SOC 123 (Online)
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3 LPE o W1m IL39r I5Th 39 3939 l39JI quotsW 1 IE SOC 123 Introduction to Sociology Online Course Summer 2013 Class Notes Sections 5450 amp 5455 Online Courses Edition Prepared by Dr Josephine Bitler Table of Contents Syllabus Lectures Sociological Imagination Foundations Theoretical Foundations Sociological Research Culture Socialization Group Dynamics Deviance and Social Control Social Stratification Stratification in the United States Gender Stratification Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity Marriage and Families SOC 123 Introduction to Sociology Summer 2013 Course Information Course Identification Meeting Day Online Section 5318 amp 5323 Credit Hours 3 Instructor Information Instructor Josephine Bitler PhD Office Location VanLare Hall 123A Phone 9893587242 office I am not in my office during the summer Email biterjapenaccedu I check emails once a day between 900 am and 300 pm Monday through Friday Depending on what time you email me you may not receive a response the same day I am NOT available during the weekend Online Office Hours by appointment only to be set via email Course Materials Anderson Chalon E Amy T Carrell and Jimmy L Widdifield 2010 What Every Student Should Know About Citing Sources with APA Documentation Updated for APA Sixth Edition Upper Saddle River NJ Prentice Hall Bitler Josephine 2014 Class Notes Introduction to Sociology Online Course Lansing MI CoursePacks Etc Carl John D 2011 Think Sociology 2quot 39 ed Upper Saddle River NJ Prentice Hall Students are expected to provide the time and materials necessary to successfully fulfill the class coursework This may include but is not limited to access to a computer binders paper notebook disks poster board etc Course Description This introduction to sociology offers students foundational understandings of central sociological approaches including terminology theory and methods that sociologists use to understand life worlds social order social conflict and social change Students will learn how sociologists examine social arrangements to shape human experience and how people create order and conflict Course Topics Sociological Concepts Sociological theory Sociological methodology Social Foundations Socialization Social groups Culture Social institutions Social change 2 Course Objectives Upon successful completion of this course students will have or be able to develop an understanding of the broad scope of sociology as a discipline and its role in understanding society identify sociological perspectives concepts and ways of thinking so that the student may develop a better understanding of the social world identify societal influences and how those influences impact individuals and explore sociological methodologies to better understand the demographics that create our social world Core competencies V How to learn effectively a progressivepostmodern methodology will be used in the course This will provide the students with a hands on learning experience and facilitate critical thinking skills V How to solve problems students will identify problems and select approaches to those problems using empirical methodologies V How to use mathematical concepts demographic data will be explored using simple empirical methodologies to explore the many groups that compose our social world V How to communicate effectively classroom discussions are designed to be reflective and interactive Students will be encouraged and expected to be energetic participants in the classroom through class assignments discussion requiring observation reflection critical analysis and debate V How to interact with the world by understanding the immediate relevance of the course material to their social world Course Policies Ethics Policy All students have a right to scholarly relationships with faculty and their peers based on mutual trust and civility All students behavior in the classroom even in the cyber environment and the instructor39s office shall be conducive to the