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Gen. Psychology Notes (Week Five)

by: Jovani Jones

Gen. Psychology Notes (Week Five) PSYCH 1000 - 02

Jovani Jones
GPA 3.2
General Psychology
Dennis Miller

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About this Document

General Psychology
Dennis Miller
Class Notes
Psychology, General Psychology
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jovani Jones on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 02 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dennis Miller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
Monday September 21 2015 Sensation and Perception 51 How Do We Sense Our Worlds Imagine sitting in your car at a stop light Light turns from red to green 0 Almost instantly take foot off of the brake and onto accelerator to drive 0 Why do we do this 0 When the green lit forms waves and particles of energy go into the world and some of this light reach the sensory receptors in your eyes 0 Sensation Energy from the world is detected by a receptormechanism in the nervous system 0 With vision receptors in the retina change their pattern 0 Sensory coding o Transduction A legible signal that travels through the nervous system 0 Perception Making sense of said sensation Color changing traffic lights are understood causing a change in behavior 52 What Are the Basic Sensory Processes How do we experience flavor ChickenOther Foods 0 Hepatic Senses Temperature Pressure Pain 0 Biting into something hot or cold 0 Gustation Taste 0 000000 Different taste receptors across the tongue Molecules of food dissolve into the saliva and interact with taste receptors Taste buds are clustered in papillae Food will stick to taste bud clusters Taste buds Dendrites for the tongue Signal eventually heads for the brain Gustatory cortex is responsible for taste recognition There are five types of taste receptors 1 Sweet a 2 Sour a 3 Salty a 4 Bitter a Responds to complex carbohydrates Responds to proteins Responds to sodium ions Responds to hydroxide ions 5 Umami a Responds to glutamine Al respond to the chemical properties of different molecules 0 Olfaction Smell 0 When a nose is stuffed up flavors of food are very bland o Molecules go from the inside of the nose to the brain 0 Sniffing forcing the food to olfactory receptors 0 An increasedecrease in action potential cause receptors to combine in a variety of ways Heavy metals can damage a person s sense of smell A nose can detect thousands of different odors Combinational coding Activation of two or more receptors to create a smell 0 iClicker Questions 1 Because the brain cannot process physical stimuli directly it must convert the stimuli into chemical and electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain This process is known as a Coarse coding b Signal detection c Sensory adaptation d Transduction 2 Kayla hated the taste of broccoli However after a stroke the hatred disappeared All other aspects of her perception of food arewere unchanged Her stroke most likely affected her a Hypothalamus b Medulla c Thalamus d Gustatory cortex e Amygdala 3 An odor is most likely encoded by an a Single receptor specialized for that odor Activation pattern across several receptor types Single olfactory and single gustatory receptor Activation pattern across several olfactory and gustatory receptor types 999 Friday September 25 2015 Learning 61 How Do We Learn 0 Learning A relatively enduring change in behavior 0 Change results from experience NOT growthmaturation I Learning to develop a way to get a jar of cookies in a kitchen 0 Acquisition and encoding of information I Before a person will not know anything but after the action is done the information will be encoded 0 Memory The nervous system s ability to acquire and retain skills and knowledge 0 Retention and retrieval of information 0 Chapter 7 0 Learning Curve I At the beginning the behavior is not easily done I As time goes on better performance is seen I Eventually the learning curve plateaus making it harder to get better at a behavior without investing serious time into it 0 Riding a bicycle and getting more proficient the more practice is done 0 Forgetting Curve I If a behavior were to be stopped for a period of time how much would we retain that information I Performance gets worse the more time passes I Some tasks will have steep or shallow forgetting curves 0 High school graduating class will decay from memory over time o What types of learning 0 Stimulus Learning I Orienting response to a stimulus 0 Sense and perceive o Orienting response via banging on drums I Neophobia Aversion to a new stimulus o Mere exposure effect Preference for the familiar o Wanting to play a certain station of the radio I Repeated stimulus presentation 0 Habituation Decreased response 0 Setting an alarm song and over time paying no mind to it o Sensitization Increased response 0 Feeling a headache after a stressful moment 0 Classical Pavlovian conditioning I Learning the relationship between to different stimuli I Pavlov s Dogs 0 Dog is presented with food and a tube is attached to measure how much the dog salivates 0 Presented with food the dog will salivate Food US Salivation UR o Pavlov now presents a metronome for the dog to sense and perceive There was no salivation Metronome NS 0 Paired NS with US to condition the dog 0 The US is taken away in favor of the metronome US to make dog salivate CR 0 Operant Instrumental Learning I Relationship between a response and an outcome 0 Observational Learning I Learning through observing others 62 How Do We Learn Predictive Associations iClicker Questions 1 Jazeel has 150 stations available on his car radio however when he drives he always selects the same channel What type of learning s represented by this behavior a Neophobia b The mere exposure effect c Habituation d Sensitization 2 Jazeel experiences moderate back pain from a compressed vertebra however when he is stressed at work his back pain is very intense What type of learning is represented by this behavior Neophobia b The mere exposure effect c Habituation d Sensitization OJ 3 In quotPavlov s dogs what his the salivation following the metronome a US b UR c CS d CR 4 Emily is driving to work during a heavy snowstorm when the brake lights on the car ahead of her come on She hits her brakes but is unable to avoid hitting the car She is badly shaken up in the accident The next time she is driving in the snow she notices that she tenses up every time she sees brake lights come on ahead of her The brake lights are the a US b UR c CS d CR 5 In quotPavlov s Dogs how would Pavlov extinguish ie produce extinction of the CR a Repeatedly present the CS with the US b Repeatedly present the CS without the US c Repeatedly present the US without the UR d Repeatedly present the US with the UR


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