Survey Art History 2
Survey Art History 2 ART 196
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Blaze Gulgowski on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ART 196 at Kansas State University taught by Douglas Dow in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/214959/art-196-kansas-state-university in Art at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Art History 41111 4112011 92400 PM Continuing emphasis on drama and Grandeur this is what characterizes the baroque Allegory of Divine Providence Barberini family Michelangelo painted ceilings as well but the approach to ceiling paintings has changed from the point of view or style Michelangelo divided the ceiling into fields that he then filled with old testament stories Cortona has done a similar thing with an architectural frame but unlike Michelangelo he paints as through we are actually looking into the sky above this building a view into the heaven above He filled it with all types of figures with all types of contorted poses very dramatic emphasis on multiplicity a lot of stuff going on When looking at baroque works all of these artists are interested in theatrical spectacles often involved in theatrical sets etc Emphasis on DRAMA DRAMA DRAMA DRAMA The fresco has a propagandistic message election of pope Urban VIII a Barberini Divine providence dominating the scene rising up at one end of the ceiling she is gesturing towards the figure holding a crown of stars who is headed up to another collection of figures and symbols Figures are the theological virtues of faith hope and charity They are carrying the coats of arms of the Barberini family Barberini Bees which are being joined to two crossed keys and a funny looking hat We associate keys with saint peter and the papacy is associated with saint peter Joining of the Barberini coat of arms with the papal coat of arms Fresco that tells us that it is divine will that is the reason that Urban VIII became pope We return to the construction of the New Basilica of Saint Peter s Modified from Bremante to Michelangelo it is changed yet again when the Baroque period inherits it Moderno was made the chief architect witnessed the destruction of the last piece of old saint peters Kept michelangelo s Colossal Corinthian order and the attic story He kept michelangelo s basic design The Facade of Saint Peter s is very wide and low it comes from the structural history The end bays were originally meant to support bell towers They were never built because once the construction had begun they realized it wouldn t support the weight so they scrapped it He handles this well he makes it step forward The temple front steps forward the most He changes the vertical members from flat pilasters to engaged Corinthian columns Moderno had a difficult task partly because of the sheer scale of Saint Peter s We are looking at a flattened wall surface not a classical porch What he actually gives us is a narthex on the other side of the wall is an entrance chamber Old Saint peter s had a narthex as well it s a nod to the early Christian basilica and bringing the origins of church into the present as a way of making a case that the roman catholic church was founded by Christ High renaissance didn t give a shit about the narthex The real design issue is the scale those columns are freakin huge The bases are taller than a human being Michelangelo maintained that centrally planned design Moderno does away with this he lengthens the nave And by lengthening the nave he gives saint peter s a latin cross plan much like the original saint peter s There is a kind of nod back to the early Christian church Moving from the pagan influence of the high renaissance This is something that the church actually speaks about in its official decisions that the long plan is better suited than the centrally planned one Saint peter s is part of a much bigger complex with the Vatican and a piazza in front of the basilica SCALE major thing with the basilica and the colonnade It is a massive open space Bernini becomes the chief architect of Basilica of Saint Peters one of the major things he did was design this piazza You can fit a shit ton of people in it It is actually set up for a buffer zone that separates the Basilica from the rest of Vatican city Baroque interest in more complex geometric form than the Renaissance in the baroque period we see the oval and more complex quadrilaterals The other thing that the colonnade does it acts as arms that extend out from the basilica almost in an embrace holding the shot ton of people gathering people into the church Metaphorically and literally Bernini thought of them in the terms of arms as well Another thing that they do is when you have to walk the distance across you can walk through the colonnade and be protected from the elements The columns are arranged radially around a certain point Bernini was also responsible for the interior of Saint peter s His biggest challenge was to decorate this massive space without making the decorations look out of proportion to the size of the architecture The crown in the nave is 144 feet tall 1213 story building size BIGGGGG space One example of the difficulty of decorations is the Baldacchino that is over the altar the Baldacchino stands almost a hundred feet tall About the equivalent of Moore Hall It is made out of bronze cast out of bronze but it is actually a structure We see the blurring of those boundaries between architecture and sculpture It s a lot of bronze expensive and kind of rare A lot of the bronze came from the Pantheon Stripped bronze fittings from the pantheon and melted them down so they could cast the Baldacchino This is allowedpromoted by the pope and resulted in a popular uprising there were a lot of people that weren t excited and thought they should have stayed at the pantheon Someone made the statement what the barbarians didn t do the Barberini did do which is a very serious criticism to level at the papacy The spiral columns a particular order that doesn t matter In the old saint peter s there were columns that had this corkscrew spiral solomonic order Corkscrew columns making a reference to the old saint peter s Borromini was much like moderno from the same area Rome in the 17th century is like new york in the 1950 s Rome draws people from throughout italy He works as a stonecarver at first under moderno then Bernini Borromini has a major interest in geometry making the facade of churches into a sculptural event emphasis