9/15 Genotype to Phenotype
9/15 Genotype to Phenotype ANTH1001
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This 2 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Gruber on Sunday September 28, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to ANTH1001 at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 218 views.
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Date Created: 09/28/14
Genotype to Phenotype Regulatory Elements significant changes occur in the noncoding DNA instead of the genes themselves many genes are highly conserved Noncoding DNA larger fraction of genome in eukaryotes compared to prokaryotes gt98 o for humans about 80 of noncoding DNA is estimated to have some biological function including regulation of gene expression transcription chromosomal structure protection of genome from large scale changes Genotype to Phenotype genes specific alleles physical expressed traits natural selection operates on phenotypes phenotype includes behavior may be subject to natural selection if that behavior has some genetic bias Sexual Reproduction DNA in the cell is organized into pairs of homologous total chromosomes number of chromosomes in a 2 spermegg fertilized egg has equal genetic contribution from each parent many organisms allow different rules Meiosis occurs in germ line cells produces two sta es recombination via among each pair of homologous chromosomes two divisions production of 2 gametes sperm and egg unite to form a zygote Why Sex minimize effects of detrimental gene variations increased variation in offspring more rapid response to environment changes Mendelian Genetics Gregor Mendel 1822 1884 Austrian monk conducted breeding experiments with mice bees and pea plants groundbreaking work went undiscovered for 35 years Key Insights factors enes are discrete units some genes have variant forms or j alleles may be allele pairs separate during gamete formation and randomly reunite at fertilization allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes Autosomes and Sex Chromosomes 22 pairs of 1 pair of Z triggers testis development X chromosome linked trait colorblindness Discrete categorical Variation ex ABO blood type controlled by a single gene A and B alleles are over the 0 allele Continuous Variation traits spread over a continuum instead of grouped in categories continuous variation in phenotype across a geographical area human cline skin color polygenetic trait probably at least 1520 genes Mutation an alteration in the DNA of a cell may or may not alter the function of the cell ex point mutation insertiondeletion mutation chromosomal mutation ultimate source of all novel genetic variation many mutations are neutral no phenotypic effect
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