teaching and learning process for all concerned Any behavior that is judged by the instructor to be disruptive of the learning environment may result in a verbal warning written warning a visit to the Dean of Students Max Lindsay or all of the aforementioned in accordance with the Student Handbook pages 25254 I will be using the program SafeAssign to review all essays This program automatically links plagiarized text to the sites where it was copied from or from which the paper was purchased Cheating and Plagiarism as described in the Student Handbook on page 24243 Dishonest scholarly practices include but are not limited to taking using or copying another s work and submitting it as one s own intentionally falsifying information or taking another s ideas with the intention of passing ideas in class as one s own will lead to an E on the assignment and possible dismissal from the course Simply NOT CHEAT OR PLAGIARIZE Deadlines You are a fully mature individual with adult commitments and responsibilities who has undertaken college level courses at an institution of higher learning This is NOT a selfpace course You must meet weekly deadlines This course requires student interaction participation and involvement Inability to meet deadlines and lack of preparation will have a negative impact on students ability to earn a good grade Students are NOT expected to meet together or with the instructor but must meet weekly deadlines Any student who must miss more than two weeks of classes should consider if their current situation will allow them to complete the course with a good grade Please see your student handbook for information about class cancellation and severe weather situations page 228 in the Student Handbook Please see your student handbook for information about class cancellation and severe weather situations page 228 in the Student Handbook Makeup and Late Paperwork Procedures There will be no make ups or late work accepted unless it is a case of extreme emergency such as hospitalization or death in the family These cases will require written documentation Minor illness eg headache colds etc overscheduling oversleeping computer crashes Internetfailures poor Internet connections work schedule or extracurricular activities do NOT constitute an emergency Nothing will be accepted after the due date Papers must be turned in via Blackboard in WORD format doc or docx extensions or RTF format I will NOT accept any PDFs There is a video online helping you through the submission process Incorrect submission does not constitute a valid excuse for late work If your work is not correctly submitted on the due date your work will not be accepted Administrative Information Available Assistance I am available by email or online appointment to discuss the course clarify questions receive further detail or explanation of assignments or any other matter that impacts your participation in the course I look forward to hearing from you All students at Alpena Community College may obtain tutoring and individualized course work assistance in basic writing reading math or study skills at The Learning Center in Van Lare Hall VLH 101 and Huron Shores Campus HUSH 107 These services are free of charge Disability accommodations will be made for any student who has met the requirements as explained in the Student Handbook page 15 Grade Distribution Your final grade will be based on the points that you earn on each assigned work The letter grade will be assigned based on the percent of points you earned on all of your assignments as follows A 94100 Exceptional work C 7779 Good work A 9093 Excellent work C 7476 Average B 8789 Very good work C 7073 Needs work B 8486 D 6769 Passing threshold B 8083 D 6466 D 6063 If you want to determine where you stand at any given point during the course you may visit Blackboard I am available to discuss your grade in detail during my office hours Grading Disputes I require a written process for all grading disputes You must wait at least 24 hours after receiving your grade to submit a dispute