Week 4: Plant Lecture/Reading Notes 1, 2 & 3
Week 4: Plant Lecture/Reading Notes 1, 2 & 3 Bio Sci 152
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by KelseyH on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio Sci 152 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Dr. Daad Saffarini, Dr. Erica Young, Dr. Jane Witten in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biological Sciences II in Biological Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Biological Sciences 11 BIO SCI 152 92115 Reading Covered in These Notes 2 1 edition pages 450468 1St edition pages 437 455 Last Lecture Reading Notes 6 Outline Viruses and Protists Plant Lecture Reading Notes 1 Outline Intro and Fungi Intro and Fungi Evolution amp Diversity of Fungi 1 FungiAbsorptive Heterotrophy a Unicellular Yeast b Multicellular Fungi c Fungal Environment Interactions 2 Fungi Relationships a SaprobicCarbon Cycle b ParasiticampPredatory i Parasitic ii Pathogenic iii Predatory c Mutualism d Endophytic 3 Fungal Life Cycles a FungalReproduction i Microsporidia ii Chytridiomycota iii Zygomycota iv Glomeromycote v Dikarya a Ascomycota b Basidiomycota 4 Environmental Sensitivity a Lichen b Pollution Fungi Absorption Heterotrophy o Fungi use the process absorptive heterotrophy secrete digestive enzymes onto food and absorb the digested products through cell membrane 0 Fungi can be 0 Saprobes they absorb nutrition from organic dead substances 0 Parasites living of host organisms 1Page Biological Sciences 11 BIO SCI 152 92115 0 Mutualists living with a host organism in a relationship that benefits themselves ml the host 0 Fungi is a part of a group called opisthokonts that link the lineage of o Fungi 0 Animals 0 Flagellated Protists o smapomorphy shared trait of opisthokonts is posterior agellum if agella is present 0 Synapomorphies that characterize fungi within the opisthokonts o Absorptive heterotrophy o Chitin in cell wall 0 Four independent evolutionary origins of large multicellular organisms 0 Mai 0 Plants 0 Brown algae 0 Animals Unicellular Yeast o Yeasts unicellular freeliving lifestyle 0 Some fungi have yeast life stages unicellular and multicellular life stages 0 Occupy liquid or damp environments 0 Nutrients get absorbed directly through cell surfaces 0 Great organisms to study in lab because of their rapid growth rates and easy to make cultures from Multicellular Fungi o Mycelium body of multicellular fungus o Mycelium bulk consists of separate tubular filaments called hmhae where nutrient absorption happens I Hyphae cell walls are strengthened fortified by chitin 0 Some fungi species hyphae is compartmented by crosswalls called Epta o The divided hyphae is septate hyphae o Compartments aren t fully closed off and isolated I Pores in septa let organelles sometimes nuclei transportation between sections 2Fage Biological Sciences 11 B10 SCI 152 92115 Some species have hundreds of nuclei instead of septa in hyphae o Multinucleatedundivided hyphae are coenoc ic o Coenocytic condition created from nuclear division lacking cytokinesis Rhizoids modified hyphae attach and secure fungi to surface or dead organism with a food source Hyphal growth of mycelium can surpass 1 kilometer per day Hyphae spreads over large regions in search for nutrients Fungal Environment Interactions Surface areatovolume ratio of mycelium allows better absorption of nutrients of food 0 Disadvantage quick water loss in dry environments Fungi can be tolerant of severe hypertonic environments 0 More resilient than bacteria Lots of fungi are tolerant of extreme temperatures temp low as 212 F higher than 122 F I Example Mold can live in fridges Fungi Relationships SaprobicCarbon Cycle Saprobic fungi gather energy carbon and nitrogen directly from dead organic matter Saprobic fungi are decomposers recycle dead matter into useable material for the living 0 Example Mycelia of fungi decomposes wood of fallen trees in forests Fungi decompose substances other organisms can t o Cellulose o Lignin cell wall components in plants 0 Keratin gt hair and nails of animals Fungi run the carbon cycle recycling carbon atoms to the atmosphere as C02 which is then used by plants in photosynthesis Preferred carbon source simple sugars amp broken down products ofcomplex polysaccharides Obtain nitrogen from proteins and their breakdown products 0 Fungi use nitrate N0339 or ammonium NH4 ions as nitrogen source 3Page Biological Sciences 11 BIO SCI 152 92115 0 When food supply is low fungi rapidly reproduce spores that can lie dormant till conditions improve 0 Fungal spores are abundant travel by wind and water over very large distances Parasitic amp Predatory 0 Two classes ofparasitic fungi o Facultative parasites fungi that can grow independently or on a