Notes for the week of Sept. 21st
Notes for the week of Sept. 21st HIST 1010 - 001
Popular in World History I
Popular in History
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Donna Jean Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 258 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Rome Republic and Empire Week of September 21 2015 Roman Roots I Etruscans A Modern Turkey B Metallurgy art and language C Settlements akin to Greek Poleis ll Magna Graecia D Greek colonialism Ill Cultural interaction developed into some core precepts of Roman society A Entertainment gladiatorial combat B Language Phoenician alphabet C Religion gods and syncretism like Alexander39s Empire D Government Democracy Shaping Concepts need to know I Paterfamilias family society and the government embodied in the oldest male39s authority and direction over an extended family A PatronClient Relationships subservience and loyalty in exchange for provision and protection ll Pietas devotion to one39s family state and religion in that order Ill Pax decorum quotthe peace of the godsquot communal fate depends on collective solidarity in rituals and practices IV mos maiorum quotthe wayquot or quotcustomquot quotof our bettersquot or quotsuperiorsquot Our traditions Patriarchy important because in rom ether are extended families who always have a richer male who is the highest in the family patron familiance This the beginning of political blocks They will grant what you need for loyalty Family is the more important thing in roman history Through communal religion you have peace with god but family is number one above religion Early Rome and Monarchy 753509 BCE l Extended families formed early political blocs in early roman citystates A Patricians most powerful paterfamiliases formed the advisory committee to the king called the Senatus B Plebeians these were nonaristocratic citizens that were not necessarily poor ll Early kings were probably Etruscan A Patricians felt kingship was tyrannical and ousted the monarchy to form the Republic Ill The Aeneid and Romulus and Remus The Republic The struggle of the Orders 509287 BCE l Senate and Consuls A Two consuls are the most powerful executives possess Imperium the right to start war B Senate are all patricians and elect new consuls from their ranks annuaHy Patricians vs Plebeians A Expansion meant more wealth for the elements of both groups B Plebs still do not have a political voice limits opportunities to favor Patricians Plebian demands and Secessio military strike A Poor redistribution of lands and legal nancial security B Wealthy right to hold of ce not necessarily Senate Also trade interests and representation in military Senate ruled through consoles for a while and started going through territories Plebs started demanding things and started saying quotwe want land and legal securityquot to senators Most plebs made money through trade and many became very wealthy The roman military had lots of plebian members but Rome couldn39t afford to be short on soldiers and plebs said they wouldn39t ght unless they got what they wanted Plebian Assembly and Law Codi cation Plebian Assembly 494 and Tribunes 471 A Challenge municipal court decisions and retry them B Veto certain Senate created laws C Can propose legislation to Senate D Military of ces not previously open to Plebs Twelve Tables 449 BCE publicly displayed laws generate greater transparency LicnianSextian Laws 367 BCE land distribution and mandatory plebian consulship Lex Hortensia 287 BCE Plebian assembly laws are binding on ALL Roman citizens Wealthy plebs now have comparable power to patricians Punic Wars First Punic War 264 241 BCE A Defensive Imperialism B Roman Victory constructing its own powerful navy Carthaginian politics Second Punic Wars 218202 BCE A Carthage expands into Spain and conquers Saguntum B Hannibal Barca 221 marches 50000 troops over the Alps in the winter with elephants to surprise Romans C Consul Fabius Maximus successfully leads defense of Rome D Publus Carnelius Scipio Africanus defeats Carthaginians at Zama Third Punic War 149146 BCE complete destruction of Carthage Unnecessary carnage Rome and Carthage go to war because Carthage39s allies bickering Imperialism was a factor Romans win rst war Carthage39s had a stronger navy but Rome built a navy Carthage politics forces the hand of many commanders but they messed up the war The second Punic war Carthage lost territory to Rome and Carthage started expanding into Spain but Rome said don39t pass a line Rome in patient client relationship Spain wanted that protection Hannibal Barca seized Sangtum Barca does the unthinkable and marches troops through Alps in the winter to surprise the romans You don39t ght in the winter He lost half his troops but he has elephants He came close to winning Third war was unnecessary and was to wipe out the last of threats Revolt of Gracchi l Tiberias Gracchus 133 amp Gaius Gracchus 123122 BCE A Latifundias B Agrarian Reform ll Senatus Constum Utimum emergency senate meeting calling in troops to violently quell Gracchus followers Over 3300 dead lll Legacy of Gracchus people continue to challenge senatorial power and seek citizens for ALL Italian peoples IV quotBread and Circusesquot used to describe the grain distribution and entertainment of the following eras as opposed to the quotheroismquot of the Republic Maintains