History of Science Notes Week of 9.21.15
History of Science Notes Week of 9.21.15 67494
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chariesse Notetaker on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 67494 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Thomas Broman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Bodies, Diseases and Healers in Science at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Lecture 5 Disease Specificity and the Anatomical VIorphological Body Introduction Paces in the Body You can ask why What makes us sick At the same time how does the body function Yields three questions Morphological o What produces and constrains the body s overall structure Physiological o How do the different parts organs work together in the body s overall economy Pathological o How can illness be understood as affecting particular parts or organs I Humoral view not concerned with the anatomical structure of the body Idea of speci city becomes more prominent over time o Becomes dominant in 1800 s 0 Becomes dominant in explaining why we become ill Aristotle and the study of Nature 3 84 be 322 be 0 Gathered writings from all of his predecessors and expanded them to a wide range of disciplines Father was a healer died when he was 17 Went to study in Athens under Plato Idea of the world favored what we can understand through the use of our senses Encouraged study of nature I Division of Four causes Ef cient cause Formal cause Material cause 0 Substanceselements from something is made Final cause 0 The goal or purpose for which an effect is produced 0000 Aristotle s writings on animals History of animals 0 Collected information and stories histories about different animals Parts of the animals 0 Assigned casual explanations of why animals take the form they do Generation of animals 0 Reproduction o Sensibility I What makes animals different from plants Alexandrian Anatomy and medicine 3rd century BC 0 Alexandria I Museum I Library I Becomes magnet for scholarly investigation Anatomical investigation of Heropholius and Erasistratus 0 Human dissections in Alexandria Heropholius ca 330 260 BC no complete writings o Described gross structure of brain 0 Argued against Aristotle s view that the brain was the center of the nervous system 0 Dissected the eye and described the retina 0 Also described structure of other organs heart liver Erasistratus ca 330 255 BC 0 Interested especially in the structure and function of the body s vessels veins arteries nerves 0 Believed all organs were made up from these vessels 0 Assigned separate functions to arteries and veins I Veins carry nutritive juices in from the blood I Arteries carry air Liver takes in nutritive elements from intestines Heart mixes air taken in by lungs with blood Brain takes pneuma from arteries and converts it to psychic pneuma and redistributes this to rest of body Investigation going on in Alexandria leads to ideas of how the body functions The Production of Alexandrian Anatomy Far more detailed knowledge of human anatomy than previously known Last opportunity to conduct systematic inquires of this sort until about 1300 AD Lecture 6 The Best Physician Is Also a Philosopher Introduction Anatomy as Medical Theory The physiology of Erasistratus o On the Sacred Disease Hippocratic treatise I Give explicitly anatomical arguments I Wants to explain the natural origins of the disease I Disease arises in a particular dysfunction Galen 0 Most important physician on his writing on antiquity 0 Much of what we know about Erasistratus comes from arguments made by Galen o More writings by Galen survived than any other more the Plato more than Erasistratus o Claimed that Asclepius came to his father in a dream and told him to become a healer 0 Uses Euclid form of argument in many of his writings I Some of Galen s writings gt On the Usefulness of the Parts general treatise on anima form gt On the Natural Faculties analysis of physiological function gt On the Anatomy of Muscles gt On the Anatomical Procedures 339 Stresses the importance of seeing the inside of the body in order to truly understand anatomy Galen in the Roman World 0 Hippocratics not particularly interested in philosophy 0 Galen thinks philosophy is extremely important in the practice of medicine I Logic trains the doctor in the art of understanding I Physics and a proper part of philosophy provides the doctor of life and the function of organs I Ethics teaches the doctor to despise money I Wrote a great deal on the practice of medicine treatise on fevers and prognosis and the method of healing different groups of medication and three treatises on the medical use of blood letting I Illustrates the idea that medicine involves the cultivation of theory and the importance of beside experience gt Doesn t explain how both are interrelated 0 Roman is at the height of its ourishing empire during the time o Greeks controlled Rome culturally o Showy oratory was favored I Held public anatomical demonstrations I Just as much oratory at the bedside as the public demonstrations Medical doctrine in Hellenistic Times 0 Celsus Latin writer 0 Talks about three sects I Empiricists o Dogmatists Rejected vale of theory to beside practice Called for collection of large number of case histories Saw anatomy as only of limited value Argued that healing could not happen reliably without theoretical insight Example the socalled pnuematisits argued that all illness affected condition of the pneuma Similar to modern view of medicine 0 Galen was very critical of the idea of bedside practice is an applied use of theory V V V VVV o Methodists example Asclepiades Shared Erasistratus s interest in blood ow and pulse Taught that illness came down to a single principle balance between size of corpuscles in uids and the size of the pores in the body gt Blood corpuscles too large stagnation and plethora gt Blood corpuscles too small excessive uidity Undermined idea that medicine required years of study Some kind of value making these associations Social value in claiming your view Quaral over who is the most reviered and dedicated followers of hippocrates Conclusion The Legacy of Galenic Medicine Insistence that medicine involoves both theoretical and practical clinical kinds of knowledge Advocates pulse as a diagnositic tool thereby enhancing focus on condition of blood as a key factor in athology Work was so expansive that scarcely anything could be written after Galen s time without rst assimilatinf what he had said about it Result glen became the authority on any subject
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