but you must turn in your written dispute within two weeks ofgetting the gile The dispute should outline very specifically why you believe that you received a grade in error and include page numbers in your textbook or date of lecture as supporting evidence I will not review unsupported material Syllabus and Class Schedule I reserve the right to modify the syllabus and class schedule to best meet the needs of the course and its students Coursework Lectures I would like to remind everyone that lectures are NO39l39 a summary of the readings I want to make it clear that the readings are meant to supplement the lectures by providing you with the terminology and giving you a foundation from which to better understand the lecture During our time together you are expected to not just understand and critically analyze course material but also to relate to the material on a personal level thus making it directly pertinent to your life Introductions 52 points On the first week of class you will need to introduce yourself in a blog set up for class introductions You must include a paragraph about who you are what you think of sociology and how you believe the two relate to each other Your introduction must be at least 200 words Papers may not be more than 10 words over or under Every word over or under the 10 words margin will receive a 2 point penalty Quizzes 198 points There will be a quiz every week The questions will be based on the weekly readings Each week will be an opportunity to earn 18 points for a total of 216 Your lowest score will be dropped Expository Essays 50 points and 100 points Expository essays must answer paper prompts with an explanation Specifically it must tell the reader what you are going to explain the parts you will use in your explanation and the order in which you will explain the parts Make sure you read the Expository Essay Guidelines carefully and understand the essay requirements Each essay must be 375 words not including the title or reference page Do not include an abstract Papers may not be more than 10 words over or under Every word over or under the 10 words margin will receive a 2 point penalty Each essay will need to have a title page and a reference page See guidelines for essay structure Essays must be in APA format I would like to caution you that these essays are exams meant to determine how well you are able to grasp the class material Do not take the essays lightly by just scanning the paper prompts or rushing at the last minute to meet the deadline It is also very important that you read and understand the paper guidelines I am only available to respond to questions during my office hours see first page of syllabus for place and time A final word of caution You are being asked to respond to the essay questions from a sociological perspective Be careful of stating your opinion and not backing it up with class material Total Possible Points Pts Grade 1 Introductions 52 13 2 Quizzes 198 46 3 Midterm Essay 1 50 13 4 Midterm Essay 2 100 25 TOTAL POINTS 400 100 SOC 123 Introduction to Sociology Unit 1 Foundations Summer 2013 Week 1 MODULE 1 ASSIGNMENTS DUE POINTS Sociological Imagination Reading Carl Chapter 1 X Quiz 1 Wednesday 1159 pm 18 Introduction MODULE 2 ASSIGNMENTS DUE POINTS Lecture Foundations X Reading Carl Chapter 4 X Quiz 2 Saturday 1159 pm 18 Class introductions Saturday 1159 pm 52 Week 2 MODULE 3 ASSIGNMENTS DUE POINTS Lecture Social Research X Reading Carl Chapters 2 X Quiz 3 Wednesday 1159 pm 18 MODULE 4 ASSIGNMENTS DUE POINTS Lecture Culture X Reading Carl Chapter 3 X Quiz 4 Saturday 1159 pm 18 Week 3 MODULE 5 ASSIGNMENTS DUE POINTS Lecture Socialization X Reading Carl Chapter 5 X Quiz 5 Wednesday 1159 pm 18 MODULE 6 ASSIGNMENTS DUE POINTS Lecture Group Dynamics X Reading Carl Chapter 6 X Quiz 6 Saturday 1159 pm 18 EXAM DUE POINTS Midterm essay Saturday 1159 pm 50 Week 4 MODULE 7 ASSIGNMENTS DUE POINTS Lecture Deviance and Social Control X Reading Carl Chapter 13 X Quiz 7 Wednesday 1159 pm 18 Unit 2 Power amp Inequality MODULE 8 ASSIGNMENTS DUE