statusquo Latifundias is like a southern plantation ran by slave labor of conquered people They produce stuff cheap making nutrition rich There were farmers who could no longer make it who move to Rome they left their land but you need land to ght The Gracchi brothers run off of a base of popularity They wanted a piece of all the conquered stuff They want to make sure the soldiers got some conquered land and the government saw this as a threat The government said see no harm come to the state so consuls had to do what it took to keep everything the same and many died including the brothers Many in the middle class threated the ancient power traditions At the end of the republic people were starving there was a lack of food and distract starving people through grain distribution and entertainment After revolt things go to normal Military Dictators l Gaius Marius A Military loyalty 111103 BCE B Military backing for political power corruption ll Cornelius Sulla 88 BCE A Gains territory of Pontus Marius tries to take it B 88 BCE Sulla amp sic legions march back and clean up Rome C 8281 BCE Sulla declares himself military dictator amp seeks to restore the power of the Senate Kills thousands considered a threat to traditional Senatorial power New military leader changes everything formerly the military was restricted Now if they ght they are promised land and loot If I win you win Loyal to commander over state When commanders come back they usually dissolve army but not anymore so they start corrupting because the want things and they threaten because they have a nearby army Dude with army outside got a rich piece of land known as Pontus Marius sneaks back into Rome and tries to do the same failure again He died of a natural disease before getting to Rome so Sulla killed a few thousand supporters of Marius His goal was to see restoration of senate He was dictator for a year straightens up politics and gets out He started suppressing the people First Triumvirate 59 BCE l Julius Caesar Pompey and Crassus A Senate will not ful l the commanders39 promises to troops ll Death of First Triumvirate A Caesar becomes too popular in Gaul B Pompey sides with Senate III Civil War 49 BCE A Caesar is victorious and names himself Perpetual Dictator B Openly outs tradition and aunts power Loved by the people not the Senate C Assassinated on ldes 15th of March 44 BCE D Brutus amp Cassius People were being suppressed and Sulla undermines government Caesar makes massive wealth in France Crassus goes to war Rome is getting rich from Caesar and the poor are eating He is popular to the people and not the government Pompey is asked to stand and protect Rome so eager to be popular he agrees Caesar is an enemy of the state if he crosses back with the army but he gets mad because he did so much Pompey runs off to Egypt where he is executed he does this because he knew he wouldn39t win in the end Caesar is soooo loved by the people and he doesn39t adhere to tradition and hold multiple offices which are normally held by diff people He is very showy about what he has and is doing and this gets him assassinated Second Triumvirate l Marcus Antony Lepidus and Octavian A Goals challenge to Senate restore Caesar39s reforms and take control of Rome39s armies B Popular among the people the Legacy of Caesar ll 42 BCE Declare the end of the Republic lll Death of the Second Triumvirate A Antony marries Octavian39s sister but is Cleopatra39s lover B Octavian is master of propaganda paints Antony as a traitor disregarding mos maiorum C Octavian s troops defeat Antony s at Actium in 31 BCE Mission avenge his legacy of Caesar Marc Anthony was a trusted general Octavian is Caesar39s grandnephew who is his heir Goal was to avenge death by killing the assassinators and challenge the power of the senate and they succeed well They become 3 most powerful men in Rome Antony married Octavian s sister they had a falling out and this makes them make up and 2 most powerful men in Rome Marc nds himself in Egypt and meets Cleopatra They have a ing and she also had a ing with Caesar Cleopatra39s isn39t as beautiful and she is made out to be but her attractive qualities were internal She spoke multiple languages and she is a scholar sort of Marc is extremely intrigued and Cleopatra39s wants in in roman politics Marc gets back to Rome and Octavian is furious and smart Octavian39s mom and Cleopatra were very powerful women in history just fyi Octavian is furious and goes on a journey to undermine marc Anthony and avenge sister He makes himself more popular by reading Caesar39s will to the people while marc is in Egypt which the people loved because he built himself in the image of the Caesar and he also read marcs will which is not very good it said he wants power to go to he and Cleopatra39s kids which made the romans very mad and there was a lot in the way of tradition that wasn t roman Marc is made into a bad looking persona and he is killed Cleopatra committed suicide Octavian is most powerful man in Rome and under 30 years old Roman Empire l Octavius Augustus Caesar A Princeps amp Background Leadership ll Pax Romana 27 BCE 180 CE Civil service and Bureaucracy Infrastructure quotFather of the Countryquot 2 BCE Procreation Laws Subsequent Emperors ldeals W909 He gets added name of Augustus The thing he does that makes him diff from Caesar is instead of being called