Chapter 3 Notes
Chapter 3 Notes PSY 320
Popular in Health Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eden Hutzel on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at Michigan State University taught by f. leong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter 3 Health Behaviors Disease Risk Factors Tobacco High Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Physical Inactivity Obesity Diabetes Stress Smoking Unhealthy Diet Environmental Factors High Blood Pressure Tobacco Diabetes High Cholesterol On Road 9 Failure to Wear Seatbelt At Home 9 Falls Poison Fire Tobacco Environmental Factors 9 Pollution Radon Asbestos Philosophy that has its core idea that good health or wellness is a personal amp collective achievement Undertaken by people to enhance or maintain their health Firmly established amp performed automatically wo awareness 0 Usually develop in childhood amp stabilize quot1112 years old I Examples 9 Sleeping 8 hours night Eating breakfast in the morning Not Smoking Having no more than 2 alcoholic beverages each day Regular Exercise etc Taking measures to combat the risk of illness before it has the change to develop 1 Get people to alter their problematic behaviors before they get out of hand 2 Keeping people from developing the poor health behaviors in the 1st place Age9 Health good in childhood deteriorates in adolescence young adulthood improves again in older people Values 9 Affects practice of health habits Exercise for women desirable in one culture not in another Demographics 9 Younger more affluent bettereducated people w lower levels of stress amp more social support have better health habits than people with less resources amp higher levels of stress Personal Control 0 Measures the degree to which people perceive their health to be under their own Personal Control Social Influence 9 Family friends coworkers influence health behaviors Peer pressure in adolescence to smoke influence to stop in adulthood Personal Goals amp Values 9 Example If fitness is important more likely to exercise Perceived Symptoms 9 Example Smoker wakes up with raspy cough may cut back Access to Health Care Delivery System 9 Regular doctor checkups amp positive encouragement through health care Knowledge Intelligence 9 Smarter educated children amp people in general leads to better health behaviors may lead to unhealthy behaviors Instability of Health Behaviors Different factors may control the same health behavior for different people 0 Stress 9 One person might exercise Another might smoke selfmedicate or overeat Peer Group influences behaviors as well as developmental stage age mfluence of parents as teachers amp role models Better times for modifying amp intervening health practices 0 Many in early childhood Example Basic Safety practice Diet Food Choices The time when students are FIRST exposed to bad habits 0 Not confined to childhood amp adolescence I Precautions taken in adolescence may affect disease risk after age 45 Benefits Efficient use of health promotion S Diseases may be prevented altogether Makes it easier to identify other risk factors Problems Risks not perceived correctly Testing posting for a risk factor leads people into hypervigilant behavior Over sensitive to perceived threats 9 Anxiety amp Insecurity 0 Many people are unrealistically optimistic amp view their poor health behaviors as widely shared but their health behaviors as more distinctive 9 Not EVERYONE who is at risk for a particular disorder with develop or it may be many many years later Choosing the right time to alert people nstiing risk reduction behaviors may cause psychological stress No effective intervention may be available for cases with genetic risk factors Emphasizing risk that are inherited can give rise to complications in family dynamics Maintaining a healthy balanced diet amp exercise regimen Ta king steps to reduce accidents Controlling alcohol consumption Reduce inappropriate use of prescription drugs Obtain vaccinations against fu amp other illness Remain socially engaged Health promotion efforts need to take into account the of a group Culturally appropriate interventions must consider 9 0 Health practices in the community 0 Informal networks of communication amp language 0 Cooccurring risk factors in ethnic groups 0 Combined effects of low socioeconomic status amp a biological predisposition to a particular illness diease I Ex 9 Men more likely to become alcoholics African amp Hispanic women less likely to get exercise amp become overweight Educational Appeals Good information about health habits positive changes in health behaviors Fear Appeals Assumes people with change if they know amp fear that their habits are hurting their health Message Framing Phrased in positive or negative terms Depends on 9 0 Type of Message I Messages that stress benefits are more persuasive with CERTAIN outcomes I Messages that emphasize problems are more successful for health behaviors with UNCERTAIN outcomes 0 People s own Motivation Health practices amp behavior depend on 9 0 Whether the person perceives a personal health threat 0 General Health Values 0 Specific Beliefs about Vulnerability o Beliefs about Severity of the Disorder 0 I Whether the person believes a particular health practice will be effective in reducing the threat risk 0 Belief that specific measure can be effective against specific threat 0 Belief that benefits of health measures exceed costs 0 Used to increase perceived risk amp perceived effectiveness of steps to modify health habits o LEAVES OUT One s belief about their ability to control their practice of a particular behavior Attempts to link health beliefs directly to behavior 0 Health Behavior 6 3 components 0 Attitudes toward the specific action Beliefs about amp Evaluations of outcome 0 Subjective norms regarding the action Normative Beliefs amp Motivation to Comply o Perceived behavioral control Ability to actually change People are actively motivated to pursue their goals Fundamental Components 0 1 Autonomous Motivation Free will amp choice when making decisions 0 2 Perceived Competence Beliefs about capability of change 0 Interventions may not always provide motivation to take action Assumes that behavioral changes are guided by a conscious motivation o Ignores the fact that behavior changes