AIP NOTES WEEK 4
AIP NOTES WEEK 4 PSC 2482
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nangesian Lekilit Waters on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 2482 at George Washington University taught by Throup, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see African International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
WEEK 4 September 22 1959 new political party that broke away from ASPAfro Shirazi Party zppp was its name fairly conservative members of the shirazi population coalition with zanzibar nationalist party ASP 10 9 ZMV 2 ZMPP seats in the coalition politics in zanzibar was polarized by ethnicity fitting in the spectrum was determined by wealth religion and ethnicity ZNP ZPPP came together after the elections when they got the least amount of votes in the legislature Abdulrahman Mohamed Babu continued 0 wanted to redraw politics of Zan away from politics based on ethnicity but ideology o tells ASP that they should rally behind him instead of Ali Muhsin o Ali reaches to the conservative members of ASP instead 0 in 1963 secret negotiations are taking place to reconstruct on ideological basis the politics of Zan 0 al that is going on is being kept away from the rest of the country 0 John Okello is Ugandan and gets involved with the Afro Shirazi party 0 he gets a job as a policeman and moves to the mainland 0 i964 independence and Ali Muhsin is worried about the police 0 Zan didn39t have an army just police security 0 concerned that most police were mainlanders 0 made a mistake of firing anyone that39s not Zanzibari and comes from the mainland lost theirjob o 4 weeks later Okello mobilizes his colleagues and launched the Zanzibar revolution 0 handed weapons to ASP supporters o Okello once he takes power he hands it over to leader of ASP Karume o the revolution is supposed to be stopped by someone in cia o in Dar es salaam there39s an over throwing of Julius Nyerere from teh TANU party o REVOLUTIONS 0 after that oneanother rev 0 the army takes over Dar 0 there39s another coup in Uganda by the Ug army 0 attempted mutiny in Kenya in the rift valley 0 so now there is complete turmoil in the E African region 0 now it seems like there is complete political meltdown o the one that happens in Tanganyika is put down by Brit forces 0 Nyerere and his colleagues come back into power 0 he replaces the britforces with nigerian troops 0 he reforms the army and turns it into a defence force 0 Tanganyikan army gives way to Tang People39s Defence Force 0 in Uganda the president gives way to the army and tries to meet their demands 0 Kenyatta39s response in Kenya was different he crushed the mutiny 0 those who participated were punished o In Zan Karume makes a deal with Nyerere Zan will become united with Tanganyika o Karume will be 1st VP as well as pres of Zan and Zan will be autonomous o it will have gov central bank own passport control it will control foreign exchange Tang army will not conflict 0 Zan will be autonomous but part of the union 0 most importantly Babu39s union will be kicked out of Zan and given jobs in Tang o Karume is trying to get rid of the people against him 0 pushes a gov that is already in the left farther to the left when theyjoin Tang 0 1967 Arusha declaration and enunciation of Ujamaa o Tang becomes part of the liberation movement in Zimbabwe SA o TANU ASP form in 1977 and becomes Chama cha MapinduziCCM Lusitania Lucifer in Africa The Portuguese struggle for independence from Portuguese rule begun in Angola Angola was the most important of all the colonies it was a major oil producer war in Angola was self financing Angola nationalist movement was fragmented MPLA popular movement for liberation of angola o Agostino Neto o closely aligned to Portu communist party 0 grew support from Mestizo population and Mbundu ethnic community 0 Mbundu was the most economically developed region in Angola 0 had access to education 0 and in the 19605 the mestizos and people from Mbundu had taken leadership positions FNLA national front for the liberation of angola 0 leader was Holden Roberto o drew support form the Bakongo community of the far north o Kinshasa was the most important city for the Bakongo not Luanda UNITA Total independence of angola o drew support form the Ovimbundu 0 largest single ethnic group in angola o the region of Ovimbundu is the least developed the Portuguese were mostly liberal in the ways they dealt with the colonies after WW2 Portuguese African policy diverged from that of Brit Portugal said the colonies were no longer colonies they are an integral part of Portugal theyre the new Portugal massive campaign to encourage white settlement in those colonies very successful that by 1970 angola had 3rd largest whites in the continent Angola and Mozambique especially in 19505 portugeese graduates if not interested in military could become teaches and teach in the territories in africa thru that the radicals went to spread their ideas in Luanda that died out quickly Feb 1961 MPLA launches an attack trying to liberate its activists that were arrested it was a failure however it was the opening shot in the Angola war liberation in March Portuguese pop is up to 400 000 some of those there were made to become cocoa farmers in the Bakongo was land put aside for small scale coffee farming the local bakongo refused