9/24/15 Notes: Chapter 6
9/24/15 Notes: Chapter 6 BMS 208-03
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 208-03 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Lanier in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter 6 92715 1151 PM Reminder 239quotI Exam on October 20th Articulated bones are joined together all attached by ligaments and maybe joints can t see all the single vertebrae or all the tiny bones in hands and feet Disarticulated Bones are not connected separated Types of Bone Shape Long Taller than they are wide and deep bones of your extremities humerus femur tibia 0 Anatomy of a Long Bone Epiphysis ends a Proximal Epiphysis closer to the trunk n Distal Epiphysis farther away from the trunk n Spongy Bone porous like a sponge open lattice of narrow plates of bone called trabeculae has space occupied by red bone marrow in the epiphysis Diaphysis In between the ends the entire length between the epiphysis a Compact Bone dense or cortical bone cells tightly pressed against each other dense solid external walls of the bone along the diaphysis Metaphysis part of the epiphysis that includes growth plates actively growing bone Medullary Cavity Inside of the diaphysis contains blood vessels nerves and fatyellow bone marrow lard In children and fetus all long bones contain red bone marrow Periosteum made of dense irregular connective tissue with two layers of tissue outer fibrous layer amp inner cellular layer on the outside of the bone contains osteoblasts which helps to rebuild the bone after fracture protect bone holds nerves and blood vessels to bone held to the bone by collagen fibers called perforating fibers these fibers are continuous with those of the bone adjacent joint capsules and attached tendons and ligaments dense connective tissue Endosteum one layer of cells thick an incomplete layer of cells that is inside and lining the medullary cavity contains osteoprogenitor cells osteoblasts amp osteoclasts when active they help build repair amp remodel bone contains epithelial cells Short Carpals tarsals just as high as they are wide 0 Sesamoid tiny seedshaped bones along the tendons of some muscles are also classified as short bones Ex Patella instances of it being present at the base of the thumb Flat bones bones of the cranium Ex frontal parietal occipital Irregular bones that don t belong in the categories above have long and short portions Ex Vertebrae hyoid Sutural sutures immovable joints of bones in between the bones of the cranium bones not present in all individuals within cranial sutures Formation of the Bone Model is hyaline cartilage entire skeleton made out of this or dense connective tissue develop into bones via endochondral ossification Ch 6 look in blackboard Exam 2 Folder for animation Cartilage Calcifies amp Periosteal Bone Collar Forms chondrocytes form holes in the cartilage matrix which calcifies blood vessels grow towards the cartilage osteoblasts form osteoid secreted hardens to form periosteal bone collar Primary Ossification Center forms in the Diaphysis cartilage calcifies and bone development advances toward the epiphyses Secondary Ossification Center forms in the Epiphyses hyaline cartilage in the center calcifies bone replaces calcified cartilage osteoclasts create medullary cavity Bone replaces cartilage except the articular and epiphyseal cartilage Epiphyseal plates ossify and form epiphyseal lines bone growth stops due to sex hormones 0 Child has epiphyseal plates adults do not Intramembranous Ossification 0 Model is fibrous connective tissue membrane Formation of flat bones of skull mandible and clavicle Fontanels are the soft spots Should complete closure of all membranes in between cranial bones by age 2 and the actual thickness increases into adolescence OOO HOMEWORK Figure 617 have a good understanding of the meaning of some of the terms Axial Skeleton Bones forming the central axis of the skeleton Provides main support of the body Protects central nervous system 0 Includes 0 Skull 0 Thoracic Cage Sternum amp Ribs o Vertebral Column Appendicular Skeleton 0 Bones in the appendages limbs and the limb girdles shoulder and pelvic Includes 0 Shoulder Girdle Clavicle amp Scapula 0 Upper Limb o Pelvic Girdle Ilium ischium pubis 0 Lower Limb The Skull Cranial Bones 0 1 Frontal forehead most superior anterior o 2 Parietal right amp left O 1 Occipital contains the foramen magnum is a hole where the spinal cord is attached in order to move our heads easily occipital condyles 2 Temporal lateral Squamous portion flat portion extends into the middle of the skull Mastoid Process of the temporal bone behind your ear projecting under your skin External Auditory Meatus carry sound entrance to a funneD Styloid process Zygomatic processarch Medial temporal bone petrous portion 1 Sphenoid contains place for pituitary gland contains specific vessels that carries blood to the brain has muscles attached that allows us to chew and swallow very delicate REMEMBER the Sella Turcica a depression in the bone where a pituitary gland would sit 1 Ethmoid deep behind our nose contains cells that make it possible for us to smell direct access through little openings to the bone Facial Bones 0 00000 1 Mandible single bone lower jaw mandibular fossa allow movement of the lower jaw 1 Maxilla top of your jaw one of two bones right amp left 1 Palatine the far back roof of your mouth 2 Nasal 1 Vomer 2 Inferior Nasal Conchae forms a little shelf in your bone increases the surface area in order to warm up and humidify air that we breathe in we want to warm it up to our body temperature 2 Zygomatic the apple of your cheek bone 2 Lacrimal bones where the tear duct projects 92715 1151 PM 92715 1151 PM