Week 0 Reading Notes
Week 0 Reading Notes Bio Sci E109
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Bio Sci E109
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Muni Notetaker on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio Sci E109 at University of California - Irvine taught by LOUDON, C. in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY in Biology at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Lecture 1 Reading Saturday September 26 Z 1S 713 PM Chapter 1 Cellular Physiology Volume and Composition of Body Fluids Distribution of Water in the Body Fluid Compartments Total body water total amount of uid or water 39 Accounts for 50 to 70 of body weight Total body water correlates inversely with body fat 39 Females have a lower amount of total body water due to the presence of adipose tissue which males do not have TOTAL BODY WATER Intracellular lluid l xtracollular lluxd I I I I Interstitial tluod IPlasma 9 Cell membrane Capillary wall Compartments of total body water 1 Intracellular Fluid ICF III Contained within the cell and is 23 of total body water 2 Extracellular Fluid ECF III Outside of the cell and is 13 of total body water Cl Compartments of ECF 1 Plasma uid circulation in the blood vessels and the smaller of the two compartments 2 Interstitial uid bathes the cells and larger of the two 0 A ultrafiltrate of plasma I Formed by the ltration process that occurs in the capillary wall 9 Plasma and interstitial uid are separated by capillary walls Capillary walls are impermeable to large molecules therefore the interstitial uid does not contain molecules such as proteins 39 ICF and ECF are separated by cell membranes Composition of Body Fluids Compartments Composition is not uniform Units of Measuring Solute Concentrations 39 Amounts of solute expressed in moles equivalents or osmoles 39 Concentrations of solute expressed in moles per liter molL equivalent per liter EqL or osmoles per liter OsmL III Usually expressed in milli 39 Mole 6 X 1023 molecules of a substance 39 Millimole l 1000 or lOquot3 moles 39 Equivalent the amount of charged ionized solute and is the number of moles of the solute multiplied by its valence 39 Osmole number of particles into which a solutes dissociates into solution 39 Osmolarity the concentration of particles in solution expressed as osmoles per liter El Solute does not dissociate into solution then osmolarity is equal to molarity III Solute does dissociate into more than one particle in solution then osmolarity equals molarity time number of particles in solution 39 pH logarithmic term used to express concentration of H hydrogen III pH log10H means that pH decreases as concentration of H increases and vice versa Electroneutrality of Body Fluid Compartments 39 Principle of macroscopic electroneutrality each compartment must have the same concentration in mEqL of positive charges Bio E109 Human Physio Page 1 cations and negative charges anions III Separation of charges is not enough to measurably change bulk concentrations Composition of Intracellular Fluid and Extracellular Fluid 39 ECF Composition III Major cations Na El Balancing cations Cl and HCO3 IZI High concentrations of Ca2 III More basic high pH 39 ICF Composition III Major cations K and Mg2 El Balancing cations proteins and organic phosphates III Low concentration of Ca2 El More acidic low pH 39 Total solute concentration osmolarity is the same in ICF and ECF due to the free owing water across the cell membranes Creation of Concentration Differences across Cell Membranes 39 Difference in solute concentration across cell membranes are created and maintained by energy consuming transport mechanisms in the cell membranes III NaK ATPase pump 9 Transports Na from ICF to ECF and K from ECF to ICF at the same time 9 ATP is required 9 Creates large gradients for Na and K that exist across cell membranes El Ca2 ATPase pump 9 The intracellular CA2 concentration is maintained at a level much lower than the extracellular Ca2 concentration 9 ATP is required III Transmembrane Na concentration gradient as energy source 9 Establishes concentration differences in cell membrane 9 ATP not utilized El Cell membranes are not freely permeable to substances but are selective Concentration Differences between Plasma and Interstitial Fluids 39 Plasma compartment contains proteins that are negatively charged and interstitial uids does not 39 GibbsDonnan equilbrium proteins cause redistribution of small permeant cations and anions across capillary wall 39 GibbsDonnan ratio gives the plasma concentration relative to the interstitial uid concentration for anions and interstitial uid concentration to plasma for cations Characteristics of Cell Membranes Composed primarily of lipids and proteins Lipids consist of phospholipids cholesterol and glycolipids Lipid function gt High permeability of cell membranes to lipidsoluble substances ie carbon dioxide oxygen fatty acid and steroids It39s also responsible for gt Low permeability of cell membranes of watersoluble substances ie ions glucose and amino acids Proteins consist of transporters enzymes hormone receptors cell surface antigens and ion and water channels Phospholipid Component of Cell Membranes Consist of phosphorylated glycerol backbone and two fatty acid tails 39 Glycerol backbone also known as quotheadquot is hydrophilic likes water 39 Fatty acid tails are hydrophobic hates water Amphipathic having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties Monolayer is formed in A in which glycerol backbone dissolves in water phase Wm and fatty acid tails dissolve in oil phase 0 Ciquot Lipid bilayer B shows orientation of fatty acid tails face other and the glycerol heads point away from each other dissolving aqueous solutions of the ICF and ECF Bio E109 Human Physio Page 2 39l 39 lVlOIlOl39dyCI39 IS 10111160 111 A 111 WHICH glycerm D39dCKDOIlC llSSOlVCS 111 water p 39dSC Wm and fatty acid tails dissolve in oil phase on O Lipid bilayer B shows orientation of fatty acid tails face other and the I H 5 y l glycerol heads point away from each other dissolving aqueous solutions of the quot 1 ii 31 i lquot 3 ICF and ECF WW 0000 Waler A Protein Component of Cell Membranes 41mnllulr HIM r nu Maw I CIIU HIHII ntuq ll mum Iquot mom pmtrm 3911 VVH luaumun nun Can be integral or peripheral in the cell membranes 39 Integral membrane proteins embedded in and anchored to the cell membrane by hydrophobic interactions III Can be removed by disrupting the attachments to the lipid bilayer III Types 9 Transmembrane proteins span the entire lipid bilayer one or more times in contact with both ICF and ECF 0 Ex ligandbinding receptors ions channels and etc 9 Embedded in the membrane but does not span it 39 Peripheral membrane proteins not embedded into the membrane and are not covalently bound to cell membrane components El Loosely attached by electrostatic interactions III Can be removed by disrupting ionic or hydrogen bonds 9 Ex ankyrin anchors the cytoskeleton of red blood cells to an integral membrane transport protein Bio E109 Human Physio Page 3