Week 6 Notes on Expansion of Islam and Ottoman Empire
Week 6 Notes on Expansion of Islam and Ottoman Empire 1020-01
Popular in World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiana Thompson on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1020-01 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Michele White in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800 in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Expansion of Islam c7501405 Expansion under Muhammad amp successors o Caliph chief Muslim civil and religious ruler o Umma whole community of Muslims bound together by ties of religion 0 Dar AI Islam all diverse lands House of Islam 0 Shia rejects the first three Sunni caliphs and regards All the fourth caliph as Muhammad39s first true successor 15 of Muslims o Sunni commonly described as orthodox differing from Shia in its understanding of the Sunna and in its acceptance of the first three caliphs 85 of Muslims Abbasid Period 7501258 Muhammad dies 632 ABU BAKR 1St Caliph quotsuccessorquot FatherinLaw to Muhammad Also known as quotThe Truthfulquot AL SoninLaw amp cousin to Muhammad Muslim Army Successes 0 Army quotwalkedoverquot territories because the Army Made promises ex Lower taxes Had superior tactics JihadquotHoly Warquot 0 Fought out of a divine purpose 0 Held territory gt Had to deal with Dhimmis nonMuslims gt Other Factors including 0 Establishing a capital city Making currency Establishing one language Sharia Law Ulama o Qadis 1 Jews amp Christians a Had special treatment i Could practice faith but their place of worship could not be bigger than the smallest mosque in that region ii Could not hold political of ce iii Could not serve in military iv Testimony was not acceptedvalid against a Muslim in court v Paid a special 39Head Tax39 2 Other Factors OOOO a Capital Baghdad i Family Name Abbasid Currency sense of unity No human representatives on it only numbers and Arabic script Language Arabic Sharia Law Legal system Ulama people who were religious scholars Qadis Muslim judges Pquot rhme Who were the Saljua Turks Nomadic Warriors spoke Turkish language In 970 they crossed into Muslim Abbasid In 1055 the Abbasid Caliph recognized Tughil Beg as Sultan Caiphs were only nominal heads of Empire Part of the Muslim Army Sultanate System territory ruled by Sultan 1258 Mongol Takeover o Hulegu Khan Commander IL KhanatePersianbased 1379 Timur Leng 13361405 part Turk part Mongol 100 Muslim Nickname Tamerlame New leader Ottoman Empire 12891326 Ottoman those who followed Osman 1 3 continents 50 million people 2 Osman Bey 12891326 a Declares independent state in 1289 3 Orhan I 13261360 a Son amp successor b Rules under Osman c Took name of Sultan i Anatolia amp Dardenelles ii Gallipoli Base of operations head quarters 4 All Sultan All decedents of Osman 5 Long distance trade a Constantinople center of trade Why was Byzantine Empire 3951453 a relatively easy target 1 Plague hits Europe 13471351 a Europeans could not send help 2 France vs England in 100 years war 13371453 3 Italy 1871 a City states at war with each other Later Successes 1384 Turks captured So a amp soon all of Bulgaria 1389 Battle of Kosovo destroying the Serbian Empire 1453 Sack of Constantinople Sultan Mehmed II quotThe Conquerorquot 145181 Wiped out a 1000 year empire Around 1517 Ottoman Sultan took the title Caliph Capital Istanbul Language Ottoman Turkish Terk Persian Arabic Last phase of Ottoman expansion Under Suleyman the Magni cent Georgia Hungary North Africa Kurdistan Set up of Government Su an 0 Grand Vizier top advisor Imperial Diwan council Provinces senior of cers Collected taxes etc 0 Local Cavalry elite Peasants Decline 1 Shifting world trade patterns between Europe and Asia 150039s a Lost Revenue 2 European powers became offensive a Austrian39s push the ottomans out of Hungary by 170039s b Russian s push them off the Red Sea by 180039s