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Chapters 5 and 6

by: Kelsey Carroll

Chapters 5 and 6 SOWK 201 002

Kelsey Carroll
GPA 3.46
Introduction to Social Work Profession and Social Welfare
Betsy Spriggs

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Introduction to Social Work Profession and Social Welfare
Betsy Spriggs
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Carroll on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOWK 201 002 at University of South Carolina taught by Betsy Spriggs in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Social Work Profession and Social Welfare in Social Work at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
SOWK 201 CHAPTER FIVE POVERTY AND INEQUALITY Poverty being without basic needs or resources such as money and all that it buys food housing transportation medical care and clothing Involves more than money Human rights and social justice Social workers look beyond the symptoms 0 Understand the root of poverty 0 Engage in efforts to reduce poverty and inequality Crippling effect on life conditions Approaches to poverty 0 Role of government 0 Distribution of wealth Measures of Povertv Absolute poverty quantitative measure 0 Relative poverty a person39s wages with the norm of an average determine if that person is experiencing poverty 0 Poverty linethresholdindex an amount that is set by the government that is adjusted each year due to in ation 0 Eligibility for bene ts and services 0 Provides data 0 Provides a picture of poverty trends over time 0 Means testing attempts to reduce some income inequality through the provision of services and bene ts but in no way does it attempt any major redistribution of wealth Poverty guidelines are another federal poverty measure that are a simpli cation of the poverty thresholds are used to determine nancial eligibility for certain federal programs and for other administrative purposes 0 Vary from state to state Povertv and Inequalitv Wealth the accumulation of valuable resources an possessions that ow into the household each year 0 Income a wage for work provided and assets accumulated over time Unequal distribution of wealth and income 0 Growing inequality in distribution of wealth and income 0 Wealth more unequal than income 0 Majority of wealth owned by about 10 of population Decline in opportunity for poor people 0 Income growth in primarily within the top 1 o Unequal distribution of income social inequality 0 Housing and health 0 Low income mobility The Face of Povertv Poverty not evenly distributed across population Women 0 Feminization of poverty 0 Women earn 77 cents on the male dollar 0 Single and divorced mothersmore likely to responsible for children 0 People of Color 0 History of prejudice and discrimination limits economic opportunity and upward mobility o Concertation in certain neighborhoods 0 The majority of the poor are white but people of poor are disproportionately poor 0 Children 0 Re ects the feminization of poverty 0 24 of the total population but 36 of the poor population 0 Varies substantially by race Homeless People 0 Increase in homelessness in past decade 0 Often a temporary situation 0 Re ective of inequality Social Service Programs 0 Early approaches 0 Colonial period re ected Elizabethan Poor Laws 0 New Deal Social insurance payroll deductions Public Assistance deserving poor 0 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families TANF o Replaced aid to families with dependent children 0 Provides states with block grants 0 Community service or vocational training 0 Medicaid o Added to the social security act of 1965 0 Provides federal matching funds to states to cover the costs of medical care and services for low income people including Children children39s health insurance program CHIP Nondisabled adults Pregnant women Individuals with disabilities Older adults 0 Supplemental Security Income 0 65 years old or individual with disability 0 Funding from federal revenues 0 Uniform eligibility standards and bene ts across all states Heakhy 0 Originally known as WIC 0 Women and their children at nutritional risk 0 Vouchers to use at authorized food stores Supplemental nutrition assistance programs 0 Formerly known as the food stamp program 0 Nearly half of SNAP participants are children 0 More than 40 live under the poverty line EarnedIncome Tax Credit 0 Lowwage workers keep more of their annual earnings Wage supplement for people in lowwage jobs Can decrease poverty for working families Offsets burden of social security taxes Provides an incentive to work 0 Administered by internal revenue service Public Housing 0 Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD 0 Section 8 housing 0 Rent is 30 of a person39s monthly aftertax income 0 O O O Advocacy on Behalf of the Poor Current Trends in Advocacy for the Poor 0 Social constructs perceived social realities Belief people are poor because they are lazy Social welfare policies punitive less resource distribution Beliefpoverty result of failures in economypolitics Social welfare policies emphasize equality o Microlevel work to change individual situation connected to advocacy for macrolevel change Dynamic Advocacy and Poverty Personal responsibility 0 Social responsibility 0 Social and Economic justice Micro and macro level advocacy o Supportive environment 0 Human needs and rights 0 Political access 0 The Cycle of Advocacy Envision improved conditions Identify strengths and leadership skills of clients Mobilize clients to vote and participate in political campaigns Help powerless groups women children people of color people with special needs and ppor people improve their resources and opportunities Your Career and Poverty PoHcylevel o Advocate and lobby for regulations and programs that enhance the wellbeing of people with little resources Alleviate the pain of poverty and inequality 0 Keep the needs and wants of others in your thoughts and display concern