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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Liescheidt on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to bio120 at Grand Valley State University taught by Simon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Week 3 1 Polysaccharides structural units 1 Cellulose found in plants 1 is a polysaccharide that makes up the cell walls in plants 2 like starch and glycogen cellulose is a polymer of glucose 3 Starch glycosidic linkages all have the same orientation 1 This is called the alpha configuration 4 cellulose the orientation of the glycosidic linkages alternates 1 This is called the beta configuration 2 Proteins every function of an organism relies on proteins 1 2 3 4 90gt proteins speed up reaction rates part of cell structure 1 protein in hair feathers hornsrhino proteins components can be used to make other types of proteins proteins are involved in transport of other substances 1 transportation into and between cells Used in cellular communication 1 insulin involved in movement within and between cells they are a part of the immune system There are many types of proteins 1 However they are made up of different combinations of only 20 amino acids backbone of amino acid all amino have this backbone 1 consists of amino group 2 consists of carboxyl group 3 as well as carbon bonded to a hydrogen 10 R group side chain determines the type of amino acid 1 gives amino acid different properties 1 polar amino acid 2 Rgroup 1 can be non polar thus hydrophobic 1 hydrophobic meaning water fearing 2 can be polar thus hydrophilic 1 hydrophilic meaning tendency to mix in water 3 Amino acids bond together 1 polypeptide 2 bond peptide bond which is a covalent bond 3 Polypeptides they are used to form proteins 1 forming polypeptides reactions dehydration reaction removes water molecule to form bond 11 Protein structure and function 1 Functional protein one or more polypeptides folded coiled twisted into a unique shape 2 Different types of bonds between different parts of the polypeptide 1 3D shape of a particular protein 2 what determines this is the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide 3 Structure determines function 3 How do proteins really work 1 the function of the protein depends on the protein s ability to recognize other molecules 4 Structure all proteins are primary secondary and tertiaryfour levels of structure 1 2 proteins consist of two or more polypeptides 1 This is called a Quaternary Primary structure the amino acid sequence 1 includes how many amino acids 2 includes which amino acids 3 includes the order of amino acids Secondary structure 1 is due to hydrogen bonding between different amino acids 1 these hydrogen bonds do not involve the R groups 1 they are there but are not involved in hydrogen bond 2 The more hydrogen bonds that can form the stronger the secondary structure it is 1 Hydrogen bonds are weak but collectively strong 3 2 types 1 Alpha helix coil 2 beta pleated sheets causes polypeptide to fold 4 Tertiary structure due to interactions between the R groups 1 four different types of interactions 1 amino acids with non polar R groups hydrophobic will be located towards the interior of the folding polypeptide 2 Hydrogen bonds can form between Rgroups 1 R groups are partially positive and partially negative 3 lonic bonds can form between Rgroups that have the positive and negative charge 4 Disulfide bridges between Rgroups with the sulfhydril functional group 5 Quaternary Structure Carries blood cells 6 Other factors that determine a protein shape 1 Physical and chemical factors in the environment can affect protein shape 1 Change in pH level of the cell 2 change in salinity or salt in concentraton NaCl 3 change in temperature 2 physical and chemical factors can cause a protein to unravel losing its shape 1 as result it becomes a non functioning protein it doesn t work 2 the protein has been denatured 3 Sometimes a denatured protein can regain it s shape 1 The amino acid sequence must remain in tact 1 secondary and tertiary can all reform 2 primary structure is key to rebuilding 3 Misfolding of polypeptides 1 Misfolded proteins is associated with Parkinson39s and Alzheimer39s diseases 2 other proteins assist in the folding of proteins 1 Chaperonins or chaperone proteinssort of like a capsule that heals 1 they isolate the polypeptides that need to be folded from the bad environment of the cell 3 Nucleic Acids what determines the