Week 4 Notes
Popular in Criminology
Popular in Sociology
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Kowalski on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 307 at University at Buffalo taught by Watoii Rabii in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Monday September 21 2015 Classical Criminology Continued CLASSICAL CRIMINOLOGY BENTHAM Principle of utility Punishment 4 rules of utility 1 Prevention is the ultimate goal 2 Punishment should deter criminals 3 Punishment should discourage future acts 4 Crime prevention should be cheap Panopticon A type of prison designed by Bentham Multiple cells and guard towers guard could see criminals but criminals couldn t see guards THE CRISIS OF CLASSICISM Moral reformation Dangerous classes Failure to regulate includes 1 Presence in urban areas 2 Widespread fear of criminality 3 Increase in official crime rate Can criminals be reformed Can they be returned to society The Born Criminal Monday September 21 2015 Neoclassical Contemporary Classical School Rational Choice and Deterrence NEO CLASSICAL SCHOOL Contextual circumstances v Equal punishment Framework for Justice Systems Declined in the 19th century among academics The Origin of Species Remained influential among policymakers Contemporary Classical School CONTEMPORARY CLASSICAL THEORY Rebirth in 19603 and 19703 Failure of rehabilitation programs Types of studies included 1 Aggregate Studies only did official crime data and not unofficial 2 Cross sectional studies longitudinal studies experimental effect 3 Scenario Research CONTEMPORARY CLASSICAL THEORY RATIONAL CHOICE Soft determinism personal and situational constraints and opportunities Human Agency Choice structuring Cornish and Clark 1987 Derek Cornish and Ronald Clark The Reasoning Criminal Formal deterrence v informal deterrence Monday September 21 2015 Official forma sanctions v extralegal informal sanctions CONTEMPORARY CLASSICAL THEORY ROUTINE ACTIVITIES Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson Also assumes offenders are rational 3 factors converge to increase likelihood of crime 1 Motivated offenders Burglars Robbers 2 Suitable Vulnerable Target vacant house unlocked car lonedrunk victim 3 Lack of Capable Guardians homeowners police security guards pets Hot Spots Places where these elements converge in time and place Ex Bars malls bus depots Wednesday September 23 2015 Positivism THE SECOND BREAK IN CRIMINOLOGY First beak was the enlightenment Industrial and Progressive Era Biology heredity looked to scientifically test ideas Psychology personality looked to scientifically test ideas Sociology society looked to explain causes of crime 3 basic assumptions of Positivist perspective on crime 1 Crime is absolutely real distinctions 2 Crime is an observable object observable 3 Crime is a determined behavior forces beyond one s control Element of Determinism Shift away from humanist focus SCIENTIFIC CLIMATE Craniometry size of brain brain and skull indicate superiority and inferiority Phrenology determining dispositions based on bumps in the skull Physiognomy the study of facial bodily aspects as signs of developmental problems Darwin The Origin of Species The most fit species survives Criminals are unfit BIOLOGICAL POSITIVISM CESARE LOMBROSO Father of modern criminology and positivist school Wednesday September 23 2015 Testing theoretical propositions and lDing factors beyond free will he backed up claims Criminal Man Autopsies of 66 male delinquents examined skulls Combined Darwinism with craniometry phrenology and physiognomy Atavism argues that certain people are animalistic primitive characteristics different moral compass more likely to commit male inse crimes The Born Criminal born with set of characteristics Crime prevention stigmata physical chart of Atavism Drooping eyes protruding jaws flattish noses More that 5 indicators of the born criminal Free will was seen as superstition Used stigmata to ID guilty suspects Used stigmata to ID criminal children LOMBROSO S CONTEMPORARIES ltalian School of Criminology Raffael Garofalo Natural crimes mala inse crimes born criminal commits them Punishment should fit the criminal Offender peculiarities danger posed to society 4 Types of Criminals 1 Extreme swift execution born criminal 2 Impulsive alcoholics and insane 3 Professional use hedonistic calculus require life imprisonment 4 Endemic specific to a particular region vary across time and space mala prohibita crimes Enrico Ferri Wednesday September 23 2015 Free will is a myth Social defense evaluate punishment based on offender threat incapacitate criminal not rehabilitate Argues that criminals can be deterred Goal of punishment is to incapacitate AFTER LOMBRoso IQ TESTING IQ testing replaced notion of the born criminal Alfred Binet and HH Goddard Feeblemindedness a sign of criminality mechanism from immigrants Exclusionary Immigration Policy and Sterilization JohnsonReed Act Harry H Laughlin quotas on who could immigrate to US Expatriation Act of 1907 revoked birth right citizenship to those who married Friday September 25 2015 Psychological Perspectives The Second Break Con nued Where are we historically Still in industrial age of science Personality matters PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH CRIME lmpulsiveness Negative emotionality Sensation seeking Protective factors continuum Empathy Altruism Conscientiousness Agreeableness PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES FREUD Originated psychoanalysis Drives Psychoanalytic perspective ld Ego and Super Ego explain behavior Anxiety defense mechanisms and the unconscious are also key principles Friday September 25 2015 MODERN PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES IQ AND CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR Goddard The Kallikak Family Hirschi and Hindelang 1977 The Bell Curve
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