Social Psychology Week Five Notes
Social Psychology Week Five Notes 21198
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caspar Snyder on Friday September 26, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 21198 at University at Buffalo taught by Mark Seery in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 87 views.
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Date Created: 09/26/14
Social Psychology Week Five Notes Social Cognition How we think about the social world Two ways 0 Explicit processing 0 Conscious 0 Typically effortful 0 Typically intentional I Doesn t have to be I Ex Solving a complex math problem 0 Nothing inherently memorized 0 Requires mental effort 0 Implicit processing 0 Non conscious o Effortless 0 Not taxing 0 Just happens I Automatic I Ex Understand language 0 If you re uid in it 0 You can read these notes Explicit versus implicit Both positives and negatives Implicit 0 Positive fast and easy 0 Negative in exible 0 Not suitable to change Explicit 0 Negative takes effort 0 Positive exible 0 Can use it in novel situations I Ex Looking up an unknown Word in the dictionary I Learning a language 0 No automatic learning Stuff can shift from explicit to implicit 0 Explicitly leaming to drive can shit to implicitly driving over time But What if you are cognitively busy 0 Talking While driving deep thoughts 0 Explicit processing interferes with explicit processing 0 Implicit and explicit don t interfere with each other 0 No one is a good multitasker 0 Texting While driving is dangerous 0 Unexpected situations require explicit processing Abrupt transitions Try not to think about a White bear 0 Chances are you did Interplay of explicit and implicit cognition Thought suppression Wegner et al 1987 Procedure 0 Report stream of consciousness aloud to tape recorder o Say What you are thinking 0 Five minute practice period 0 Withinsubjects manipulation expression versus suppression o Everyone s exposed to all conditions I Expression try to think of a White bear I Suppression try not to think of a White bear o Counterbalanced Ring bell when you think of a White bear 2nd 5 minute period receive other set of instructions expression versus suppression 3rd 5 n1inute period receive other half on instructions Dependent variable number of bell rings Results 0 When doing expression before suppression o The thoughts per minute decrease over time 0 When doing suppression both times o The thoughts per minute decrease over time 0 When doing expression after suppression o The thoughts per minute don t fade away I Even increase at points Implications Rebound effect Selfregulation 0 Hard to control own thoughts Suppression leads to obsession 0 Important topicdomain o Magnified 0 Examples o Trying to quit an addiction o Bad breakup Explanation Two part process 0 Implicit monitoring o Non conscious o Alarm system 0 Explicit correction o Can sometimes do it someWhat I Only a glimpse of What We re trying to avoid When conscious suppression stops 0 implicit search can continue 0 More likely to think about it o Any signs of White bears push the white bear into our thoughts Cognitively busy 0 Only explicit con icts with explicit o Distractions How to avoid Paradoxically stop trying 0 Ex Staying awake versus falling asleep o Research encouraging insomniacs to stay awake helps sleep Trying to think about something 0 easier than trying to not think about something 0 Study two Think of a red Volkswagen instead o No rebound effect o Very specific I Disrupts the system o Beak up with an ex meet someone new How we think Short story 0 We maximize bang for the buck 0 Use timeeffort saving strategies o Ex Restaurant script I Typical understanding on how events should unfold I Sit order eat pay leave 0 Fill in the gaps reliably o Ex spend the night I Different meanings depending on who you re with 0 Grandma versus romantic partner o usually works I but not always Leaves us open to mistakes Reasoning fallacies Two types not exhaustive 0 1 We see what we expect 0 2 We see what we want 1 We see what we expect Expectations can be easy to affectcreate 0 Initial impressions can be enough We seek confirming information 0 Desire for our hypothesis to be true o No o No necessary I No vested interest needed Confirmation seeking Snyder and Swann 1978 Task determine if partner 0 Manipulation introvert or extrovert Participants generated own questions 0 Typical introvert s What do you like about being alone What is the worst part about being at a large party 0 Typical eXtrovert s What do you do to get to know people How do you liven things up at a party Notice anything 0 Leading questions o Biased o Everyone can answer all of these questions I Makes the people fit the profile What happened 0 Leading questions elicited corresponding answers Selffulfilling prophecy Pygmalion in the classroom Rosenthal and J acobsen 1968 0 Teachers were told some students would be bloomers 0 Those students ended up doing better over the school year 0 Tricky part o Bloomer label given out randomly What happened 0 Teachers give special attention to these kids 0 Expectations affected treatment o which helps leaming Our expectations 0 shape our behaviors 0 shape others behaviors 0 confir1ning our expectations Example Expect someone to be rude at an interview 0 Actually entirely inaccurate 0 Tone down the interview 0 interviewee tones down as a result 0 the interviewer s expectation were falsely confirmed o Very powerful Expectations Represent pre existing knowledge 0 Not necessarily correct knowledge Schema organized structure of knowledge that guides information processing Different types people events etc 0 Includes how things fit together 0 An outline Advantage interpret information quickly 0 Fill in the gaps 0 Ex Poke in the back o Correctly assume that you re being mugged I How these events usually happen Disadvantage fill in the gaps 0 Incorrectly 0 Ex Halloween o Person in a ski mask shows up holding a gun I Assume it s just a really good costume 0 Ex Iowa hick o Interview them with the assumption that they aren t familiar with current technology I Consistent with schema 0 they can t be with the times so I Won t hire them 0 An assumption
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