amino acid sequence amino acid sequence is determined by a gene 1 Gene made up of DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid 2 DNA and RNAribonucleic acids are nucleic acids 3 DNA directs its own replication 1 9w 1 2 3 DNA can make a copy of itself Directs RNA synthesis 1 RNA is made from DNA DNA is Heritable It is passed from parent to offspring 1 DNA are instructions for the new organism 2 not directly involved in running the operations of the cell 3 DNA is the blueprint to construct the components that run the cell 4 DNA RNA Protein Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides nucleotide composed of nitrogenous base a 5 carbon sugar and a phosphate group 1 bases belong to 2 families 1 2 Pyrimidines consist of a 6 member ring that contains carbon and nitrogen 1 3 pyrimidines 1 Uracil U 2 Thymine T 3 Cytosine C Purines 6 member ring and a 5 member ring of carbon and nitrogen 1 2 purines 1 Adenine A 2 Guanine G 2 DNA vs RNA 1 2 RNA contains the 5 member sugar Ribose DNA contains Deoxyribose 3 nucleotides are bonded together to form a polynucleotide 1 2 3 RNA is made up of a single polynucleotide single strand DNA is made up of two polynucleotides double strand 1 formed by hydrogen bonds between thymine and adenine to form polynucleotide the sugar of one nucleotide bonds to the phosphate group of the adjacent nucleotide 1 a sugar phosphate backbone is produced covalent bond phosphodiester linkage Gene is composed of DNA and DNA is composed of nucleotides 1 gene is a specific nucleotide or base sequence 1 base and nucleotide are interchangeable 2 sequence meaning of the gene genes themselves can be hundreds to thousands of nucleotides long the nucleotide sequence of the DNA of a gene that determines the nucleotide sequence of RNA 1 The nucleotide sequence of the RNA determines the amino acid sequence of the polypeptideprimary structure of a protein 1 secondary structure tertiary structure quaternary 4 Lipids not macromolecules and not polymers of monomers 1 lipids are hydrophobic because they contain large hydrocarbon regions 2 there are three types of lipids 1 fat stores energy 1 fats constructed from two molecules 1 glycerol consists of 3 carbons with a OHhydroxyl group bonded to each carbon 1 this makes it an alcohol 2 fatty acid with 16 to 18 Carbon with Hydrogen bonded hydrocarbon 1 at one end of the fatty acid there is a carboxyl group 3 to make a fat you need one glycerol and three fatty acids 1 fatty acids can all be the same or they could all be different 4 fatty acid is bonded to the glycerol by ester linkage 1 this bond forms due to dehydration and is covalent saturated fats there are only single bonds between the carbons of the fatty acid 1 as a result there is the greatest number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons of the fatty acids 1 saturated with hydrogen 2 saturated fats are always solid at room temperature and they come from animal sources 1 lard is a saturated fat 2 butter is a saturated fat Unsaturated fats must be one or more double bonds between carbons of the fatty acid 1 it decreases the number of hydrogen atoms that are bonded 1 less hydrogens then the hydrocarbons are not saturated with hydrogens therefore not saturated fat 2 unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature and come from plants and fish 1 promote good cardiovascular health 3 adding hydrogen gas to unsaturated fat converts double bonds of a fatty acid from the cis to the trans configurationtrans fat or hydrogenated fat 1 trans fats increase bad cholesterolLDLLow density and decrease the good cholesterolHDL 1 as a results there is a higher risk of heart disease 2 phospholipids is a key component in membranes of a cell 1 2 3 4 membranes of cell are almost entirely phospholipids similar to a fat because they contain a glycerol but only two fatty acids also a phospholipid contains a phosphate group 1 this phosphate group has a negative charge which makes phospholipids polar different phospholipids when different polar molecules bond to the phosphate group 3 steroids hormones and cholesterol are steroids 1 2 cholesterol is the precursor molecule of steroidssteroids are made from cholesterol The composition four carbon rings bonded together is the carbon backbone of a steroid 3 difference between steroids is the presence of different functional groups bonded to the carbon skeleton 4 cholesterol helps maintain structure and function
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