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Lecture 2 Notes

by: Kionna Morris

Lecture 2 Notes SOC 343

Kionna Morris
Sociology of Sexuality
Dr. Polonko

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Lecture 2 Notes: Historical Variations
Sociology of Sexuality
Dr. Polonko
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kionna Morris on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 343 at Old Dominion University taught by Dr. Polonko in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Sexuality in Sociology at Old Dominion University.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
Lecture Outline Historical Variations vs Bullough 1 De nitions of Sex Positive and Sex Negative Known as sexpermissive and sexrepressive Permissive known as allowing anything that is pleasurable for the body Repressive anything that is not strictly allowing procreation 2 Near EastMiddle East Overall the Western tradition as established in the ancient Near East was a mixed one with earliest societies seeing virtually every expression of sexuality as a quotfact of lifequot Overtime this tradition became increasingly more restrictive and hostile toward all forms of sex that did not directly lead to procreation a Babylonian time 0 Sex seen as fact of life What aspects of sexuality were accepted Eg masturbation manual oral and anal stimulation of genitals prostitution homosexuality extra and premarital sexuality etc o What were the only aspects of sexuality that were restricted Only restrictions that did exist involved a man s property his wife and animals condemned b As the need to PROCREATE to create new members becomes greater over time then not only are any aspects of sex not leading to procreation condemned and now on moral vs property grounds but also the very n Condemned premarital sex extramarital sex homosexuality masturbation prostitution oral sex even between married couples oral and anal sex between same or oppositesex partners nocturnal emissions etc 3 Judaism The Western tradition was most in uenced by the latter period and societies and impacted our traditions most powerfully through its in uence on earliest Judaism a Early Judaism before 600 BC Only had a simple code of sex behavior equating certain sexual activities with immorality Earliest tribes accepted masturbation cunnilingus fellatio homosexuality etc as completely valid parts of life as societies did around them b Postexile Judaism Sex was an allpervading concern Postexile and until the destruction ofJerusalem by the Romans in 70 AD the period of greatest sexual repression occurred During this period man was seen as a weak helpless creature heir to inborn evil tendencies his greatest weakness being the desire for sexual pleasures and extremely rigid code of sexuality and even casual 4 Greeks encounters were viewed with suspicion and condemned as immoral ln succeeding periods they became more sex positive but the most important point to understanding Western culture and sexuality is that the above period Reasons for change Seem to lie with the Jewish attitudes toward themselves assimilation When Judaism seemed threatened when the Jews both as a group and as individuals were insecure their sexual attitude was the most repressive When there was a greater feeling of security attitudes were more tolerant Establish rigid barriers between believers and nonbelievers to distinguish between what a Jew and what a nonJew did and to obstruct the path of any intermingling outside of marriage were condemned as the way of Pagans Also procreation increasing numbers becomes important Hostility toward male homosexuality became more extreme then prior repressive periods WHY The Jews were most threatened by the Greeks even more as the Romans One thing that separated the sex positive Greeks and Romans was relationship btw male teachermentor and male student was seen as pure This was seen as a political crime at rst as allegiance to another culture there a sin then an abomination and not even quotsexquot a Very sexpositive Labeled as a sexpositive culture b Reasons for being sex positive Women had more power 5 Christianity a Very sexnegative b St Augustin celibacy was the highest good c Reasons for being sex negative Christianity not developing in isolation concepts of paganism in uenced not only Christianity but also its rivals particularly Gnosticism 6 Current Religious Tradition a Sex negative b Dominated by concepts of sexuality from sexrepressive Near EastMiddleEast period by period of postexile Judaism by early Christianity


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