on baroque geometries the church is a pinched oval Four fountains Quattro fontane Saint Charles at the Four fountains Very compact structure this isn t an enormous structure But despite the small size he made the best of the situation and used it to his advantage When we look into the dome of the nave he has given us a series of coffers made our of fairly complex geometric shapes rather than just squares The other thing he s done is that he has made them diminish in size as they get closer to the top of the vault to force the perspective It makes the vault appear taller than it actually is The other thing you can see is that it looks very sculptural looks like the sides had been carved ut in places Sculpture of David by Bernini SO MANY STATUES OF DAVID Emphasis on drama drama drama Story of david and goliath yadda yadda He gives us David with the sling and he is holding the stone in the base of the sling He is winding up He has reached the peak and the next thing he is going to do is fling the stone It is the emphasis on that moment the dramatic tension filled moment Baroque Baroque Baroque drama drama drama Comparing the two davids michelangelo s is all clam and reserved he is focused on the task With Bernini s it is the actual moment The way they are rendered is much different as well Bernini doesn t give us contrapposto he gives us a study of the human body in motion Dramatic emphasis on the tortion of david Also he is not freakin huge Bernini s david was normal sized Bernini worked a lot with the theater which showed through in his artwork The ecstasy of St Teresa Teresa is one of these new counterreformation saints Teresa was a mystic and visionary she had a vision of having her heart pierced with a flaming arrow by an angel who came to her bodily in physical form So this moment pictured is the angel piercing her multiple times and showing the pain and pleasure orgasmic through her expression Using sexual pleasure as a metaphor kind of ramps this up He s presented this image of teresa and to either side of the chapel he has made little theater boxes with sculptures of people watching The people watching are the donors Behidn teresa and the angel are these bronze rods coming down to illuminate this mystical event There is no visible source of light It makes it seem like a miracle Really Bernini is using his skills as a stage designer to do a little trick play The stain glass window is above and there is an air shaft that allows light to filter in from this unseen source SPAIN Italy and Spain are linked by their devotion to Catholicism and also by politics Spain was faithful to the church and would execute or expel people that weren t loyal to the church Naples was under Spanish control and spain would import artists from italy Spanish painting is highly influence by Caravaggio Caravaggio moved from rome to Naples His style is seen there and it is brought to spain Example of how a Spanish painter brought two traditions toether to make something new The still life is a northern phenomenon but to the genre form of the still life we see the dramatic lighting that we see in Caravaggio s painting a single light source dramatic lighting its an Italian thing When Cotan brings these things together we get something greater than the sum of the parts He has used the directional light but also the really elegant almost musical about the way the curve is Very beautifully done Composition is a major part of this picture What we get is a major picture that seems far more interesting than what it actually is a bunch of food Oil on panel to Oil on canvas in the 16th century in the north The switch to canvas was because the venitian painters are adopting oil sooner than other Italian painters and the venitians are sailors Use a lot of canvas Herp a derp Dead person life size 3 length figure that represents a martyr St Serapion There are a coupleof competing versions of his biography We see an interest in a really bright foreground being contrasted against a black background He is bound and chained but it is that visual contrast between him and the background that gives a completely still image where nothing is moving and nothing is happening This is a saint who has died for his faith represented as a hero and a martyr It invokes a reverence and respect for Serapion The emphasis isn t on suffering this is calm and still Almost meditative and devotional while still invoking a response 3 versions of his martyrdom He went to go liberate Christians in Africa Most accepted death said he was captured in Scotland by English pirates and killed this is probably what is represented Art History 41811 4112011 92400 PM Rembrandt The Night Watch The sense that this is actually a group portrait is lost Instead the event is so emphasized that it is really hard to determine which are portraits and how we are supposed to read this If we look closer you can tell He was a very sought after during this period Its really just Rembrandt using this even as an excuse to do this representation He violates the convention of the group portrat Title is kind of a misnomer Rembrandt is also a well known printmaker Called the hundred guilder print It commanded the price of one hundred guilders at an auction This attests to the success of Rembrandt Jesus gathering up his followers we see that Rembrandt has given the followers the characteristics of poor homeless socially low people We see that Christ recognizes the nobility and the worth of these people Part of the reason we can see this in the print is due to his skill as a printmaker and the way the ink appears on the paper Etching and drypoint EtchingIntaglio printing Biteincision in the metal Not a crisp clean line A Drypoint line is a bit fuzzier Uses a different needle Mozzotint take a metal plate and take a device that you work the whole surface of the plate with and you re covering it with a bunch of tiny indentations to create a rocked plate Many times printmakers will destroydeface prints so that they do not use them again Ruisdael The Jewish Cemetery We ll see landscape become one of the most evocative of the genres and one with endless possbilities Literal depictions of landscapes as well as more imaginative views of natural scenes This one is imaginative What s interesting is how Ruisdael has brought together things that exist in the world together with other things that exist in a way that they don t actually exist lol The tombs are placed in an in imaginary place Jews especially