POINTS Lecture Global Stratification X Reading Carl Chapter 8 X Quiz 8 Saturday 1159 pm 18 Week 5 MODULE 9 ASSIGNMENTS DUE POINTS Lecture Stratification in the United States X Reading Carl Chapter 7 X Quiz 9 Wednesday 1159 pm 18 MODULE IO ASSIGNMENTS DUE POINTS Lecture Gender Stratification X Reading Carl Chapter 11 X Quiz 10 Saturday 1159 pm 18 Week 6 MODULE II ASSIGNMENTS DUE POINTS Lecture Ethnic and Race Stratification X Reading Carl Chapter 10 X Quiz 11 Wednesday 1159 pm 18 Unit 3 Social Institutions MODULE I2 ASSIGNMENTS DUE POINTS Lecture Family amp Marriage X Reading Carl Chapter 14 X Quiz 12 Saturday 1159 pm 18 EXAM DUE POINTS Final essay Friday 1159 pm 100 51713 Socilogical Imagination Founda ons THE BASICS Vocabulary Society Patterns of relationships between individuals with distinctive culture and institutions Economic social and industrial infrastructure Membership Different ethnic groups Vocabulary Private tiroubiles Sociiai issues or Puib ic Issues Dyad Stiructuraiil changes Scale within VOUiTSEIif or others Dyed Familyquot quotI Neighhorhoodi quotI City town Region quotI State Na oh quotI Woriol THE DISCIPLINE 51713 51713 Sociology the study of society a social science involving the study of the social lives of people groups and societies the study of our behavior as social beings covering everything from the analysis of short contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the study of global social processes the scienti c study of social aggregations the entities through which humans move throughout their lives an overarching uni cation of all studies of humankind including history psychology and economics Sociology Acknowledgement Peoplle feel trapped because tlhey cannot overcome private troubles The shaping of lhistory outpaces people39s albility to orient themselves tlhrouglh vallues Peoplle dolnquott ElJEll39lEll39lCE their lives witlhiln tlhe context of society Promise of Sociology Sociological imagination Connects private troubles to public issues Grasp the relation between history and biography llvlllls Z000 Davici Reimer Sociologist What is a sociologist What do they study What can they iimpact What type of iJIquotOfESSiOinEiS can they ibecome Questions 3 10 51713 References American Socio ogicaAssocia on 2010 Retrieved April 1 2010 from ht39t39p wwwasanetorgsocrologwzfm Macioms John J 2D10 13th ed Socioiogy Upper Saddle River NJ Peareon Education Mi ls C Wright 20U0 The Soc ofogfcof 39mrag39nra on New York NY Oxford Umverrsity Press Colapirrco John Z001 As Nature Made Him The Boy Who was Raised as or Gin New York NY Perennia THANKYOU 11 51713 51713 Dr Josephine Bit ier 12 51713 13 51713 Auguste Comte Emma Durkheim 14 51713 15 51713 Kaur Marx Marv Wolmstonecraffz Betty Fsriedan 16 51713 Max Weber George Herbert Mead 1quot 17 51713 18 51 713 51713 20 51713 Social Research Logic NO DOUBT ABOUT IT WE SHOULD HAVE DONE A LITTLE RESEARCH FIRST 21 51713 TO BEGIN WITH THERE ARE JUST TWO SIMPLE REQUIREMENTS LOOK AT THE WORLD USING THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE A VARIETY OF SOCIAL BEHAVIORS CALLING FOR INVESTIGATION BE CURIOUS AND ASK QUESTIONS TAKE OFF THE quotSOCIAL BLNDERS THAT STOP MAKING ONE CURIOUS COMMON SENSE VS SCIENCE POOR PEOPLE ARE MORE LIKELY THAN RICH PEOPLE TO BREAK THE LAW YES BUT wE TEND TO PROSEcUTE THE POOR MORE AND wE cREATE LAWS THAT SEEM TO ENSURE wE WILL PROSEcUTE THE POOR MORE OFTEN THE UNITED STATES IS A MIDDLECLASS SOCIETY IN WHICH MOST PEOPLE ARE MORE OR LESS EQUAL THE RICHEST 5 PERCENT OF PEOPLE CONTROL HALF OF THE COUNTRY s WEALTH MOST POOR PEOPLE IGNORE OPPORTUNITIES TO WORK IT IS TRUE FOR SOME BUT NOT ALL POOR PEOPLE AND KEEP IN MIND THAT HALF OF THOSE cIASSIFIED AS POOR ARE NOT ExPEcTED TO BE WORKING EG CHILDREN THE ELDERLY ETC WORLDWIDE MOST PEOPLE MARRY BECAUSE THEY ARE IN LOVE IN MOST SOCIETIES ROMANTIC LOVE HAS Ll393939LE TO DO WITH GETTING MARRIED TO SOMEONE WAYS OF REASONING quot quotquot quot INDUCTIVE LOGIC THEORY AND RESEARCH REASONING THAT TRANSFORMS SPECIFIC quotquotEquot39 ARE OBSERVATIONS INTO GENERAL