emperor or something that makes him more powerful then everyone he wants to be called Princeps or rst of the people This is humility which is the image he wants He operates in the background he acts humble but it the most powerful man in Rome people love this Pax Romana is roman peace which is about 200 years of relative peace reaching their peak Aqueducts were a roman miracle and very important and expansive Roman roads extended over 50000 miles US is smaller Some of the roads are still usable today built to last This created jobs He is being seen as father of the country and quotfirst roman emperorquot Nobody is ever as successful as he Made procreation laws to build up Rome and make it stronger Rise of Christianity Jesus of Nazareth A Baptism B Ministry C Cruci xion D Teachings E Elaboration by Paul i John the Baptist Happens during period of Roman Empire launching another one of the world39s major religious traditions Christianity takes heavily from Jewish and Hebrew monotheism Jesus of Nazareth was born in a new piece of Roman Empire called Judea orJuda This was not a very tranquil area lots of con ict between Jews and roman overlords He grew up in an atmosphere of con ict At age 30 he passed through a baptism by john the Baptist John had been preaching in area about the coming of the savior and eminent end of the world and people need to confront their own shortcomings and address their sins He took people to Jordan River to symbolize washing away of sins This baptism had a huge effect on Jesus From 30 33 he preached taught and healed He then had a small following of people At the age of 33 he was accused of setting himself up as king of the Jews and taken by Romans He was then sentenced to death by cruci xion His followers were scared this was the end then word spread he was alive and rose from the dead This was a big deal This shows he is Gods incarnate We know a lot of him through is disciples and followers who continued his message The teachings ofJesus primarily was the fatherhood of God and the Jewish tradition of monotheism as well as a brotherhood of humankind a forgiveness of ones enemies forsaking greed resurrection everlasting life heaven We know this from the people who followed and wrote of him Of all who wrote ofJesus Paul the Baptist was most important because he wrote extensively He took a minorJewish sect Christianity and transformed it into a major world religion by elaborating on its theology and transforming it into a systematic theology and 2 paramount ideas he emphasized was Jesus is Christ that Christ was God in human form who came to earth to save humans from sin and the other is what it takes to be saved is faith Pau reay elaborated on what is necessary to be saved is faith and God Spread of Christianity A Rivals 1 Stoicism 2 Neoplatonism 3 Cult of Mithra 4 Roman state i Zoroastrianism ii Ahura Mazda B Heresies Arian C Problems of Empire D Persecutions i Council of Nicaea ii Martyrs Begins to spread on congregations form This spreads through Roman Empire Part of the success of Christianity is the failure of its rivals A couple of philosophies were competition that are the same as religion sort of one of these is stoicism Zeno world is orderly and rational reason for everything and our duty to accept and endure huge moral code and ethics which was embraced by more educated people and this was a philosophy of not getting too attached and this took place of religion to people Compared to Christianity stoicism didn t stack up Neoplatonism circulated in educated people this is a roman revival of Plato who saw reality was a separate realm of ideals that can only be grasped through intellect and highest goal was contemplating and understanding the realm of ideal beauty etc and this is a very high power and nonaccessible to all when Christianity is very accessible to everyone and seemed a lot more egalitarian open to all democratic etc The Roman state religion was the roman adaptation of the Greek religious traditions who used the same gods but changed names into Latin there is a very complex god system which doesn39t stack up against the goodness of Christianity The most serious rival was the Cult of Mithra This is a mystery religion a generic expression and a religion that offers last judgment and everlasting life and this stems from Zoroastrianism cosmic struggle between god of good ahura mazda and god of evil and Mithra is a lieutenant of Ahura Mazda in mythology of Zoroastrianism Mithra is being worshipped in his own right and this does stack up against Christianity a lot of the same promises and moral content The huge difference that makes Christianity more successful of the Jesus of Nazareth is a real historical gure someone who is known by people has a record and was loved and good and real Heresies is a belief that is incorrect or false so churches have their own established beliefs and a heresy contradicts the beliefs of the church KNOW THIS WORD In Christian history these has been many heresies that popped up really early These are a problem because church sees them as wrong and it divides the religion threatens to fracture the church and break it up it39s a threat In its early history heresies popped up undermining this as a single religion and ultimately detracted from its success the most profound being the Aryan heresy that has to do with nature of the trinity which is