Notes over LSMs for Chapter 11
Notes over LSMs for Chapter 11 BIOL 103 - 03
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Spees on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 103 - 03 at University of Indianapolis taught by Nelson H. Kraus in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Anatomy in Biology at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter 11 LSM Notes Axial and Appendicular Muscles Origin and Insertion Muscle Origin and Insertion Origin less mobile point of attachment of the muscle Insertion is more mobile Skeletal Muscle Naming Muscle Action Flexor extensor and pronator Specific Body Regions Muscles close to body surface superficial or externus Deeper muscles profundus or internus Muscle Attachments First part of name indicates the origin and second part indicates the insertion Orientation of Muscle Fibers Muscle Shape Deltoid triangle Orbicularis Circular Rhomboid Rhombus TrapeziusTrapezoid Brevis short muscles Longus or longisimus longest Teres both long and round Muscle Size MagnusBig Major Bigger Chapter 11 LSM Notes Maximus Biggest MinorSmaller MinimusSmallest Muscle headstendons Named after how many tendons etc Muscles of the Head and Neck Most of muscles of facial expression are innervated by the seventh cranial nerve or the facial nerve Epicranius Occipitofrontalis muscle and broad epicranial aponeurosis Frontal belly of occipitofrontalis is superficial to the frontal bone on the forehead raises eyebrows and wrinkles skin of forehead when contracts Occipital belly Occipitofrontalis covers the posterior aspect of the skull retracts the scalp slightly when it contracts Corrugator supercilii Deep to the frontal belly of the occipitofrontalis draws the eyebrows together and creates vertical wrinkle lines around the nose Orbicularis oculi consists of circular muscle fibers that surround the eye s orbit when this muscle contracts the eyelid closes as when you wink blink or squint Levator palpebrae superioris elevated upper eyelid when you open your eyes Facial expression muscles associated with nose Nasalis elevated corners of the nostrils Procerus muscle wrinkle nose in distaste after smelling a foul odor Continuous with the frontal belly of the occipitofrontalis muscle and runs over the bridge of the nose where it produces transverse wrinkles when it contracts Chapter 11 LSM Notes Mouth Mentalis Attaches to the lower lip and when it contracts it protrudes the lower lip pouting Platysma Tenses the skin of the neck and pulls the lower lip inferiorly Buccinator Compresses the cheek against the teeth when we chew lnfants use to suckle at breast Extrinsic Eye Muscles Move the eye Insert onto the outer white surface of the eye called sclera 6 Four rectus muscles medial lateral inferior and superior Two Oblique Muscles inferior and superior Common tendinous ring Rectus eye muscles originate from this in orbit Attach to the anterior part of the eye Medial rectus Attaches to the anteromedial surface of the eye and pulls the eye medially Lateral rectus Attaches to the anterolateral surface of the eye and pulls the eye laterally lnferior rectus Attaches to the anterinferior part of the eye pulls the eye inferiorly and medially Superior rectus Located superiorly and attaches to the anterosuperior part of the sclera pulls the eye superiorly and medially Chapter 11 LSM Notes Innervated by CN lll Inferior Oblique Elevates the eye and turns the eye laterally Attaches to the inferior posterior part of the eye contracting this muscle pulls th posterior part of the eye inferiorly Innervated by CN lll Superior Oblique Depresses the eye and turns the eye laterally Passes through a pulley like loop called the trochlea in the anteromedial orbit Attaches to the superior posterior part of the eye so contracting this muscle pulls the posterior part of the eye superiorly Innervated by CN IV trochlear Muscles of Mastication Temporalis Action Elevates and retracts the mandible Masseter Action Elevates and protracts the mandible prime mover of mandible elevation Medial Pterygoid Action Elevates and protracts mandible produces sidetoside movement of mandible Lateral Pterygoid Action Protracts mandible produces sidetoside movement of mandible Muscles that Move the Tongue Genioglossus Action Protracts the tongue Styloglossus Action Elevates and retracts tongue Chapter 11 LSM Notes Hyoglossus Action