living host organism o Obligate parasites fungi that can onIz grow on living host organism I Have special nutritional needs 0 Common hosts are plants and insects o Fungal hyphae are well designed to live on plant hosts I Hyphae enter through the stromata wounds or epidermal cell walls I Hyphae expands mycelium by branching out in the plant 0 Haustoria are branching appendages produced by hyphae built to press through plant cell walls absorbing their nutrients I Fruiting structures are produced on the plant surface and plant insides Pathogenic fungi sicken or even kill their host organism o Fungal pathogens can kill those with weakened immune systems 0 Pathogenic fungi can cause 0 People with AIDS die of pneumonia from Pn eumocystisjirovecii o Ringworm o Athlete s foot 0 Chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Bd kills amphibians Predatory fungi trap neighboring protists and animals 0 Some hyphae of fungi can secrete sticky substances that capture prey o Fungi spreads through prey absorbing nutrients and killing organism 0 Soil fungi set threecelled ring traps to catch prey 0 Example nematode passing through ring causes it to swell confining the nematode Once trapped fungal hyphae enter and digest the nematode 4Page Biological Sciences 11 BIO SCI 152 92115 Mutualism 0 Two types of relationships 0 smbiotic partners live close having permanent contact with one another 0 Mutualism partners both benefit Lichen symbiosis between two dramatically different species fungus and photosynthetic microorganism o Allows the partnership to endure extreme environments 0 Example Antarctica holds more than 100 times as many species of lichens than vascular plants 0 Almost 20000 species of lichens that include fungi I Majority of the fungi are Ascomycota sac fungi I Photosynthetic organism are usual unicellular green algae can be cyanobacterium 0 Three lichen body forms 1 Crustose crustlike appearance like colored powder dusting over substrates 2 Foliose leafyloosely attached appearance large leaves 3 Fruticose shrubby appearance branched growths that grow upward of hang down in strands o Lichens reproduce o Thallus by body fragmentation o Soredia by specialized structures Mycorrhizae relationship between plant roots and fungi 0 Two types identifies if fungal hyphae has infiltrated plant cell walls 1 Ectomycorrhizae hyphae wraps around plant rootdoes not penetrate 2 Arbuscular mycorrhizae hyphae infiltrates the root and penetrates cell walls ofrootceHs 0 Overall fungus acquires needed organic compounds sugars amino acids and plant is granted better absorption of water and minerals Endophytic 0 Some plants are protected by endophytic fungi o Endophytic fungi live in aboveground regions of plants without generating disease or deleterious symptoms Slpage Biological Sciences 11 BIO SCI 152 92115 0 Endophytic fungi grant plants greater resistance against pathogens insects and mammalian herbivores o Fungi makes alkaloids nitrogencontaining compounds toxic to animals Fungal Life Cycles Fungal Reproduction Fungi use sexual and asexual reproduction 0 Forms ofasexual reproduction 0 Creation ofhaploid spores in sporangia 0 Creation of haploid spores at hyphae tipsspores called conidia 0 Cell division by unicellular fungi I Equal division I Budding asymmetrical I Fission cells into two I Breakage of mycelium 0 Sexual reproduction fungi is not male or female 0 Mating types genetically determined between two or more I Must be different mating types to mate with each other D Prevents selffertilization 0 Six groups offungi four major groups offungi o Microsporidia Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota gt Represent four major groups Ascomycota OOOOO Basidiomycota J Microsporidia Microporidia parasitic unicellular fungi o Smallest eukaryotes siie spores 140 pm in diameter 0 No mitochondria have mitosomes o Derived from mitochondria 0 Contain no DNA 0 Cell wall includes chitin o Intracellular parasite of animals mainly insects crustaceans and fish 0 Can infect mammals humans 6Fae Read as a sequence of events Biological Sciences 11 B10 SCI 152 92115 0 Infections cause chronic disease effects 0 Weight loss 0 Reduced fertility o Shortened life span 0 Invades host cell by polar tube grown from microsporidian spore 0 Polar tube injects sporoplasm spore material 0 Sporoplasm replicates in host creating infective spores Chytridiomycota o Chytrids few lineages of aquatic microorganisms o Reproduction Sexual and asexual o Majority are sexual I Flagellated gametes I Flagellated spores zoospores o 0nIy fungi to have species with agella in any life cycle stage 0 Diverse forms unicellular rhizoid coenocytic hyphae o Parasitic or saprobic Relationships mutualism Zygomycota o No motile gametes o Gametes aren t