enjoyed the religious freedom of the Dutch Republic Genre scenes from everdaylife You don t HAVE to read this symbolically Architectual paintings Saenredam Interior of the choir of St Bavo s This interior is a reformed church interior it has been thoroughly whitewashed no religious imagery It is seen in a way you can t actually see The way he painted it is a wide view taking in a lot of the floor and vault a much wider field than we can actually take in He would combine freehand drawings and measured drawings He simplified and harmonized the interior the floor tiles don t normally line up but he did in the painting People got buried in the church under the floors Genre paintingscene from everyday life Opportunity to explore human relationships Aftermath of the visit of Saint Nicolas on December 5 John the Baptist ken Everyone got something except the crying boy Even he is going to be okay because the interactions between the people woman in the back is gesturing that she has something for him Some of these painters in the dutch republic also had normal jobs on the side Jan Steen was an innkeeper Vermeer paints these genre scenes but they don t seem to have a narrative they don t do or say anything Enigmatic aspects of his paintings is why he is often known as the Sphinx of Delft Didn t paint a lot 35 Scenes of interiors that are calm and suggestive and lit from the left Camera obscura make a room really dark small opening like a pinhole Measuring and sorting of woman holding balance and the measuring and sorting of the last judgement The vanishing point of the picture is just to the left of the pinky finger Something a little tricky about him Lapis lazuli very very blue pigment Chapter 21 The Baroque in France and England Difficult period for these two nations the split between Catholicism and Protestantism made itself known and there were also dynastic struggles power struggles and other controversies Ends up leaving England and france with less money smaller populations and divisions of the loyalties of the populus of different religious sects France catholic Englandprotestant Wars and uprisings provided oppurtunites for human atrocity Hangman s Tree Jacques Callot would document the events of the wars and uprisings Spent a significant portion of his career in italy but returned to France Great miseries of war 30 years war through his eyes Civilian backlash Finally these thieves sorted and forlorn hanging like unfortunate pieces of fruit from this tree Etc executions because of the horrific subject matter as well of the matter of fact representation via etching journalistic almost De La Tour Joseph the Carpenter Caravaggio yayyy Tenebrism His methods spread through france Started out as a genre painter his sensibility as such influenced his religious images He did make a trip to the dutch republic possibly where he saw tenebrism Mixture of a genre scene and the mystery of faith The only thing that makes his religious is the identity of the carpenter Simon Vouet Toilet of Venus The act of prettying oneself Ability to assimilate a series of different styles throughout his career Added a venitian influence the emphasis on color Vibrant and decorative style that appealed to the French aristocracy Probably painted for one of the king s mistresses Art History 42511 4112011 92400 PM Chapter 22 Rococo excessively stylish frilly ornate overblown Mashup of rocaille and barocco Rocaille human made cave decorated with shells and pebbles Extends right up to the French Revolution Emergence of the major art academies Debate erupts about paint handling what paint should look like split into two factions Poussinistes Disengo drawers line contour Rubenistes Colore more about color painterly application Full blown theoretical debate during this period Watteau Pilgrimage to Cythera He was born in a town that only became part of france a few years after his birth north france flanders He grew up with the work of Rubens and continued to study after he moved from his hometown Watteau s style and his subject matter that helped forge the foundation for the Rococo style Fake in a Hollywood way suspension of disbelief History Portrait Landscape Still Life Cythera birth place of venus Don t know whether they are leaving or arriving Elegance pastels Boucher Court painter to Pompadour mistress of Louis XV Political advisor and major art patron Painted this picture when she was 35 Shows her as intelligent educated elegant sophisticated beautiful etc Literacy Decoartions of roses luxury of the fabric Rosesreference to venus cupid also reference to venus Pompadour identified herself with venus Toilet of Venus painted for Pompadour She played venus in a theatrical production called the Toilet of Venus Not a portrait of her but it is definitely a reference to the importance of venus in her life You can see Boucher s skill in rendering the different parts of the picture You can see the difference between Vouet disegno Boucher colore Fragonard Follows Watteau s lead aristocratic imagery Won the Rome Prize in 1752 Worked mostly for private collectors in paris Characterized by flirtatiousness fantasy Textbook example of the things we find in his paintings Baron de Saint Julien had the idea for the painting a bishop pushing his mistress on the swing and him below able to see her legs Statue of cupid elludes to the theme of love lust and eroticism Intrigue picture where the erotic fantasy of the patron is indulged in by the artist we are peepers watching this thing unfold these things are distractions for rich people Chardin the Brioche Not exclusively a still life painter but best known that way Well respected member of the French academy to become the treasurer and the tapissier in charge of hanging their exhibitions Something about the actual facture facts of the painting as an object that seem to enoble the commonplace Its just a roll but it becomes more than a roll in this picture Affirming the existing social order and values Politically conservative People looked at his pictures and they saw the benefits of hard work devotion to family etc The way Charin emphasizes the minimalist treatment of these things Composition carefully controlled Enobles the object enobles the things in our social experience that they are connected to Soap Bubbles Pretty straight forward young boy watched by younger boy while be blows a soap bubble Innocence the fleetingness of innocence Vanitas Soap bubble life
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