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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Liescheidt on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to bio120 at Grand Valley State University taught by Simon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Cell Structure 1 Do 1 2 3 cells have a size limit yes size is related to function There is a limited amount of any given substance that can cross the membrane per second the larger surface to volume ration makes it easier for substances to be obtained and transported across a membrane 2 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells 1 3 4 3 Ani 1 3 in common Both have cell membranePlasma both have cytoplasm 1 a cytosol jellylike substance in cytoplasm 3 chromosomesDNA 4 ribosomes Eukaryotes 1 have membrane bound nucleous 2 tend to be larger Prokaryotes 1 non membrane bound nucleoid Main difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes are the cell membranes mal and plant cells animal cells 1 have lysosomes where plant cells do not 2 animal cells have centrioles 3 flagella Plant cells 1 chloroplasts 2 central vacuole 3 cell wall 4 plasmodesmata Endomembrane System 1 Many membranes and organelles that work together 1 this is what forms the endomenbrane system 2 components 1 membrane 1 can be physically connected 2 can be connected via segments of membranetransport vesicles 2 Nuclear envelope 3 endoplasmic reticulum NL 4 Nucleus 1 2 3 4 0quot contains DNA Nuclear envelope double membrane Connected by pores which are called the nuclear pore complex nucleus regulates movement of macromolecules Proteins and RNA between nucleus and cytoplasm Nucleolis Synthesizes ribosomal RNA rRNA 1 rRNA proteins forms ribosomal subunits 1 subunits leave through the nuclear pore complex to the cytoplasm 5 Endoplasmic Reticulum ER network of embargoes tabules and sacs cisternae 2 ER continuous with nuclear envelope 3 endoplasmic reticulum has two major regions 1 1 smooth ER has 4 functions 1 synthesize lipids 2 metabolizes carbs 3 calcium storage 4 detoxification of poisons and toxins rough ER 1 produces new membranes for the cell 2 Aids in the synthesis of the proteins produced by the ribosomes of the rough ER 1 is rough ER because of the ribosomes bonded to it 2 These proteins are called secretory proteins 1 can have carbohydrates bonded to them 1 Glycoproteins because the carbs are attached 2 Carbs attached while protein in RER 3 Transport proteins are produced by the transitional ER of the RER 1 They carry secretory proteins throughout the cell 1 this is the golgi apparatus Golgi Apparatus GA 1 Structure stacks of flattened sacs composed of membrane cisternae 2 Has polarity or structural directionality 1 cis face and a trans face 3 Function transport vesicles proteins from RER fuse with cis face of GA delivering 4 Outgoing transport vesicle is made from the trans face this transport vesicle carries product to destination What happens to secretory proteins 1 Often Glycoproteins are altered by the Golgi Apparatus 1 Sugar monomers are removed or added to the attached carbohydrate 2 Golgi Apparatus produces other macromolecules pectinPolysaccharide 3 How does this modified protein know where to go in the cell 1 Golgi Apparatus sorts and adds phosphate groups to the proteinsthese are like address tags 2 In addition other small molecules are attached to the outer surface of the membrane of the transport vesicle 1 these small molecules recognize docking sites on organelles or plasma membrane 6 Vacuoles member of endomembrane system Vacuoles do exist in animals but they are small 1 9159 1 food vacuoles involved in digestion 2 can store solutes 3 can be contractile vacuoles get rid of excess water in the animal cells in plants can have small vacuoles also can store organic molecules like proteins they can also store pigments can store toxins or poisons 1 toxins that turn away predators 6 Large central vacuole 1 there is water and inorganic ions such as potassium 7 Lysosomes common in animal cells rare in plant cells 1 they are sacs made of membrane these sacs contain enzymes that assist in the breakdown of substances 1 these substances are located within the cell intracellular digestion 1 two types of intracellular digestion 1 Phagocytosis digestion of food 1 carried out by single celled organismshow they take in food from outside environment 2 enzymes and vacuole then break down the food 3 no loss of membrane 2 Autophagy digestion of damaged organelles 1 method of recycling 2 cell produces vesicle made of membrane to enclose organelle 3 lysosome comes along helps with digestion 8 Cytoskeleton a network of fibers that extend throughout the cytoplasm 1 There are three types of fibers 1 microtubules 2 