THEORY 39 I HAVE SOME DATA HEREI WONDER WHAT SENSE I CAN MAKE OF IT DEDUCTIVE LOGIC REASONING THAT TRANSFORMS GENERAL THEORY INTO SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES SUITABEL FOR TESTING 39 I HAVE THIS HUNCH ABOUT THIS TOPICLET S COLLECT SOME DATA AND PUT THE HUNCH TO A TEST 22 VARIABLES CONCEPTS WHOSE VALUES CHANGE FROM CASE TO CASE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT VARIABLES VARIABLES TYPES OF VARIABLES INDEPENDENT THE VARIABLE THAT CAUSES THE CHANGE OVERCROWDING DEPENDENT THE VARIABLE THAT CHANGES DELINQUENCY A COUNFOUNDING FACTOR OR THIRD VARIABLE Is THE REAL CAUSE A IE I I Es I IC 39 ED EVA E FAVA A ZATI quotTHE I ESSOFE G I OB ACH SE 23 51713 51713 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIABLES CAUSE AND EFFECT A RELATIONSHIP IN WHICH CHANGE IN ONE VARIABLE CAUSES CHANGE IN ANOTHER 39 EXAMPLE OVERCROWDING CAUSES DELINQUENCY CORRELATION WHEN TWO OR MORE VARIABLES CHANGE TOGETHER THEY DEMONSTRATE CORRELATION SPURIOUS CORRELATION TWO OCCURRENCES APPEAR TO BE RELATED BUT AN UNSEEN FACTOR A COUNFOUNDING FACTOR OR THIRD VARIABLE IS THE REAL CAUSE jjl bIL W 2 VlJI Y I J Iiif3UiJNlt3 3l3 39 RELIABILITY THE QUALITY OF CONSISTENT MEASUREMENT DOES AN INSTRUMENT PROVIDE FOR A CONSISTENT MEASURE OF THE SUBJECT MATTER 39 VALIDITY THE QUALITY OF MEASURING PRECISELY WHAT ONE INTENDS TO MEASURE DOES AN INSTRUMENT ACTUALLY MEASURE WHAT IT SETS OUT TO MEASURE 24 51713 Generalization Research is used to generate theory Observation E IV Research xp anation Prediction Research is used 4 to test theory Quantitative Rieeeavrchs Qualitative Fesearc Inl Quantitative vs Qualitative Quantitative Numerical measurements of people39s behavior Qualitative Focuses on the meaning that people give to their world 25 51713 Research Quantitative Qualitative Case study Correlational GroundedTheory Causecomparative Phenomenology Experimental Ethnography Historical Problems Quantitative Qualitative Can produce a false sense of Reliability repeatable with certainty samecomparable results Takes the subject outside of Validity relationship between natural settingtasks conditions and results With the experimental Generalizability historical and method can result in cultural limitations quotno signi cant difference phenomenon quotHawthorne pacebo effect 26 51713 References Macionis John J 2010 13th ed Sociology Upper Saddle River NJ Pearson Education 27 The world in which you were born is just one model of reality Other cultures are NOT failed attempts at being GU they are manif estattions of the human spirit Wade Davis Cuitui39e DJ Jrsephine Billet What is CU rUteE The values Ircidilions woJdviews0ciC1C1r1d poliliccil r eC139Ji0rnships Ihcll are creclled shcm39edc1r1c r 0r39Lsf0rrrh39 d by C group of people buumd logethet by C1 turr1r39r391tJr391 his390r39y gecsgrclphicj luculion c1rnguc1ge5ocic1 class c1rnd oJ Jeligiiun Uncl are passed Horn one giernerclliun 3910 lite nexl 28 51713 51713 Whc1 r are The Three elements of culture TiquotC sym3rCc Vc ues and beliefs True heefr39v iornl What we cammur cme and how we c0r39nmUni c1Te Ar ocfrs r39nusic foods and cirfrisfic works Symlbo ic CLM1Ure Symb 0 lie Nonmaterialculture Wh0 scentra1c0mp0ner1ts are symbols Asymbol something to which people attachmeaning Gesture inVo1Ve using one sbodyto communicate language a system ofsymbols thatcan be strung togetherin an in nite numberofways forthe purpose of c 0 mmunic ating 29 51713 Wlhcll is llhe lulnclloln of lcllnguolge All lwurmfm gr oups f lC1quotaquotE c1 lrmgur1ge Ldrlguage allclws for F 339i3EFlETl S lo be 393dSSECl from rr le gerler clliorw iCTr139l 1E Fleid Larlguage allowg cullure lo clewl03 I3laquot freFlrlg people lo mcwe beyorld llwelr lquotl39l l39lE CJ CliE E39gt3E 1 5 Lcirlgucige 3l Dquotquot39IdE15 us wlih 3 H1Si cirld 3 fuiurr C15 well as glwared Ul 1dE I 5l ThfjlTl Bel 1ClVlOl Cll Cullure Value s Ideasofwhatisdesirable in life Standardsby which people defne good and bad 30 51713 C usfers amp Con rrlt1d C rions quot e39CiLJE CLJS rE 5 If inferre caiveu nue5 1hr1 higeiher farm 3 