in your actions CHAPTER 6 CHILD AND FAMILY WELFARE Social Work with Families Family a social unit where people form relationships and make a commitment to live together as a de ned family group and provide for the group39s social emotional and economic needs including care of children Evolved over time 0 Diversity of family forms Multiple challenges 0 Domestic violence 0 Child abuse 0 Poverty Advocacy for legislation policies and programs 0 Rights and needs of children and family members Today39s Families 0 Changing de nition of family has changed 0 Social unit containing two or more members 0 Family structure 0 Kinship common ancestry marriage adoption 0 Nuclear family one or more parents with children 0 Extended family in addition to parents and children other relatives live in the same household Diverse Family Forms 0 Divorce 0 Separation Blended families 0 Single parent households 0 Gay marriage and parenting Cohab a on Family Problems 0 Social workers 0 Intervene with various familybased problems 0 Advocate for programs and policies 0 Aim to strengthen and enrich family functioning 0 Promote the rights and safety of children 0 Domestic violence 0 Typically an issue of power and control Child Maltreatment Abuse and victimization of children 0 Previously considered private matter 0 Now viewed as a public matter 0 Child welfare 0 Practices policies services to promote child wellbeing and safety 0 Child Protective Services 0 Programs that respond to reports of child maltreatment Types of Child Maltreatment Physical Abuse hitting punching shaking throwing burning choking stabbing Sexual Abuse touch penetration exposure Neglect fail to meet basic needs including physical emotional educational medical Psychological maltreatment public embarrassment verbal cruelty intimidation threats deprivation of love Child Welfare Services 0 Public child welfare agencies 0 Typically serve large numbers of people 0 Offer a variety of programs 0 Less costly clients 0 Countybased departments of social or human services Adoption family life education foster care chaild protective in home family centered intervention residential services 0 Private child welfare agencies 0 Usually focus on speci c problems and subpopulations o Rely on pay for service 0 See fewer clients 0 Less bureaucratic in nature When is it abuse 0 Parental versus children rights 0 Do parents have the right to raise and discipline their children as they see t 0 Parents may attempt to justify child maltreatment as a parental right 0 A Global Context for Child Protection 0 Challenge of establishing shared de nition of quotabusequot 0 Religious beliefs may include spanking Key Child and Family Services Child protective services Familybased services Family preservation services Family foster ca re Family reuni cation services Adoption services Residential Care Independent Living Services Intensive Social Policy and Legislation National school lunch programs 1946 Supplemental social insurance 1972 Child abuse prevention and treatment act 1974 Education of all handicapped children act 1975 Personal responsibility and work opportunity reconciliation act 1996 Public Attitudes Institutional or primary view of social welfare 0 Humans are inherently good but are confronted with challenging needs and circumstances 0 Society as a whole has a responsibility to hop people by providing economic and social support services 0 Residual or secondary view of social welfare 0 People should be responsible for their own lot in life an don39t expect government intervention 0 Social welfare programs should be extremely limited and should only provide a safety net Social Work in Schools 0 Multiple roles 0 Counseling students 0 Intervene with family members 0 Work with school of cials community leaders 0 Identify ways to enrich social conditions for student success 0 Certi cation licensure advanced training 0 National and state policy has promoted the credentialing of professional in school settings Challenges Facing School Social Workers Bullying 0 Up to 41 of students involved as vicitms bully or both 0 Bully prevention programs 0 Poor and homeless students 0 Poor attendance and grades high dropout rates McKinneyVento Homeless Assistance Act 0 Students with physical and mental challenges 0 Individuals with disabilities education act IDEA Teen Pregnancy 0 Interrupts attendance extracurricular participation School Funding 0 Schools are funded with a combination of state and local tax dollars 0 Students living in af uent areas are able to attend highly sought after primary and secondary schools 0 Students living in economically disadvantaged areas disproportionately from racial and ethnic minorities are relegated to struggling schools systems Issues of Diversity Age Class Ethnicity Race Gender Sexual orientation lntersecting of diversity Advocacy for childrenfamilies Child welfare advocacy movement 0 Grew during the 197039s 0 Strengthened services and programs Identi ed major themes 0 Child development is in uenced by interaction with families 0 And transactions with other social systems 0 Society has a responsibility forobligation to children 0 Child and family services are a right and entitlement 0 Children have rights in relationship to the social systems affecting them Current Trends in Advocacy for Child and Family Services 0 Advocacy as interdisciplinary collaboration 0 Children s advocacy centers Decrease trauma Improve ef ciency of investigative process 0 Dynamic Advocacy and Family and Child Welfare 0 Social and economic justice 0 Supportive environment 0 Human needs and rights 0 Political access Your Career and Family and Child Welfare 0 Use of Data 0 Program evaluators o Advocates and educator 0 Community organizers Types of Data 0 Qualitative Descriptive in nature Case studies focus groups observation interviews 0 Quantitative research Numbers statistics Surveys checklists


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