released into environment 0 Cytoplasms of mating types fuse through plasmogamy before karyogamy fusion oftheir nuclei 0 Zygospore fung39 sexually reproduce when neighboring hyphae of mating types give of chemical signals to grow toward one another 0 Hyphae produce gametangia specialized reproduction cells retained as a piece ofhyphae o In gametangia nuclei replicate wo cell division creating several haploid nuclei 0 Two gametangia fuse forming zygosporangium containing multiple haploid nuclei 0 Haploid nuclei of different mating types pair to form multiple diploid nuclei in the zygosporangium Multilayered cell wall forms around zygosporangium creating a resting stage Harsh environments can kill off many cells leaving one zygo spore B p u ological Sciences 11 BIO SCI 152 92115 0 Zygospore spore created by the union of multiple zoospores 0 Improved environmental conditions allow nuclei in zygospore to go through meiosis creating stalked sporangiophores sprouts bearing sporangim o Sporangim holds products of meiosis haploid nuclei 0 Spores scatter and germinate o Zygospore fungi include terrestrial fungi that live in soil as saprobes parasites or mutualists 0 Produce no agellated cells 0 Produce only one diploid cell 0 Hyphae are coenocytic o Terrestrial earthbound Glomeromycota o Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi terrestrial fungi 0 Relationship symbioticmutualistic with plant roots 0 Hyphae coenocytic 0 Energy source glucose 0 Reproduction Only asexually Dikarya Ascomycota amp Basidiomycota 0 Two groups of fungi have a fungal life cycle stage dikaryon two nucleiquot ploidy nn 0 Two genetically different haploid nuclei coexist and divide within each cell of the mycelium o Dikarya features 0 No gamete cells onlz gamete nuclei 0 Zygote onlytrue diploid structure Ascomycota o Sac fung39 aquatic and terrestrial habitats o Hyphae segmented by moreless regularly spaced septa o Pores allow movement through septum o Reproduction produce sacs called m that contain sexually produced haploid ascospores 8Page Biological Sciences 11 BIO SCI 152 92115 0 Ascoma are fruiting structure Sac fungus yeasts o Unicellular yeasts 0 Domestic fungi brewer s yeast 0 Used to make 0 Bread 0 Wine 0 Reproduction asexual budding o Sexually when two neighboring haploid cells from different mating types fuse Filamentous Sac Fungi 0 Cup fungi morels and truf es o Molds filamentous hyphae don t form large ascomata 0 Produce asci and ascospores o Reproduction sexually o Asexually by conidia that form on tips of particular hyphae Basidiomycota 0 Club fung39 create amazing fruiting structures 0 Fruiting structures called basidiomata include o Mushrooms puffballs bracket shelf fungi o Hyphae septa with distinct pores o Reproduction basidium swollen cell at tip of hyphae reproductive structure 0 Basidiospores contain one haploid nucleus product of meiosis Environmental Sensitivity Lichen o Lichen are highly sensitive to air pollution o Cant excrete toxic substances to absorb the pollution 0 Help biologist monitor air quality 9Pae Biological Sciences 11 BIO SCI 152 92115 Pollution o Biologist use samples of fungi to tract environmental pollutants o Fungi used to help clean sites with pollutants such as 0 Oil spills Toxic petroleum Herbicides Pesticides 000 Synthetic hydrocarbons 10Page Biological Sciences 11 B10 SCI 152 92315 Last Plant Lecture Reading 1 Notes Outline Intro and Fungi Plant LectureReading 2 Notes Learning Objectives 1 Define and use the terms below in correct context 2 Recognize important roles of plants as photoautotrophs in ecological processes and cycles ecosystems and for humans 9 Recognize the major resource limitations in broad ecosystem types biomes 4 Recognize key adaptations in plants for different biomes types 1 Vocabulary organisms that can obtain energy from light and carbon from carbon dioxide plants that grow from a bulb distinct abiotic environments that are major types of communities and ecosystems of plants and animals that are typical of broad geographic regions plants that complete their lifecycle within a single year phase of photosynthesis that converts atmospheric carbon C02 into organic matter trees or shrubs that have needlelike or scalelike leaves and produce cones carbon exchange or movement of carbon in many forms between earth s oceans atmosphere ecosystem and geosphere Arctic coldest biome covered in ice that contains a harsh treeless ecosystem 39 accumulation of dead plants in low oxygen the organic matter decays to form peat and becomes coal under heat and pressure plants that live from year to year continually come back accumulation of dead plants in low oxygen the organic matter decays to form peat species of plants that adapted to survive in an environment with little