Ch 4 Notes
Ch 4 Notes ANTHROP 2202H
Popular in Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHROP 2202H at Ohio State University taught by Lexine Trask in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Ch 4 Language and Communication language is based on arbitrary learned associations between words and the things they stand for only humans speak other animals don t have anything quite as complex call systems systems of communication among nonhuman primates composed of a limited number of sounds that vary in intensity and duration ties to environmental stimuli some primates don t have the vocal tract for speech rather than not having the ability to understand language call systems have three features 0 the have a limited number of sounds 0 they are used only when certain stimuli are present 0 they cannot be combined to produce more complex messages several apes have learned to communicate through sign language first to learn was chimpanzee Washoe at the Institute for Primate Studies in Oklahoma another chimpanzee Lucy learned ASL after acquiring the language the two chimps exhibited several human traits swearing joking telling lies and trying to teach language to others cultural transmission a basic feature of language transmission through learning Koko gorilla that learned ASL uses about 400 signs but knows 700 and has learned more language more in depth than the chimps productivity the ability to use the rules of one s language to create new expressions comprehensible to other speakers basic feature of language displacement a linguistic capacity that allows humans to talk about things and events that are not present FOXP2 gene that helps explain why humans speak and chimps dont those who have the non speech version of the gene cannot make the necessary movements and therefore their speech is unintelligible FOXP2 took hold in humans around 150000 years ago language isn t the only form of communication stances gestures expressions movements differences between genders regions races nationalities ethnicities Kinesics the study of communication through body movements stances gestures and facial expressions culture teaches us that certain manners and styles should accompany certain kinds of speech culture plays a role in shaping the natural descriptive linguistics the scientific study of a spoken language including its phonology morphology lexicon and syntax phonology the study of sounds used in speech morphology the study of form used in linguistics and for form in general for example biomorphology relates to physical form lexicon vocabulary a dictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meaning syntax the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences phoneme significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning as in minimal pairs Standard English has 35 phonemes at least eleven vowels and 24 consonants phonetics the study of speech sounds in general what people actually say in vanouslanguages phonemics the study of significant sound contrasts of a particular language all humans have similar linguistic abilities and though processes creole languages form from pidgins when two cultures come together and have to find a way to communicate can develop into their own languages overtime with grammatical rules and everything Sapir Whorf Hypothesis theory that different languages produce different ways of thinking focal vocabulary a set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups such as types of know to Eskimos and skiers names get simpler as they become more common and important TV semantics a language s meaning system sociolinguistics study of relationships between social and linguistic variation study of language in its social context when new ways of speaking are associated with social factors they are imitated and they spread style shifts variation in speech in different contexts diglossia the existence of high formal and low familial dialects of s single language extralinguistic forces refers to context of social political and economic the r study in New York department stores stereotypes about how people talk from a certain region can be stigmatizing the southern accent or not New York accent speech habits help determine our access to employment and other material resources proper language speech can have symbolic capital a certain dialect is accepted as superior so those who use it are seen as more prestigious and can gain political and social status from it Black English Vernacular a rulegoverned dialect of American English with roots in southern English AfricanAmerican youth and many adults speak BEV in their casual intimate speech historical linguistics subdivision of linguistics that studies languages over time daughter languages languages developing out of the same parent language for example French and Spanish are daughter languages of Latin protolanguage language ancestral to several daughter languages language subgroups languages within a taxonomy of related languages that are most closely related English comes from Germanic root language loss results in decreased cultural diversity the world s linguistic diversity has been cut in half in the last 500 years Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages tries to preserve the indigenous endangered languages through audio and video