HPEB 502: Ch. 4 & 5
HPEB 502: Ch. 4 & 5 HPEB 502 001
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Barton on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HPEB 502 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Gabrielle Michelle Turner-McGrievy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Applied Aspects of Human Nutrition in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
HPEB 502 Ch 4 amp 5 Chapter 4 Carbohydrates 339 Carbs are the main fuel source for brain nervous system and red blood cells 0 Brain relies heavily on carbs for proper function v Muscles relies heavily on carbs to fuel physical activity 0 4 kcal gram v 4565 of our calories should be carbs v CHO is formed during photosynthesis v Simple carbs sugars 339 Complex carbs starches or fibers v Simple sugar units monosaccharides o dextrose I Major monosaccharide in body I Breakdown of starches and sucrose I Source of fuel for cells I In blood streamblood glucose or blood sugar 0 fruit sugar I In disaccharide sucrose I In fruit honey amp highfructose corn syrup I Converted to glucose in liver I In lactose I Converted to glucose in liver 339 Disaccharides quotsimple sugars O I Glucose fructose I Table sugar 0 I Galactose glucose I Milk amp milk products 0 I Glucose glucose I Fermentation I Alcohol production 339 Simple sugars put togethercomplex carbs 339 Complex Carbs o Polysaccharides starch amp glycogen Undigested starch Body can t break bonds Insoluble amp nonfermentable fiber 0 Cellulose hemicellulose lignin O 90 O 90 O 90 O 90 0 Not fermented by bacteria in colon Soluble or viscous fiber 0 Gum pectin mucilage 0 Fruit vegetable rice bran psyllium seed Amylosestraight chain polymer Amylopectin highly branched polymer Storage form of carbs for animals amp humans Structure similar to amylopectin More sites for enzyme action Found in the liver amp muscles Functional Fiber 0 O 0 Fiber added to food type of functional fiber I Resist human digestion but provide fuel for beneficial intestinal bacteria I Stimulate growth or activity of beneficial bacteria in large intestine Humans don t eat enough fiber 0 Recommended intake 25 38 g we average 16 g HighFructose Corn Syrup 0 O O O O 0 Made from corn 55 fructose cornstarch mixed with acid amp enzymes some glucose converted to fructose improved self stability amp food properties average American consumes 60 lbs a year Sugar Alcohols O O O O Sorbitol Xylitol etc 26 kcal gram quotExcess consumption may have a laxative effect doesn t promote tooth decay used in sugarless gum amp breath mints Sugar Substitutes O Saccharin Sweet N Low I 180200x sweeter than sucrose I no potential risk to humans 0 Aspartame Equal NutraSweet I Composed of phenylalanine aspartic acid amp methanol I 180200x sweeter than sucrose I 4 kcal g I not heat stable I complaints of sensitivity headaches dizziness seizure nausea etc I intake 50 mg per kg body weight I warning label for PKU o Sucralose Splenda I 600x sweeter than sucrose I heat stable I tiny amount digested I excreted in feces o Stevia Sweet Leaf I 100300x sweeter than sucrose I provides no energy I generally recognized as safe 339 Carbohydrate Digestion 0 Cooking is the start I Softens fibrous tissues I Easier to chew amp swallow o In the mouth I Salivary amylase amp maltosebreaks starch to shorter saccharides I Short duration in mouth o In stomach I Acidic environment I No further starch digestion o In small intestine most happens here I Pancreas releases enzymes pancreatic amylase I Absorptive cells release maltase sucrose lactase I Monosaccharides absorbed 339 Lactose Maldigestion 0 Reduction in lactase I Lactose is undigested amp not absorbed I Metabolized by large intestinal bacteria I Causes gas bloating cramping discomfort o when symptoms occur appear after lactose intake I Extremely common in Asians Hispanics native Americans people of Mediterranean decent and African Americans I 70 of adults develop this as they age I If you have this choose alternate sources for calcium Soymilk rice milk other plant milks Leafy greens and beans Calciumset tofu Calcium supplements I Most people can still consume small amounts with minimal or no gastrointestinal discomfort 339 Absorption 0 Most monosaccharides are actively absorbed o Fructose undergoes facilitated absorption 0 After I Transported to liver via portal vein I Liver transforms galactose amp fructose into glucose I Liver then has 3 options Release glucose into bloodstream Produce glycogen for storage Produce fat when excessive CHO amp kcal consumption 339 Undigested Carbs 0 Minor amount escapes digestion o Travels to colon 339 Functions of carbs o Supplies energy 0 Protein sparing o Prevents ketosis o Regulating glucose 339 Regulation of Blood Glucose o Hyperglycemia amp hypoglycemia 0 Role of liver regulates glucose that enters bloodstream 0 Role of pancreas release of insulin amp glucagon Promotes glycogen synthesis Increases glucose uptake by cells Reduces gluconeogenesis Breakdown glycogen Enhances gluconeogenesis 339 Epinephrine Adrenaline 0 quotFight or flight response 0 breakdown glycogen o raises blood glucose 339 Glycemic Response 0 ratio of blood glucose response to a given food compared to a standard 0 grams of carbs in a food multiplied