microfilaments 3 intermediate filaments 2 function of the cytoskeleton is to organize the structures and the activities of the cell 1 supporting and maintaining cell shape 2 holds some of the organelles in place attached to the organelles 3 motility 1 involved in movement of the cell itself 1 The structures involved in this motility are flagella and cilia which are composed of microtubules 1 cells with flagella animal sperm cells 2 cilia usually single celled organisms use cilia for movement 1 some cilia are sensory they allow for communication between the cell and the environment 1 this leads to changes in cell activity and behavior 2 brain cells have sensory cilia only one per cell 3 2 movement within the cell 1 involves motor proteins these motor proteins attach to receptors located on the organelle vesicle 1 motor proteins walk along the microtubules of the cytoskeleton transporting the vesicle 1 energy is required in the form of ATP energy used at the cellular level 2 microtubules used to move chromosomes within the cell during nuclear division of the cell cycle make two cells from one cell 3 the structure itself is called a centriole 1 centrioles are composed of microtubules 4 manipulates cytoplasm 1 How flagella and cilia work 1 they are composed of nine sets of paired microtubules 2 Each pair is in contact with the adjacent pair by motor proteins 1 motor proteins are called Dyneins 2 the arms of the Dyneins of 1 pair of microtubules walk up and down the adjacent pair of microtubules 3 the distance one pair can slide past adjacent pair of microtubules it s limited 1 microtubules are anchored within a cell 2 this anchoring and walking of Dyneins causes bending of flagella and cilia 2 Microtubules maintain cell shape 1 very important in animal cells no rigid cell wall 2 microtubules act as compression resisting girders by resisting inward pressure on a cell 3 Microfilaments Their role is to bear tension 1 they act against outward pulling forces that are on the cytoskeleton 2 also involved in motility 1 actinmyosin interactions that allow groups of cells to coordinate muscle contraction 2 actinmyosin interactions are also involved in localized contractions within the cell 1 for instance the dividing of one animal cell into two cells 1 forms cleavage furrow 3 actinmyosin interactions are responsible for amoeboid movement 1 allows for the extension of pseudopodium and the flow of cellular contents 4 actinmyosin interactions also responsible for cytoplasmic streaming 1 that s the circular movement of the cytoplasm in the cell 3 Intermediate Filaments 1 These are permanent and maintain cell shape 1 they also hold organelles in place 4 Other cells involved in the coordination of cellular activities 1 extracellular matrixECM 1 Plants 1 in plants it s called the Middle Lamella 1 it s located between adjacent cells 2 It s composed of pectin which sticks the cells together 3 cells are in contact with each other as a result communication occurs 5 ECM in animals 1 lntegrins plasma membrane proteins bound to fibers of ECM on outside of the cell and also to peripheral proteins that are connected to microfilaments on the inside of the cell 2 two connections between interior and exterior of the cell 1 to transmit stimuli from outside of the cell to the interior of the cell which can change cell behavior 2 this connection allows for communication between cells 3 Plasmodesmata between plant cells 1 lntercellular Junctions between plant cells is the plasmodesmata 1 they are channels in the cell wall of plant cells 1 as a result this allows for the flow of cytoplasm between adjacent cells 1 this means cytoplasm is continuous from one cell to the next 2 water solutes RNA proteins all move with that cytoplasm from one cell to the next 3 RNA is transported along fibers of the cytoskeleton 4 lntercellular Junctions in Animal tissues 1 tight junctions animal cells can be tightly pressed together and joined by proteins 1 this prevents leaking of extracellular fluid between cells 2 Desmosomes act like ribbonsvery strong connections between the cells this allows for the formation of very strong tissues 1 our muscle cells form strong tissues connected to each end of a bone 1 in order to do this muscles need a lot of desmosomes 5 Gap junctions in animal cells plasmodesmata of animal cells 1 they are the pores surrounded by proteins and are located in the plasma membrane 2 they allow for the flow of cytoplasm from one cell to the next 3 ions sugars amino acids other small molecules all move 4 communication between cells 9 Intracellular structures work together to form a functioning cell 10 intracellular functions allow for communication between cells
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