CHEM 141 Week 4 Notes
CHEM 141 Week 4 Notes CHMY 141N - 00
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Sturgeon on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHMY 141N - 00 at University of Montana taught by Mark Cracolice (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Week 4 Chemistry 141 Lecture Notes Lessons 910 Please note that these lessons came from General Chemistry An Inquiry Approach Lesson 9 How do Chemists Express Names and Formulas of Substances Part 1 Overview This lesson covers the basics of how to name ions elements and compounds The diatomic elements are also taught in the lesson and the importance of looking at periodic trends and becoming more familiar with the periodic table are expressed in this lesson Vocabulary IUPAC The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry recommends official names for all substances Diatomic having two atoms Polyatomic having many atoms Binary molecular compound A compound formed from two nonmetals or a nonmetal and a metalloid Mono 1 Di 2 Tri 3 Tetra 4 Penta 5 Hexa 6 Hepta 7 Octa 8 Nona9 Deca 10 Ion Charged particles made from a neutral atom that has lost of gained electrons Cation Positivelycharges ion that is formed when a neutral atom loses electrons Anion Negativelycharged ion that is formed when a neutral atom gains electrons Acid A molecular compound that contains hydrogen and forms a hydrogen ion and an anion when reacted with water Formula for Elements These all are just the symbol for the element because they refer to only one atom However there are a few elements that naturally occur as diatomic or polyatomic These should all be memorized Hydrogen H2 Oxygen 02 NitrogenN2 Chlorine Clz BromineBr2 IodineI2 FluorineF2 Sulfur 8 Phosphorus P4 Also memorize the unique states of matter at which certain elements occur on the periodic table which is at 25 degrees Celsius and 1 bar 11 gasses Group SA H2 02 N2 F2 Clz 2 liquids Hg Br2 Naming Binary Molecular Compounds The first word is the name of the element with a prefix based on the number of atoms of the element there are The second word is the name of the second element with the ending changed to ide and a prefix depending on the number of atoms the prefixes are listed under vocabulary REMINDER 0 H20 is not called dihydrogen oxide it is called water always 0 NH3 is no nitrogen trihydride it is ammonia Examples 0 CaCl2 is named Calcium Dichloride o K3P is named Tripotassium phosphide Naming ons Charge of ions corresponds to the group on the periodic table 0 1A1 o 2A2 o 3A3 o 5A3 o 6A2 o 7A1 The ions with negative charges end with ide The ions with positive charges stay the same as the name of the element Examples Element on name on formula 0 Hydrogen hydrogen ion H 0 Oxygen oxide ion 02 0 Calcium calcium ion Ca2 For transition metals that have more than one charge the ion name is written using roman numerals indicating the charge after the element name There are two transition metals that only have one charge and they need to be memorized They are silver and zinc Silver ion Ag zinc ionZn2 Example Lead lead ion lead ion Pb Pb3 Naming Hydrogen Oxygen and a nonmetal Compound Memorize these 5 they are the basis for this system of naming Lesson Carbonic acid H2C03 Nitric acid HN03 Phosphoric acid H3PO4 Chloric acid HCIOB When all of the hydrogen atoms are removed from these compounds they become anions and the end of the name is changed to ate The charge is the number of hydrogens removed but negative to because hydrogen ions have a positive charge so taking one away would leave a charge that is one less than before Chloric acid become chlorate ion HCIOB becomes HClOB 10 How do Chemists Express Names and Formulas of Substances Part 2 Overview This lesson gets more in depth with naming of compounds charged particles compounds made of ions and compounds made of ions and water molecules The 5 oxoacids need to be memorized because this lesson contains a naming system based off of them Vocabulary There is no new vocabulary for this lesson because it is a continuation of lesson 9 Naming Compounds with Hydrogen Oxygen and a Nonmetal Using the memorized oxoacids there is a naming system that uses the original acid and the addition or subtraction of oxygen Number of oxygens Prefix Suffix Example Formula Example Name relative to the memorized acid One more Per ic HCO4 Perchloric acid Same ic HCIOB Chloric acid One less ous HCIOZ Chlorous aicd Two less Hypo ic HCIO Hypochloric acid None Hydro ic HCI Hydrochloric acid There are relationships between known oxoacids and other acids based on the family they are in in the periodic table 0 Group SA Phosphoric acid H3PO4 arsenic acid H3AsO4 0 Group SA Sulfuric acid HZSO4 selenic acid HZSeO4 telluric acid H2TeO4 0 Group 7A Chloric acid HCIO3 bromic acid HBrOB iodic acid HIOB Removing all of the hydrogen from an ic acid leaves an ion ending in ate Examples 0 Perchloric acid HCIO4 perchlorate ion C104 0 Chloric acid HCIO3 chlorate ion C103 Removing all the hydrogens from an ous acid leaves the ion ending in ite Examples o Chlorous acid HCIOZ chlorite ion C102 0 Hypochlorous acid HCIO hypochlorite ion C10 Naming for Individual Loss of Hydrogen Atoms Think of the original oxoacid and each loss uses a prefix H3PO4 Phosphoric acid H2PO4 Dihydorgen phosphate ion HPO42 Hydrogen phosphate ion PO43 Phosphate ion MEMORIZE 0 These two ions are very common and do not fit in to any of the naming schemes 0 OH hydroxide ion 0 NH4 Ammonium ion Compounds Made of Ions Using the charge of the ions you have to combine two ions in a certain ratio that results in a neutral compound These rations will be small whole numbers and should be expressed at the lowest ration possible Examples 0 Na and Cl combine to create NaCl 0 H and 52 combine to create H25 If using a polyatomic ion more than once it should be expressed in the formula using parenthesis PbN032 Lead Nitrate PbN033 Lead3 Nitrate If using a metal with multiple charges express that in the compound name like seen in the example above Compounds Made of Ions and Water Solid crystal compounds with water are called hydrates They are named using the same prefixes depending on the number of water molecules You need to know how to name the compounds and then name the water using hydrate and a prefix Examples 0 CaN032 4 H20 is Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate o MgC03 5 H20 is Magnesium carbonate pentahydrate