by glycemic index of that food then divided by 100 large release of insulin Resistance develops type 2 diabetes Chapter 5 Lipids 339 Lipids 9 kcal gm 0 Don t readily dissolve in water 0 We need very little in our diet to maintain health 0 Types I Triglycerides I Phospholipids I Sterols cholesterol 0 Fats solid amp oils liquid Fatty Acids 0 Found in our body amp foods triglycerides 0 Saturated fatty acids solid form 0 Unsaturated fatty acids liquid form I Cis amp trans Triglycerides 0 Most common form of fats amp oils 0 Fatty acids attached to glycerol 0 Glycerol 3 FA s 9 Triglyceride 3 H20 Phospholipids o Built on glycerol backbone 0 Contains phosphorus compounds 0 Component of cell membranes 0 Functions emulsifier Sterols 0 Multi ringed structure Do not have glycerol backbone Do not readily dissolve in water Found in animal foods Functions I Essential component of cell membrane I Produced by liver I Precursor to bile acids 339 Fat in Food provides 0 Some satiety flavor amp texture 0 High fat normally high calorie 339 Reduced fat Foods 0 Calorie content could be the same 0 Sugar commonly replaces fat 339 Fat Substitutes 0 Water I diet margarine 0 Ztrim I starch derivative that binds with water 0 90 O 90 O 90 O 90 O O O O 0 Fiber Cellulose I Maltrin Stellar Oatrim o DairyLo I Protein globules o Olestra or Olean links fatty acid to sucrose 0 Salatrim or Benefat Rancidity o Reduces products shelf life 0 Decomposed oils 0 Breakdown of CC bonds by UV light amp or 02 0 Prevention I Hydrogenation I Addition of vitamin E Hydrogenation of Fatty Acids 0 Process used to solidify an oil 0 Addition of H to CC double bonds 0 Increases shelf life 0 Formation of trans fatty acid Excessive Trans Fatty Acid Intake 0 Increases risk for cardiovascular disease 0 Required on food labels Digestion of Fat 0 In stomach I Gastric lipase Activated by acidic environment Acts on triglycerides containing short amp medium chain fatty acids 0 In small intestine I Primary site of fat digestion amp absorption of lipids I Hormone cholecystokinin I Bile acid released I Fat is broken down 0 90 O 90 O 90 O 90 o In large intestine I Less than 5 of ingested fat is excreted in feces 0 Of Phospholipids I Enzymes released I Broken down to I Glycerol I Fatty acids I Remaining parts 0 Of Cholesterol I Enzymes released from pancreas I Cholesterol absorbed 339 Absorption of Fat 0 95 of dietary fat is absorbed o diffused into absorptive cells 0 two fatty acid chain lengths are left I short amp medium chain lt12 C I long chain fatty acids reform into triglycerides 339 Transportation of Absorbed Fatty Acids o Reformed into triglycerides o Packaged into chylomicrons o Lipoprotein lipase o Chylomicron remnant 339 Transportation of Synthesized Lipids 0 Made primarily by the liver 0 Very low density lipoprotein VLDL carries dietary fat from small intestine to cells 0 Low density lipoprotein LDL carries cholesterol made by liver amp from other sources to cells 0 High density lipoprotein HDL contributes to cholesterol removal from cells amp in turn excretion of it from the body I May block oxidation of LDL I Reduces risk of cardiovascular disease 339 Scavenger Cells 0 Vessel damage caused by smoking diabetes hypertension homocysteine high LDL infection 0 Diets low in sat fat trans fat amp cholesterol increase uptake of LDL by liver thus decreasing atherosclerosis 339 Antioxidants 0 Reduce oxidation amp plaque buildup 339 Functions of Essential Fatty Acids O I Primarily from fish oil salmon mussels crab shrimp I Found in canola oil walnuts flax seed chia seed hemp seeds cauliflower Brussel sprouts hummus amp soy foods I Decreases blood clotting I Deceases inflammation 0 I Found in vegetable oils I Only need 24 tbsp day I Increases blood clotting I Increases inflammatory responses 0 Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency I Flaky itchy skin I Diarrhea I Infections I Slowed growth amp would healing 339 Functions of Fatty Acids 000 O o O O O O O O O 0 00000000 Provide energy main fuel for muscles at rest amp during light activity Storage of energy I Stored mainly as triglycerides I Storage is limitless I Energy dense 9kcal gram Insulates organs amp protects body Transports fat soluble vitamins Some satiety Flavor amp mouth feel v Recommendations for Fat Intake No RDA AHA recommendations I 2030 total kcal from fat I 710 from sat trans fat I 200300 mg cholesterol day average US intake 0 33 total kcal from fat 0 13 from sat fat 0 180320 mg cholesterol day v Cardiovascular Disease Myocardial infarction Cerebrovascular disease Risk factors I Total blood cholesterol gt 200 mg dl I Smoking I Hypertension gt 13989 I Diabetes I Low HDL lt40 mgdl I Age I Family history I Blood triglycerides gt 200 mgdl I Obesity I Inactivity v Signs of a heart attack Intense prolong chest pain Shortness of breath Sweating Nausea amp vomiting Dizziness Weakness Jaw neck shoulder pain Irregular heartbeat Medical intervention I Medication to lower LDL Reduce sat fat amp cholesterol Increase dietary fiber I Medication to lower blood triglycerides 339 Raising HDL 0 Physical activity Don t smoke Eat regularly Eat less total fat 0 O O 0 Moderate intake of alcohol increases HDL
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