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All about the Chemistry involved in Bio

by: Victoria E

All about the Chemistry involved in Bio Bio 110

Marketplace > Purdue University > Biology > Bio 110 > All about the Chemistry involved in Bio
Victoria E
GPA 4.0
Fundamentals of Biology I
Professor Athena Anderson

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Fundamentals of Biology I
Professor Athena Anderson
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria E on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 110 at Purdue University taught by Professor Athena Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
Biology Book Notes Exam 1 Study Guide 92315 Chapter 2 Matter anything that takes up space and has mass Element a substance that can t be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions 0 Each has a symbol Compound a substance consisting of 2 or more different elements combined in a xed ratio Emergent properties organized matter that is not possessed by its constituents 0 Compound has chemical and physical characteristics different front those of its elements Essential elements 2025 of the 92 natural elements that an organism needs to live a healthy life and reproduce 0 Just four elements OCHN make up 96 of living matter Trace elements required by an organism in only minute quanUUes o In vertebrates the element iodine l is essential ingredient of a hormone produced by the thyroid gland lodine de ciency in the diet causes the thyroid gland to grow to abnormal size goiter Atom smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element Atoms are composed of subatomic particles neutrons protons amp electrons Atomic nucleus protons and neutrons are packed together in a dense core Dalton unit of measurement for atoms and subatomic particles same as amu Atomic number number of protons Unless otherwise indicated an atom is neutral in electrical charge protons must be balanced by number of electrons Mass number protons neutrons of neutrons mass atomic The simplest atom is hydrogen which has no neutrons Atomic mass the mass is an approx lsotopes all atoms of a given element have the same number of protons but some atoms have more neutrons than other atoms of the same element Radioactive isotope is one in which the nucleus decays spontaneously giving off particles and energy Atoms are empty space When two atoms approach each other during a chemical reaction their nuclei don t come close enough to interact Energy the capacity to cause change by doing work 0 Potential energy energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure 0 The more distant an electron is from the nucleus the greater the potential energy Electron shells electrons found in different shells each with a characteristic average distance and energy level 0 The 1St shell is closest to the nucleus and the electrons in this shell have the lowest potential energy 0 When an electron loses energy it falls back to a shell that s closer to the nucleus and the lost energy is usually released to the environment as heat 1St shell cant hold more than 2 e 2rml shell cant hold more than 8 e outer electrons are called valence electrons outermost shell is the valence shell an atom w a completed valence shell unreactive helium neon and argon Chemical bonds the atoms either share or transfer valence e 00000 0 Covalent bonds the sharing of a pair of valence e by 2 atoms 0 Molecule 2 or more atoms held together by covalent bonds Ex of molecular formula H2 Ex of structural formula HH 0 Sharing 2 pairs of valence e double bond 00 o Atom s valence the of e required to complete the atom s outermost valence shell 0 Combo of 2 of the same element doesn t a compound Electronegativity the attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of a covalent bond Nonpolar covalent bond bond bt 2 atoms of the same element Polar covalent bond electrons of a bond are not shared equaHy lon a charged atom or molecule 0 Cation when the charge is positive 0 Anion negatively charged ion 0 lonic bond the attraction of cations and anions o lonic compounds or salts compounds formed by ionic bonds 0 Covalent compound consists of molecules having a de nite size and of atoms Hydrogen bond noncovalent attraction bt a hydrogen and an electronegative atom Van der Waals interactions weak and occur when atoms and molecules are very close together A molecule consisting of 2 atoms such as hydrogen or oxygen is always linear but most molecules with more than 2 atoms have more complicated shapes Biological molcules often bind temporaliry to each other by forming weak bonds but this can only happen if their shapes are complementary Chemical reactions making and breaking of chemical bonds that changes the composition of matter 0 Start with reactants and ending with the products Photosynthesis 6 C02 6 H20 gt C6H1206 6 02 Two sided arrows mean that the reaction is reversible Chemical equilibrium the point where the reactions offset one another Most cells are surrounded by water and the cells themselves are about 7095 water Polar molecule overall charge is unevenly distributed Cohesion hydrogen bonds that hold the substance together Adhesion clinging of one substance to another Surface tension a measure of how dif cult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid Kinetic energy anything that moves Thermal energy the faster the molecule moves the greater the kinetic energy which is associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules Temperature the average kinetic energy of the molecules regardless of volume Warmer tempt always passes to cooler Heat thermal energy in transfer from one body of matter to another 0 Calorie unit of heat 0 Kilocalorie 1000 cal o Joule energy unit Speci c heat the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its tempt by 1 C Heat vaporization quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for l g of the substance to be converted from liquid to gas state Evaporative cooling hottest molecules are most likely to leave as a gas Water reaches its greatest density at 4 C Solution liquid that is completely homo mix of 2 or more substances 0 Solvent dissolving agent of solution 0 Solute substance that is dissolved in the solvent 0 Aq solution one of where the water is the solvent Molar mass the sum of the masses all combined


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