Chapter 6 Day 2 + Chapter 7 Day 1
Chapter 6 Day 2 + Chapter 7 Day 1 87981
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Date Created: 09/26/14
CHEM 114 92614 933 PM Energies of Orbitals For a one eectron hydrogen atom orbitals on the same energy level have the same energy That is they are degenerate As the number of electrons increases though so does the repulsion between them Therefore in many electron atoms orbitals on the same energy level are no longer degenerate Spin Quantum Number ms In the 1920s it was discovered that two electrons in the same orbital do not have exactly the same energy The spin of an electron describes its magnetic field which affects its energy Pauli Exclusion Principle No two electrons in the same atom can have exactly the same energy Therefore no two electrons in the same atom can have identical sets of quantum numbers Electron Configurations This term shows the distribution of all electrons in an atom Each component consists of o A number denoting the energy level 0 A letter denoting the type of orbital o A superscript denoting the number of electrons in those orbitals Orbital Diagrams Each box in the diagram represents one orbital Haf arrows represent the electrons The direction shows the relative spin of the electron Hund39s Rule For degenerate orbitals the lowest energy is attained when the number of electrons with the same spin is maximized Periodic Table We fill orbitals in increasing order of energy Different blocks on the periodic table shaded in different colors in the chart attached to file correspond to different types of orbitals CHEM 114 92614 933 PM Development of Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleeve and Lothar Meyer independently came to the cams conclusion about how elements should be grouped Periodic Trends In this chapter we will rationalize observed trends in o Sizes of atoms and ions 0 Ionization energy o Electron affinity Effective Nuclear Charge In a many eectron atom electrons are both attracted to the nucleus and repelled by other electrons The nuclear charge that an electron experiences depends on both factors The effective nuclear charge Zeff is found this way 0 Zeff Z S o Where Z is the atomic number and S Is a screening constant usually close to the number of inner electrons What is the size of an atom The bonding atomic radius is defined as one half of the distance between covalently bonded nuclei o Nuclei cannot get any closer to each other because of eectron eectron repulsion Sizes of atoms o The bonding atomic radius tends to Decrease from left to right across a row due to increasing Zeff Increase from top to bottom of a column due to the increasing value of n Sizes of Ions Note He LOVES qivinq questions on test on this section o Ionic size depends upon Nuclear charge Number of electrons Orbitals in which electrons reside o Ions increase in size as you go down a column This increase in size is due to the increasing value of n 0 In an isoelectronic series ions have the same number of electrons o Ionic size decreases with an increasing nuclear charge Ionization Energy The ionization energy is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from the ground sate of a gaseous atom or ion o The first ionization energy is that energy required to remove the first electron o 2quotd ionization energy required to remove the second electron It requires more energy to remove each successive electron When all valence electrons have been removed the ionization energy takes a quantum leap Trends in First Ionization Energies As one goes down a column less energy is required to remove the first electron o For atoms in the same group Zeff is essentially the same but the valence electrons are farther from the nucleus
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