the father the son and the holy spirit which is 3 in 1 this is a huge deal The trinity was that god took 3 formsmanifestation and yet each is distinct Arias didn39t see it this way he believed Christ was created by God and is separate from god This is a heresy because it suggests poytheism over monotheism which is a HUGE deal and issue in the early church which sparked the movement of Arian heresy This could have been a huge divide but it didn39t The early church got aggressive dealing with these threats There was a council of Nicaea This is a huge meeting that can last years of high ranking clergymen that meet over issues of doctrine this is when they once and for all de ne trinity of 3 to 1 the idea is its three manifestations of one god By adopting and formalizing it they end the heresy and maintain the unity of the Christian church They did so well early on by aggressively dealing with heresies At a certain point in history Rome becomes a mess It has so many internal problems and seems to be politically instable at a certain point and so much ghting over who is next emperor and much civil war when any conquering hero decides he wants to be emperor There is so much con ict that it makes people look more sympathetically at Christian movement because they are preaching peace and passivism Certain roman emperors actually persecuted Christians which helps Christianity because it turns them into MARTYRS which is someone willing to die for his or her beliefs know this word The thing about persecution is when people persecute people it makes them into martyrs and indirectly this helps their cause and turns these people who died for their religions into role models This also has the effect of ltering out those who aren39t truly committed so those left are truly devoted lll Rise of Papacy A Specialness of Rome B Doctrine of Petrine Succession C Decline in the political authority i Mathew ii Power to loose and to bind iii Leo iv Attila the Hun The position of pope spiritual leader of christening starts out of bishops of city of Rome and that evolves into the papacy This happens to these speci c Roman bishops because they were more stable and didn39t have the issues of the heresies like other bishops elsewhere This was a special congregation and it doesn39t hurt that it was centrally located This is a special congregation because it was visited by Paul the Baptist as well as Peter Peter was the rst bishop of Rome What makes it even more special is the Doctrine of Petrine Succession petrinePeter and in the bible Christ gives peter the power to Loose and to bind loose approve bindforbid which is crucial in the church power and key to papal authority This is Christ giving power to make doctrine to peter All subsequent bishops in Rome have claimed the same power over time People kept looking to Pope for political leadership In 453 Attila the Hun Huns were people from the east who migrated into Europe and were very terrifying Attila as very scary and invaded Rome and were ready willing and able to sack them Pope Leo l meets with Attila and talks him into leaving and sparing the city of Rome When no emperor would Popes stepped up and this gave them political authority The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire l Internal problems A Military B Political C Economic i Gibbon ii Foederati iii Marcus Aurelius iv Commodus v Septimus Severus Gibbon wrote many books on the decline and fall of the Roman Empire Gibbon looked for a cause and wanted to attribute the fall to Christianity which promoted passivism blind faith for logic etc that undermine the empire The fall is blamed on things from malaria to morals This is a story of rise and fall for a single reason There are many causes most of them are internal problems that weakened it ultimately making it vulnerable to invasion of Germanic people Military is a huge internal problem there are a ton of borders to protect By the 2nCI century and the empire stops expanding the people don39t want to serve in their armies anymore By the 3rd century nobody wants to serve so start recruiting mercenaries from beyond the frontier Germanic who are known as Foederati These people are recruited by the commander posted on the frontier These people are ghting for money not Rome these mercenaries are hit or miss and nonprofessional as well as they have a history of switching sides and they only relate to their immediate commander not the emperor or Rome This makes the borders very weak There are internal political problems There is a very powerful emperor who is commander and chief law maker high priest etc and a very autocratic empire There is a problem and no written rule for who ends up emperor next This results in crisis The current emperor started choosing someone to success him before he died and trains this person up until Marcus Aurelius Marcus was a good guy and stoic philosopher except he let family considerations override betterjudgement choosing his son who was a very vicious and incompetent ruler and he was horrible After Commodus the son there is a chain of horrible emperors and next was Septimus Severus and quotlook after the soldier and stern the restquot aka take care of your troops and forget everyone else was what he was known by The failure to come up with a constitutional way to select emperors is why there were many issues Once an emperor died a lot of the