water by having bulbs succulent leaves no few leaves a waxy cuticle or hairy coat created from plant remain deposits laid during the Carboniferous period that transform over millions of years Mediterranean forest biome with a hot and dry climate with mild temperature winters similar to a desert environment Late Paleozoic Era lasting 3592 to 299 million years ago biome that resembles a savanna has a dry climate with mild temperatures and mainly supports perennial grass and herbs with few trees llPage Biological Sciences 11 B10 SCI 152 92315 special features allowing a plant of animal to live in a place habitat and biome same as grasslands and steppes in North America leaves that store water allowing the plant to survive droughts same as prairie and grasslands of Eastern Europe and Asia trees or shrubs that annually lose their leaves Boreal forestsnow forest is a biome that consists ofa coniferous forest regions or climates with mild temperatures a biome that that s characterized by a large grass plains with occasional trees has a dry and wet season complex biome that is hot and lush yearround with significant rainfall below average precipitation in a region that causes a shortage of water plants that derive their nutrients and moisture from the air and grow on other plants without causing harm herbaceous plants with lone narrow leaves 2 Recognize important roles of plants as photoautotrophs in ecological processes and cycles ecosystems and for humans 0 Photoautotrophs are a key part of the carbon cycle converting it into useable forms for other plants animals and humans as well 0 Photoautotrophs create release oxygen through the chemical reaction photosynthesis there would be no oxygen without plants 0 Plants are food for many organisms including humans animals insects fish etc 0 Plants can be used in the medical field to create medicine and heal wounds 3 Recognize the major resource limitations in broad ecosystem types biomes Resource limitations include temperature light availability and water availability 0 Temperature marked seasons hot climate with high average temperatures year round 0 Two seasons six months ofdry season six months ofwet season 0 Light availability low light not much light can pass through the thick treetop layer 0 Water availability significant frequent rainfall 0 Temperature marked seasons warm average temperatures yearround 0 Two seasons I Long dry cooler winter season leage Biological Sciences 11 B10 SCI 152 92315 I Very wet summer season Light availability sufficient light is available Water availability not much rainfall plant leaves are mainly succulent or have a bulb Temperature marked seasons high temperatures during the day and cooler at night 0 Four seasons I Fall and spring seasons are warm and dry I Summer season are very hot I Winter seasons are cooler and can even see snow Light availability high amounta light is available Water availability little rainfall per year less than 10cm plants tend to be bulbous succulent have a waxy cuticle or hairy coat Temperature marked seasons average temperature is around 65 F 0 Four seasons I Fall and spring have moderate amount of rain and heat I Summer is very hot and dry I Winter can be cool and moist Light availability light cannot get through the dense layer of bushes and trees Water availability not much water falls in this biome plants adapt to the climate similar to the desert Temperature marked seasons vary greatly between seasons can be very cold or hot but is mainly cooler on average 0 Two seasons I Growing season has no frost on the ground and allows plants to grow I Dormant season is too cold for anything to grow Light availability light is easily accessible because there are very few trees Water availability average rainfall per year is around 1030 inches Temperature marked seasons temperatures are cooler with the average around 50 F 0 Four seasons I Spring I Summer is warm I Fall shows a change in leaves color 3Fage Biological Sciences 11 BIO SCI 152 92315 I Winter typically below freezing 0 Light availability canopy is moderately dense and allows light to reach through it 0 Water availability moderate precipitation 0 Temperature marked seasons average temperature is around 32 F 0 Four seasons I Short wet summers I Long cold winters I Summer I Fall 0 Light availability not much light can penetrate through the coniferous forest 0 Water availability not much annual precipitation 0 Temperature marked seasons very low temperatures on average 0 Two seasons I Summer has low temperatures I Winter has very low temperatures far below freezing 0 Light availability because of the position of the sun in the sky this biome receives little light 0 Water availability rainfall varies but doesn t surpass 10 inches 4Page