to work in those farms in response migrant laborers were shipped from Mbundu to work 1961 Roberto attacks from DRC and kills 8000 coffee farmers that are Mbundu Portu gov responds violently and kills 100000 this ignites the biggest conflict in angola that continues until independence in 1975 Angola becomes hot topic for debate in UN Kennedy administration isnt happy with Portuguese although they support african revolution there39s not much they could do because of the Asores o Asores are Portuguese islands they were a very important military base US army refueled in Asores and so they depended on Portuguese support 1961 US supported resolution 1603 call for self determination in colonies that were portugeese 0 US offers funding to MPLA FNLA 0 1st 6 months they39re supporting the movements and squeezing the regime o Portu fought back stating that US rights to the Azores had to be renegotiated o 1962 63 the US backed away and refused to support the african nationalists 0 July 1963 Kennedy ordered all anti Portuguese initiatives in africa Portugal Continued Divide Africa into regions africa isn39tjust one uniform place there are 3 ways you can divide it into 3 Areas dominated by subsistence farming 0vimbundu region in Angola 0 had lose of labor because the men were sent off to other areas to work 0 havent been incoperated in the political and economic sections 2 peasant region food producingFN LA region 0 most backward region Portugal was dealing with various issues around Africa including Angola Mozambique Guinea Bissau The revolution in Angola wasnt the worst The main problem was Guinea Bissau All these things happening in the colonies caused the military coup in Portugal September 24 2015 SOUTH AFRICA Kennedy administration had an important relationship militarily with south africa SA contained important resources but its location was the most important 1963 chief of staff told kennedy that SA was important and US should maintain good relationships but SA was less important that portugal This was mainly because of the Asores SA was useful but had nothing too important when the US canceled their support for african nations because of Asores importance they increased their support for Portugal in the navy meanwhile Soviet union was building up a network in Africa Guinea Ghana and Mali were the first to be recognized as interested in Soviet Union the US started to reassess political possibilities of radical nationalists as allies of the society union Society had to struggle to control International communist movement as china was becoming stronger April 1961 is the communists congress at the conference Krustove talked about national democratic states Egypt Indonesia Iraq but also Guinea Ghana Mali in early 1960s relations with African nations improved He wanted to show that Soviet was still ahead of the communist revolution he tried to reach out to 3rd world radical communist movements many of the international regimes were nasty to the others like Egypt and Ghana 19591964 44 of soviet aid to the african continents went to those 3 countries but if you include everything else that they actually spent it was 75 interest was low about 2 interest in 1959 Guineas exports mostly went to Soviet Ghana 47 and by 1965 it was about 26 Soviet purchased more cocoa from Ghana and at a higher rate than most of the other nations Soviet wasnt playing it safe in Guinea tho in Oct 1962 cuban missiles Soviet wants to use cuba as a supply basis for soviet military Guinea didn39t want want that to happen so they support the US all the energy that Soviet put in Guinea worked to an extent but not really the US was commiteed to fight communism everywhere including africa The Aswai dam was one event that the US learned its lesson Akossombo damUS wants to build it Ghana was ready to do it because of the profits from cocoa the gov sees building the dam it as the way to develop ghana in 1960s secretary of state sees the games that soviet union was playing he was alarmed that Ghana was falling into it eventually international cocoa prices start going down and US must work hard to provide the money or else Ghana would accept it from soviet in dec 1961 US offers 55 milion dollars bilateral aid thru world bank and another 54 million from another place US was determined to maintain its place in Ghana but there are still more issues Gbedemah tells the US he was going to organise acoup Guinea also wanted to construct a dam the ambassador at the time started to push US investments in guinea eventually they got guinea tojoin the international funds organizations in return Guinea agrees to support US in the cuban missile crisis but then later on the US started giving less aid to Guinea and they started losing to Soviet by 19605 31 nations were independent and 22 had diplomatic relations with soviet while 13 had with china china started talking to african nations that soviets really didn39t understand africans as mich as it did however african nations wanted to take note soviet and chinese money 1963 onward china became critical of soviet union it worked hard to exclude soviet from the meeting in Algiers soviet responded by what they called Maoist adventurism it identified the number of countries that were potential allies Ghana egypt congo Brazzaville
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