Week 4 of notes
Week 4 of notes History 151, 22
Popular in Global History to 1500
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacqueline Wiley on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 151, 22 at La Salle University taught by Professor Frassetto in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Global History to 1500 in History at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
1 India Week of September 22 Prof Michael Frassetto Religion is central to South Asia and its characteristics De ning principle of South Asia Religion shapes its social life politics etc Vishnu is central 0 One of the great gods 0 There are 33000 great Gods of India Vishnu the Preserver 0 Rescue us 0 Krishna and Arjuna avatars of Vishnu The Land of Great Diversity Summarized as quotFrom Many Onequot South Asia just like Mesopotamia and Egypt they had a Neolithic phase They had plenty of water 0 The Ganges Water system in the North lndus in the West 0 From this formed the Harappan Civilization in Indian History 2500 BCE Harappan Civilization 2500 BCE Includes a number of cities 0 About 70 cities have been discovered over about 400 miles 0 Represent one civilization as a whole Because of a series of shared practices 0 In each of these cities the buildings were made of rectangular mud bricks The design of these cities were practically identical 0 All had a central strong point citadel Structure is similar is all sites 0 The city plan itself is built on a rectangular plot 0 All had the ritual bath 0 This is still an important part of Indian religion today ritual bathing Could have been as many as 1500 cities have yet to be discovered MohenjoDaro Writing 0 We have yet to decipher their writing 0 Farmers o Grew Wheat Barley Rice Peas raised chickens grew Cotton Cotton was important because of its trade commodities for Harappan civilization Traded with the people of Sumer in exchange for raw materials and minerals 0 Absent from the civilization of India 0 Minerals such as copper or bronze Mohenjo Mother Goddess Things went well for Harappans for several hundred years 0 Things began to change around 1900 BCE Disease famine earthquakes In 1700 earthquakes changed the course of the Indus Natural disasters played a role in the crumble of Harappan civilization Also Rig Veda played a role in the demise of the Harappans Royalveda 0 Religious Texts Reveal to us important elements that are honored today of ultimate sacred truth in 1900 Around the year of 1900 something seems to have happened VVhat o The Vedas tell us about the Aryan Vedic people 0 Written in Sanskrit 0 Tell us the story of the Aryan conquests of India 0 Referred to as lndoEuropean peoples Language Indian and European languages Vedic Ages 0 1900600 0 Primary documents of this period are the Vedas o Mainly Rig Veda Gods like Indra Warrior Thunder Conquering God emerged from the Vedas Agni Fire God Series of Nature Gods These Gods were offered rituals and sac ces Varuna Sky God seems to be imbued with extensive power and also seemed to have desired or promoted justice 0 Later becomes Hinduism o The Three Social Classes Warriors Priests Commoners Rigid class division 0 Cant switch classes 0 No marriage between classes 0 There was another group that didn39t t in the leadership division The OutCaste group Subordinated subjugated subject people Losers in this process of either conquest or migration 0 The defeated folk 0 This group will come to be known as the untouchables o Untouchable because they were ritually physically impure 0 To touch them would thereby corrupt you 0 Religious Powers gradually evolved into Kings and into governments Implement and execute the law Each of these castes had their own speci c responsibilities and speci c job and speci c duties Subdivisions and subcategories of each of these Varnas o Brahmanas were a series of religious books Stressed the character nature and practice of the rituals rites and sacri ces to the gods Became increasingly complex 0 Some of these rituals lasted days on end 0 Had to make sure that in these rituals that you said the right prayer at the right time 0 Right incense at the right time 0 Right hymn at the same time o If not ritual would be ineffective useless Upanishads Spiritual moral values 0 At the core of this is brahman o Brahman quotWorld Soulquot 0 Ultimate everything 0 Source of everything and everything will return to Brahman Ultimate absolute ldea evolved into transmigration Reincarnation Karma Dharma Duty to ful ll Ultimate goal is Moksha avira Founder of the Jain religion Preacher Accepted Karma Its more physical then mental o Ahimsa Noninjury Paci stic group Strict vegetarians Nonviolent 2 orders ofJain monks White Clad monks 0 Dress in white 0 No possessions o Mask over their mouths To not accidently inhale a bug Strict selfdenial 0 Have a broom To sweep the ground in front of them to not accidently step on a bug Sky Clad monks o Wander around naked 0 Our physical body is false not true We don39t care about our bodies because they aren39t important 00000 339 Ma 000 O 0 Buddha Actually a title not a name Before he was the Buddha he was Guatama Siddhartha Great indian religious reformer His greatest in uence was outside of india like China and Japan Because he rejected the social system Came to identi ed as one of Krishna39s avatars Buddha was the son of the Himalayan prince He met a dead man then a priest a holy man who perhaps offered him an answer and his exposure to disease poverty and death shocked him Took it upon himself to discover the meaning of life To nd out why there were all of these things in this world So he left the palace and his wife and his child to seek the answer as to why Following the advice of the holy man he met The 4 Noble Truths The truth of pain 0 The truth of the origins of pain and suffering The truth of the ending of pain 0 The truth of the middle way 0 Described was the 8 fold path Practice of rightview right action right livelihood right concentration etc The right everything Way of living morally modestly ethically Morally just
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