SMPA 1050 - Week One
SMPA 1050 - Week One 1050
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ellee Watson on Sunday September 28, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 1050 at George Washington University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 225 views. For similar materials see Media In Free Society in Public Relations at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/28/14
August 28 2014 The Role ofthe Press The big 3 CBS ABC NBC spent more coverage time on the Democratic convention of 2000 1 40 believed it was the result of a liberal bias among the media 2 28 said The Democratic Convention was more newsworthy 3 32 said they weren39t sure The normative response is 2 o Normative what we think is supposed to be we think journalists convey the most important things that help you The democratic convention happened after the republican one and followed on the heels of the Lewinsky scandal 0 In the absence of real news they reported or filled in with faux news which ends up happening The first system o Politicians 69 Press 69 People The press is meant to keep track of politicians on behalf of the people Retroactive system dependent on us knowing what we39re talking about People think journalists are liberal Certain news organizations have a partisan bias o Fox News has a republican bias o Make sure when we make allegations of bias we have empirical evidence of that bias Hostile media effect the more you care about something the more likely you will blame the media of having a bias o Leads us to seek partisan media 0 Tendency to see what we want to see o Believe the stuff that already agrees with us Bernard Goldberg BIAS is what comes naturally Liberal are more likely to be secular 0 Could explain why mainstream journalism missed the infancy and the maturation of the rise of the religious right that has an incredibly important place in our politics I Why Because religion does not come naturally to journalists They didn39t cover it What comes naturally o The context of political news is as it always has been o Issue attention cycle o The news has trouble with sticking with one story He said she said journalism a kind of bias journalism o Giving two sides equally even if they don39t have equal weight result of objectivity 0 Try to detach be objective from the issue o Misinformation can lead to major problems September 2 2014 Iournalism History and Norms ournalism s role is to fulfill the citizen39s inalienable right to be informed but news values of information and body politic aren39t what the audience wants Celebrity news and soft news are how we define news now 1 The rise of celebrity journalism and celebrity journalists i Actors make news and reporters hand out with them 2 Substitution of talk opinion debate for news i The cheapest thing 257 news can do 3 News treated as entertainment and entertainment as news i Music movies and TV more likely to be covered 4 Soft News i Health crime weather Covering news as a public service that made profit on the side turned into a commercially based institution 0 O Objectivity gt Celebritization gt soft news Market change in what constitutes news Party Press Era 182030 0 O O O O 0 Sponsored by parties politicians Role of reporters stenographers Audience political and economic elites Definition of news Top Down politicians and press to people Printers depended on partisanship for money The audience of white male property owners defined the news Penny Press Era 1828 late 19th century 0 OOOOOO O Sought large circulation Independent news organizations new business model Lots of readers advertisements are bigger part of the model Beginning of an independent media Audience masses Definition of news Bottom up people and press to politicians By preaching independence you increase your audience I Inadvertently created the objectivity model Covering things that are important to wide ranges of people crime weather health that it is easier to be objective about Why 1830s I Urbanization industrial and transportation revolution Andrew Iackson popular movement politician I Provides a market for a new medium I Greater send of who matters Gradual rise of news trying to prove journalists are independent Muckraker Era Progressive movement 0 O Investigative journalism Newsmagazines late 19th century I Reach large audiences longer stories and photographs Crusades against corrupt politicians Really Bottom Up model still the same today New Value The Mainstream Bias o Appeal to common denominator of your audience it helps financially o Often social movements don39t get the coverage they want so they start their own media o Women and Black newspapers o The commission scoled the press for presenting a white perspective your paper missed this rising anger and lack of contentment because your newsrooms don39t reflect the cities you live in Media Literacy you understand how to read media where does the bias lie where should I go for certain things o Don39t go to American media for African current events September 4 2014 How the Press Works Gans journalism as a search for Efficiency how to use resources efficiently Scarce Resources 0 Staff o Airtimeprint space I Newshole actual time of news limited because of ads and teasers o Production time Limited newshole o Run very short stories I Much less to learn 0 Anchor read stories 0 Limits what we think of as news I What are out priorities Forces journalists to make subjective decisions about what is more news worthy than other things In print production time is less because visuals aren39t as important 0 The more time it takes to produce the less time to reportwrite Independent decision making creates the norms and routines Norms what journalists use repetitively 1 Con ict consensus is less newsworthy a Overemphasis might mean they39re not really important b Downie random clip of foreign legislature fighting i There is little to no news value BUT it has con ict 2 Two sidedness He said she said a Both sides are taken as equally valid which is not always true b There39s only two sides covered when there could be more 3 Novelty news is when man bites dog not when dog bites man a Consensus could become news because of novelty i If Boehner somehow agreed with Obama news 4 Official about what important people and elected officials do a A good thing b However if you are the one challenging the authority you get less attention and the media covers the authority 5 Timeliness issue attention cycles a Must be kept on the news but it39s hard disappears fast b We move on Syria Iraq Afghanistan c Limits on keeping it on the news means limits on keeping it in the public s minds 6 Individuals especially during election season a Why is political news so bad Because it centers on individuals b Individual explanations instead of structural explanations c Green Lantern the way in which pundits will say that so and so could accomplish this if they wanted to but ignore the structural reality like congress d Leads usually focus on an individual person to draw you in Routines Beat System cover the same thing every day 0 Some things are always interesting like the President Congress Mayor or Issues 0 Advantages i You39re generating news about it every day ii Tend to develop an expertise about something know who to call iii Proximity office is likely to be at the beat They could also be disadvantages become too tight editors rely on these reporters too much for the specific coverage 0 What becomes a beat and what are the implications I Eats a lot of news hole I We don39t have foreign bureaus anymore less in the news I Creating a conservative beat dumb idea Means you39re out of touch with a large group of people I Creating an abortion beat a good idea General Assignment Reporters they cover everything else 0 Usually younger move up to beats 0 Advantages i Fill in gaps ii No dependency on sources less concerned about burning them 0 Disadvantages i No expertise 9 not a lot of time to figure out where to go ii Not as much news generated 0 They generally cover social movements Gans Enduring Values Overtime we see patterns in our journalism and create bias naturally into our reporting 1 Ethnocentrism focuses on US and role in the world inherent assumption that US has good motives 2 Altruistic democracy politics should be about public service 3 Responsible capitalism inherent notions that all small businesses are good and big corporations are evil 4 Small town pastoralism tradition and small towns are good 9 plays out a lot in politics 9 real American values 5 Individualism we want to prize what individuals do 6 Moderatism extremes are criticized 9 there is nothing actually worse about being on the extremes but the value is that moderates are better 7 Social Order definite bias that order needs to be maintained a People who challenge this are seen on the outside as a problem
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