Depresses and retracts tongue Palatoglossue Action Elevates posterior part of tongue Pharynx Throat Funnelshaped tube that lies posterior to both the oral and nasal cavities Most pharyngeal muscles are innervated by CN X Pharyngeal Constrictors Superior Middle and Inferior Primary pharynx muscles When a bolus of food enters the pharynx these muscles contract sequentially to initiate swallowing and force the bolus inferiorly into the esophagus Other pharyngeal muscles help to elevate or tense the palate when swallowing Muscles of the Anterior Neck The Hyoid Muscles Muscles of the anterior neck are divided into supra hyoid muscles which are superior to the hyoid bone and the infra hyoid muscles which are inferior to the hyoid bone Suprahyoid Muscles Digastric Action Depresses mandible elevates hyoid bone Geniohyoid Action Elevates hyoid bone Mylohyoid Action Elevated hyoid bone elevates floor of mouth Stylohyoid Action Elevates hyoid bone lnfrahyoid Muscles Chapter 11 LSM Notes Omohyoid Action Depresses hyoid bone fixes hyoid during opening of mouth Sternohyoid Action Depresses hyoid bone Sternothyroid Action Depresses thyroid cartilage of larynx Thyrohyoid Action Depresses hyoid bone and elevates thyroid cartilage of larynx Muscles that Move the Head and Neck Sternocleidomastoid Action Unilateral action lateral flexion rotation of head to opposite side Bilateral action Flexes neck Scalene muscles Anterior middle posterior Action Flex neck when first rib is fixed Elevate 1st and 2nd ribs during forced inspiration when neck is fixed Splenius capitis and cervicis Action Unilateral action turns head to same side Bilateral action Extends head neck Longissimus capitis Action Unilateral action turns head to same side Bilateral action Extends head neck Obliquus capitis superior Action Turns head to same side Obliquus capitis inferior Action Turns head to same side Rectus capitis posterior major Action Extends headneck Chapter 11 LSM Notes Rectus capitis posterior minor Action Extends headneck Muscles of the Vertebral Column Erector Spinae iocostais group Action Bilateral actionextends neck and vertebral column maintains posture Unilateral action laterally flexes vertebral column Longissimus group Action Bilateral action extends neck and vertebral column maintains posture Unilateral action Rotates head and laterally flexes vertebral column Spinalis group Action Bilateral action extends neck and vertebral column maintains posture Unilateral action Laterally flexes vertebral column Transversospinalis Group Multifidus Action Bilateral actionextends vertebral column Unilateral action Rotates vertebral column toward opposite side Rotatores Action Bilateralextends vertebral column Unilateral action rotates vertebral column toward opposite side Semispinalis group Action Bilateral action extends vertebral column Unilateral action laterally flexes vertebral column and neck Spinal Extensors and Lateral Flexors Quadratus lumborum Action Bilateral action extends vertebral column Unilateral action Laterally flexes vertebral column Muscles of Respiration Chapter 11 LSM Notes These skeletal muscles contract rhythmically to alter the size of the thoracic cavity and facilitate respiration Serratus Posterior Superior Action Elevates ribs during forced inspiration Serratus Posterior Inferior Action Depresses ribs during forced expiration Scalene Muscles Action Elevate 1st and 2nd ribs during forced inspiration when neck is fixed External lntercostals Action Elevate ribs during quiet and forced inspiration Internal lntercostals Action Depresses ribs during forced expiration Transversus Thoracis Action Depresses ribs during forced expiration Diaphragm Action Contraction causes flattening of diaphragm during inspiration and thus expands thoracic cavity increases pressure in abdominopelvic cavity Muscles of Abdominal Wall The abdominal muscles compress abdominal contents and flex the vertebral column External Oblique Action Unilateral action laterally flexes vertebral column rotation of vertebral column Bilateral action Flexes vertebral column and compresses abdominal wall lnternal Oblique Action Unilateral action Laterally flexes vertebral column rotation of vertebral column to opposite side Bilateral action Flexes vertebral column and compresses abdominal wall Rectus abdominis Chapter 11 LSM Notes Action Flexes vertebral column and compresses abdominal wall