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BISC Weekly Notes

by: SophieSol

BISC Weekly Notes BISC 1005

GPA 3.92
The Biology of Nutrition and Health
Scully, T

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Here are my BISC notes from this week!
The Biology of Nutrition and Health
Scully, T
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
Function of fat Cells 0 Make up the membranes of cell and all internal compartments 0 Hydrophobic Signals 0 Can act as hormones le Testostrogen estrogen 0 Energy production 0 Stored fat on a cellular level to produce ATP and on a body level to produce heat Body 0 Energy aka heat Cushioning 0 Insulation Issue with food labels 0 Less than 05g trans fatserving company does not have to label it as having trans fats 0 So companies simply reduced the serving size so that per serving there is no trans fat How do you know if it has trans fat Look at the ingredients Partially hydrogenatedhydrogenated How do we use these fat on a cellular basis Phospholipids have a phosphate group and two fatty acids attached to them 0 How do they form a barrier o It is like cutting a tennis ball or a coconut in half Outside layer are phosphogroups love water turn inside and outside cell fats are inside 0 Forms a sandwich where inner parts are fats and outsidesbread phospho groups Triglycerides Three fatty acid molecules bonded to a glycerol molecule make up a triglyceride Built from saturated fatty acids fats and are solid at room temp Oily fats are liquid at room temperature unsaturated fats 0 Energy can be stored in the form of triglycerides deposited in the cytoplasm of cells 0 Lipids contain more than twice the energy of protein or carbohydrates of the same volume Considered a long term storage of energy sugar is short term 0 Two types of fat tissue adipose o Bmwn Convert chemical energy to heat to protect against cold weather Densely populated with mitochondria 0 White Storage compartments Send signals to tell body when you have enough storage 0 Lipolysis 0 Fat cells are breaking down triglycerides to release individual fats to produce ATP Ketosis o Deplete storescarbohydrates Cholesterol Hydrophobic Sterols a class of fats that have the same structure with different ingredients attached to them 0 Differ only in the number type and position of ingredients attached to the hydrocarbon rings Hormones o Signaling molecules that are active at low levels and control many processes in plants and animals Anabolic steroid 0 Make you big resemble testosterone 0 Similar in shape but not exactly the same Helps to stabilize membrane 0 Can be manufactured in our liver and ingesting too much cholesterol can lead to cardiovascular disease 0 Makes sure that phospholipids remain dynamic at cold temperatures so they won t die 0 Holds on to phospholipids at high temperatures so they stay together Sodium 0 Ion 0 Atom with a charge 0 Normally found as an additive Cellular level 0 Helps to set up a barrier o Signaling Body 0 Pressure exerted on entire system to balance out the difference in sodium in the bloodstream Carbohydrates Monomers 0 Individual units of a macromolecule Polymers o Chains of monomers bonded together Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids 0 Building polymers from monomers 0 Take different available monomers take the water molecules out so that they can bond with each other dehydration synthesis 0 Breaking down polymers into monomers 0 Take the polymers do hydrolysis add water Cellulose is the most common carbohydrate on earth 0 Food label 0 Listed as sugars and bers Sugars technically not all carbs are sugars but all sugars are carbs Monosaccharaides o Glucose and fructose 0 Rings of hydrocarbon with oxygen 0 LOVE water hydrophilic Disaccharides 0 Table sugar sucrose formed through dehydration synthesis Glucose and fructose are bonded Polysaccharides 0 Not a category on food label instead says ber 0 Polymer of carbohydrates Taking monomer and linking it together in different ways 0 Can t break down ber 0 Starch can break downinto glucose Cellulose and starch are both found in plants Glycogen Storage molecule polysaccharide for short term energy storage 0 Chitin o Produced in fungi and invertebrate for structural purposes Fats Hydrophobic Unsaturated Veggies Fish quotGood fatsquot Kinked Saturated Tropical fruits Mainly from animals quotBad fatsquot Very bad affect levels of blood cholesterol Trans Fats gone wild Flat no kinks 05g or lessserving doesn t have to be listed Cholesterol Found in shell sh eggs 0 High cholesterol in food does not lead to high quotbadquot cholesterol Hydrophobic Carbohydrates 0 Polymers large substances made up of repeating units smaller units monomer o Sugarsl monosaccharides glucosefructose or disaccharides sucrose 0 Fiber l lndigestible polysaccharides cellulosechitin o Carbs 15g sugars 5g ber total carb is 25g 5g missingstarch glucose 0 Function Cells 0 Energy production 0 Make cells stick to one another 0 Allow signals to stick to docking stations Body 0 Energy 0 Fiber 0 Satiated o Cleansing o Reducesslows absorption 0 Proteins 0 Make you who you are 0 Complex 0 Cells Storage 0 Energy only contribute 4calg o In eating disorders you don t have any fat to burn and at this point your body starts going through atrophy which is muscle breakdown Structure Cytoskeleton o quotScaffolding of your cellsquot l muscles Transport 0 Blood cholesterol 0 High density lipoproteins HDL In charge of bringing fats home in the liver where they are stored while 0 Low density lipoproteins LDL Bring fats to cells These are proteins because they hat water Contain a lot of cholesterol phospholipids and a lot of fats Plaques lumps of fat that quotjust hang outquot 0 Saturated fats will keep both of these high unsaturated fats keep HDL high and LDL low Catalysis Defense Communication Gene regulation


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