occur automatically amp are not subject to awareness O Integrates Conscious Processing with Automatic Behavioral Enactment Implementation Example Whenever I go to the beach I am going to put on sunscreen 0 Control of can be delegated to situational cues 0 Example Completing breakfast then taking dog for a walk 9 Over time the link from the implementation to the goaldirected response becomes automatic 0 Changes in intentions 9 Changes in behavior 0 Health behavior change in response to persuasive messages can occur outside of awareness 0 Change can be reflected in patterns of brain activation 0 Medical Prefrontal Cortex mPFC o Posterior Cingulate Cortex pCC I Possibility that the activity in these regions are reflect intentions on an implicit level I Alternatively mPFC may be related to behavior change primarily because participants link the persuasive communication to the self Pairing of an Unconditioned Reflex to a new Stimulus o Produces a conditioned reflex heavily depends on the client s willingness 0 Phase I 9 US amp UR Phase I 9 US amp CR Phase I 9 CS evokes CR I Example 1 Antabuse for alcoholism US produces nausea 9 vomiting UR 2 Mixing Antabuse US amp Alcohol CS 9 UR 3 After many trials presented them with just Alcohol CS will elicit the vomiting amp nausea CR Key Reinforcement 0 Good behavior 9 9 Increases likelihood of behavior happening again 0 Bad behavior 9 9 decreases likelihood of behavior happening again 0 Reinforcement amp its Scheduling is important 0 Learning by witnessing others perform a behavior 0 Similarity increases extent that people perceive themselves being able to engage in a behavior they see Risky vs Healthy 9 Athletes not smoking cigarettes o Focuses on the Target Behavior the Conditions that elicit amp maintain it and the factors that Reinforce it 0 Several complementary methods of intervention amp modification of a behavior and its context Ability for person to modify target behavior by controlling antecedents amp consequences of behavior Trains people to recognize amp modify internal monologues to promote health behavior change Systematically rewarding oneself to increase or decrease the occurrence of a behavior I Positive 9 small electric shock when desiring a cigarette Negative 9 Withdrawal of a positive reinforcer in the environment each time the target behavior is performed Contingency Contracting Individual forms a contract w another person therapist spouse detailing the rewards or punishments contingent on Performance or Nonperformance of a behavior 0 At home practice activities that support the goals of a therapeutic intention Advantages 9 I 1 Client becomes more involved in treatment process 2 Client produces an analysis of behavior useful in planning further interventions I 3 Client becomes committed to the treatment process through a contractual agreement to discharge certain responsibilities I 4 Responsibility for behavior change is gradually shifted to the client I 5 Use of homework assignments increases the client s sense of self control o Person must understand the dimensions of their poor health habit before change can begin 0 Assesses the frequency of a Target Behavior the Antecedents amp Consequences 0 Stages 9 I Learning to Discriminate the Target Behavior I Charting the behavior helps in identifying the An environmental stimulus that is capable of eliciting a particular behavior Example Sight of food DS for eating 0 Involve ridding the environment of discriminative stimuli that evoke the problem behavior amp creating new discriminative stimuli signaling that a NEW response will be reinforced o Teaching better social reactions amp ways to relax feel comfortable in social situations in which they might engage in a maladaptive behavior 0 Relaxation Training Deep Breathing amp Progressive Muscle Relaxation o Interviewer adopts a nonjudgemental nonconfrontational encouraging amp SUPPORTIVE style No effort to dismantle the denial or irrational beliefs that client may have nor persuade them to stop the behavior 0 Goal 9 Help clients express their positive negative thoughts regarding the behavior Encouragement instead of Advice 0 Must be integrated into treatment programs from the outset 0 Techniques Asking people to identify situations that may lead to relapse in order to develop coping skills to help manage the stressful event I Engaging in constructive internal conversations with oneself to help talk out of tempting situation 0 Feeling of loss of control that results when a person has violated their selfimposed rules 0 Reasons for Relapse 9 Vigilance Fades Negative Affect Longterm maintenance of behavior change can be promoted by leading a person to make other healthoriented lifestyle changes 0 Examples Exercise regimen stress management techniques 0 Social Support 9 Unclear in maintaining behavior change Advantages of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT 0 Carefully selected set of techniques help deal with all aspects of a problem 0 Therapeutic plan can be tailored to each individual s problem 0 Skills imparted by multimodal interventions help modify several health habits simultaneously Analyzes the stages amp processes people go through in bringing a change of behavior 1 No intention to change the behavior may not be aware they have a problem but others around them likely do 2 People are now aware of problem and are thinking about it but have not yet made a commitment to take action to change 3 People tend to change their behavior but have not yet done so fully successfully yet 4 People modify their behavior to overcome the problem 9 Requires commitment of time amp energy to making real behavior change 5 Working to prevent relapse amp consolidate gains they have made 0 Example Addict clean for 6 months 9 considered in maintenance stage 0 Will hopefully lead to Termination of problem behavior Modifies the environment in ways that affect people s abilities to practice a particular health behavior o Often legally mandated Examples Vaccinations required for school banning drugs controlling disposal of toxic waste Private Therapist s Office Health Practitioner s Office Family SelfHelp Groups Schools Workplace Interventions CommunityBased Interventions Mass Media Cellular Phones amp Landlines Internet OOOOOOOOOO
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