9/17 Forces of Evolution
9/17 Forces of Evolution ANTH1001
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This 2 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Gruber on Sunday September 28, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to ANTH1001 at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 246 views.
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Date Created: 09/28/14
Mutations point mutation ex sickle cell anomia changes characteristics of red blood cells homozygous recessive often fatal areas where this is quite common multiple effects of a single gene insertion mutation ex Huntington s disease degenerative neurological disorder autosomal dominant allele on chromosome 4 something added that wasn t there before disease three nucleotides repeated protein remains functional deletion mutation something in the sequence is pulled out protein remains functional deletion on chromosome 21 that codes for CCR5 protein homozygous individuals are resistant to some HIV strains Chromosomal Mutations usually caused by trisomy extra chromosome monosomy missing chromosome chromosome chunks are fused together sections not passed on from parent cells can result in extramissing chromosome often VERY BAD often fatal to zygoteembryo exceptions Turner syndrome XO Downs syndrome trisomy 21 Keinfeter s syndrome XXY humans have 46 chromosomes great apes have 48 chromosomes at some point chromosome 2 fused with another chromosome complex relationship between genes and environment variety of outcomes can come from one gene based on the individual s environment ex PKU phenylketonuria can include severe mental disability seizures rashes microcephaly small head linked to underdeveloped brain pliotropic trait autosomal recessive trait effects can be minimized by restricting intake of the amino acid phenylalanine in the diet are mutations bad big changes often are prevent embryozygote development manymost don t have any phenotypic effect silent mutations only heritable if the mutation is occurring in a germline cell or gametes genes should be understood in context must control environments before drawing conclusions about heritability how much of the variation in a phenotypic trait can be attributed to inherited qualities refer to the percenta e of phenotypic presence I useful for i in different environmental conditions Forces of Evolution j movement across a geographic barrier leads to change in the gene pool affects the presenceabsencefrequency of traits if no gene flow populations will diverge can occur between species loss of genetic variation due to most likely to occur in small populations specific cases when new population is established gene pool depends on founding population not species as a whole niche construction environment shapes organism which shapes environment change environment individuals selected to fit environment changed plays role in evolution sexual selection reproductive asymmetry in many animals males have in reproductive success compared to females females typically invest more in offspring than males female goal maximize access to resources tend to be more selective in reproductive choices male goal maximize reproductive opportunities males are often competitors for female choice