radial Cleavage indeterminate Differ in Gut Development 1 Protostomes blastopore becomes mouth 2 Deuterostomes blastospore becomes anus molecular phylogeny differs Lecture 16 5 Major Animal Phyla 1 Porifera sponges Cnideria jellyfish sea anemone coral Lophotochozoal atworms mollusks worms Ecdysozoa arthropods nematodes Deuterostomia echinoderms chordates 9195 No true tissue no symmetry Diploblastic radial symmetry Triploblastic bilateral symmetry STUPP UVEquot Phylum Porifera Sponges Least Complex Body perforated vase that water ows through 0 IN small holes ostia 0 Open internal space spongocoel o OUT top opening osculum Spongocoel lined with agellated collar cells choanocytes9 generate current suspension feeders filter capture food particles from the water inner outer layers of cells separated by mesohyl hard calciumsilica or firm collagen skeleton roving amoebocytes most hermaphrodytes sequential Why do sponges represent separate lineage lack true tissues Phylum CnidariaFancy Gastrulas mouthanus Radially symmetrical diploblasts No thru gut gastrovascular cavity Alternation of Generations NOT 2nn Sexual asexual Different taxa different phases 0 2 Phases I medusa mouth down swimming sexual stage I polyp mouth up sedentary asexual stage stinging cells cnidocytes stinging organelles mematocyst no mesoderm no true muscles weak contractile cells nervous system with diffuse net sense prey in every direction 4Classes 1 Class Hydrozoa alternates between medusa planktonic amp polyp phases 2 amp 3 ScyphozoaCubozoa jellyfish box jellies a polyp stage small relative to medusa 4 Anthozoa sea anemones coral a medusa completely eliminated b solitary or colonial Most Animals Bilateria recognized because 0 bilateral symmetry 0 triploblastic mesoderm for muscles 0 most are coelomates hydrostatic skeletons Lophotrochozoa 1 group of Bilaterians 18 Phyla some taxa have ciliated trochophore some feeding structure called lophophore Platyhelminthes freeliving and parasitic atworms generally long and at acoelomates 0 mainly parasites lack thrugut organs to maintain osmotic balance protonephridia with cells called ame bulbs most hermaphrodites 0 also capable of asexual 4 Classes of Flatworms Turbellaria planarians Monogenea amp Trematoda ukes Cestoda tapeworms 0 Head and gonads Annelids segmented coelomate worms long and cylindrical coelomates diVided by septa body repeating septa organs repeated in each segment have through gut circulatory system some hermaphrodites some gonochoristic 3C1asses 1 Polychaeta a Marinefresh b Parapodia locomotion c Chaetae hairs 2 Oligochaeta a Earthworms b Terrestrial fresh c Chaetae 3 Hirudinea a Leeches b Freshwater c Predators blood parasites


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