time the army would choose next emperor or even overthrow and install themselves through civil war militarily This destabilizes and weakens Rome internally making it very vulnerable There were many economic problems Because the empire is so large unity is an issue There was a cultural divide between east and west The eastern was more Greek western was more Latin culturally The west is what really declines and falls What makes unity between east and west was the economy In its hay day the economy was interdependent so they made surpluses and swapped goods also this integrated remote provinces and this worked nicely This starts to break down and provinces start striving for selfsuf ciency and this central component to unity is crumbling The other economic issue is cost of labor when the empire was built and more was conquered it creates a pool of slave labor or POW39s who were taken back to Rome and sold as slaves and the net result of expansion and Punic Wars was the introduction of slave labor By end of 1St century Rome is no longer expanding Prisoners of war were the largest slave laboring in history As slave supply dries up cost of labor becomes very expansive and creates in ation huge issue later The economic policies of emperors themselves becomes in ationary and they like to debase the coinage or tamper with the value of the currency by taking some of the metal out of the coins and create more coins which is in ationary Messing with coins in this way is a stupid thing to do economically because it causes in ation ll Reforms A Diocletisn B Constantine i Prefectures ii Constantinople iii Milvian Bridge The reason the empire lasts so long till 476 is because of the reforms of Diocletian and Constantine Diocletian was a major persecute of Christians but he was important because he was concerned of political instability and that there was so much ghting and civil war and abuse was power He thinks maybe we separate civilian and military power He redesigns government to an extent and divides empire into a series of Prefectors or districts Each is headed by a Prefect or governor and this is a civilian but there is also a military commander posted too but this isn39t the same person He is worried of transfer of power after he dies to he comes up with a complicated system for the next emperor where there is a co emperor and a chain of succession complex and confusing but Constantine disrupts the system He comes along and disrupts Diocletian s plan militarily and claims the throne in the midst of military complex At Malian bridge he saw a sign he was pagan which was a giant cross in the sky and he took this as his sign to be open to Christianity sand eventually convert When he is in power he wanted religious tolerance and to make Christianity the main religion By embracing Christianity and allowing it to grow this did breathe new life into the empire for a bit lll Barbarian Invasions A Germanic society 1 Tribes 2 Warfare 3 Justice B Invasions i Tacitus ii Comitatus iii Vassalage iv Feudalism v Attila the Hun vi Theodoric the Ostrogoth vii Compurgation viii ordeal The barbarian invasions is what really ends the empire They begin streaming into the empire which destroys portions of the empire There are the Germanic people of many subsets These people were the founders of modern Europe The romans thought of them in an odd way and Tacitus wrote of these people calling them barbarians because they were organized tribally but these tribal people had early forms of kingdoms This is an indication of how backward they were and how violent these people are which is ironic because the romans are really violent He was quite impressed by them physically by their size and their scary nature as well as red hair and blue eyes War is a way of life for these people and Tacitus said that their system of warfare was primitive they fought by using comitatus or Germanic wat bank Instead of having standing armies of troops a local tribal chief who wanted to go to war he would call young men together to go to battle and put down their lives for him a man to man relationship in return for care and pillage and steal anything not nailed down war booty which is a sort of subsistence We think these are the origins in vassalage and feudalism Justice is backward for the Germanic people as well there are 2 types of trials One is compurgation which is talking to the heavens and witnesses and oaths are taken these people are brought in which this had a huge effect on modern world The other has the person hold red hot iron and then wrap the hands up unwrap the hands and see what happened if they heal nicely the supernatural things indicate goodness and if it festers they are guilty These are the people who polish off the Roman Empire For ages they lived at the frontier and the romans had plenty knowledge of these people they coexist at the frontier At around 400 CE the Huns start entering Europe from the east and start terrifying the Germanic people and they start into empire to stay away from Huns and by 476 they are all over the western part of the empire and they take over They don39t come in thinking about taking over and converting it they come in settles and think themselves as romans They saw this whole phenomenon as them becoming romans but they didn39t have the cultural background to sustain roman way of life and that39s how it perishes