lcarger vquotrUn as are not ir1rieper1ivEmI urniis V C1LJE39 CCH 1 flquotC1 CJiC Cl1 ri39I3939iuiu c1I395rr Au139I39a39iiquot39 C1 TI Ci 39warlquot It 39r39C1r1IIZi gvru1cTiuc1if39 emuzze 1 nd rezhrcgf39 391c1fr39u1 cnr39rnf cH Hun39u1ri1 c1rI39c1nism Norms Describesrulesofbehaviorthat develop out ofa gIoup s Value 31 TypesofNoHns Fokwry5 rmrms 1wc1139 are W11 quottrirf uxv39 mFrrred quot awr13939wE mgr s rrre tars us I msquot 111139 are c Tab 005 Sdnc ons F cgts iie cmd rnegaiiws rerr ricwn5 to The wci 5 that pecwpr fcrrllraw r 1r3r n 5 C 0 no Ie te Culture 32 51713 Teczhnology Skills or proced N P 1 E E h r1 Er Jging 1 1r1a sgie z that l ur139we an s39 emi i39cr1139 ir 13911C121 cm 39 in We Terhnocge39 sets 1 franieworls for c gmup 5 r mnr39rr 1 rEric1 ru rure Evolu on of CUl rLM39e Culture Changes in 39hIee Ways Inve ntio n Discovery Diffusio n 33 51713 51713 CUHUre Chclhges rn Three Woysr lnveh en Discovery Diffusroh Currrure Chclhges rn Three Woysr lrweh on p r TE H 9 Discovery Diffusion Cu1tuIe sImpact 34 51713 CU rUre in Dcm y Life The effects of our own culture gerwerallv remciin inperceptible To us These learrwed and sh1rrd m39my5 perueirafe our being Culture becomes ne lens fhrough whic1 we uere me cmd evralucfre wh1 r is going cm carmmd us Cwrurczl Onenfcmeon E1hrquotuDr T quot m pemaue egtltperierce 39mquothem 1H e39 cvrjrr e wi1h r riiH erer1139 ruH1IJre Idea1VsRea1Cu1tuIe Idealc ulture quotJhe Values norms and goals thata group considers idea Worth aspiring to Success Realculture quotJhe norms and Valuesthat people actually follow What people do usually falls shortofthe culturalideal 35 CUi39UiiQIl Log lDiififusioim ciind Leveling Cu rurc1 lag ilvr1i n11r1rquoti539 of r ru39iiur s 11 ihe same pcuje MrtE2ri1 cuiiiure usu1a 39 ijeinsre rrmr1 rierir nJ39iure CUiUi G diffusion G mi cuinrri muarcacierisiics irom E3ii391E gr ip iv rur391 ilur Tr3anal Cli l rrr39m39mniciivrwr391 nmiie us Culture Lwsvelirig iquot1 w39h IJ 1 J l rE39 rarne 39ir rii1r in one l39Z1r Irquot39 quotquoti Equot PrltiCiicing Cuiiurczil Reioiivisim Sub c ulture s Subculture Awo d Within the larger World ofthe dominant culture A subc ulture has a distinctive Way of looking atlife quotJhe Valuesand norms tend to be compatible with the largersociety 36 51713 Counlelcullurle Co u r IiEl39C39J Hquotlll39E1S Cullule Llniversols Volue5 norms or olher cullurol trolls llwol ore fourld ever g l1ere Although more ore urwimeeraol l 1umcm c r wquotli4u5 There is no urwlwarsolly om led wryofldoir1g orw of then Humorlzs l 1CiquotquotE rlo lnlologiool inlogrollw rl 11 r results in one oorlloulor form of oel1rw39lorll1r ougl1oul lhe world Quebnb b amenacc du 37 51713 10 51713 Thankyeu 11 38 Sociaizaltion Dr Jlusephine Bitler Nlature vs Nurture How mamy of our c r1ararcteristics come from quot nat u rrequot heredmty and Wnow many from nurture39 the social enviironmemt Cases of Sociall Wsollation Geniie Willey Oxana Wla aya 39 51713 51713 Case of Socia ilsolatioan Geniie W lley Dxanna Nlallaya mm uni V H Primary Sociialization What is Human Nature iv HUr39na n s have new nanturai langwague I The ahulnty to deuelap intellmigence and relatmons with others cleepends on early inteIra cti0n I Ht is thrcmgah lwm an Contact that we earn to be members ofthe hwuuman ccmmmun ety 40 Cooiey s Looking Glass Self o How do we deireilrop a self 0 Cooley stated we develioo a seilf by interacting with others a The lookin Gliass Seif the proe5s bquotiwihicl1 a Self Cleveloips i SoiailinteIraCtion I 1 we inmagihe how we appear to others IV i39j1w e interprret others reactions I 3 we deeelop a self conrgept Meadl s Role Taking iMead addeid that play i5 I critical to the development of the self Children learn to take the roller of the other They put them srelivwes in someone eise 5 shoes At rat theytake on the role of onhr 5i flll ltia t others A5 they develop they take on the egtqpectatio nvs of others the enerallized other P iaget s Development Stages 0 Jean Piaget wonclerecl how we dievelvop reason a Cihilidren go through four stages n 13 The srehsorimotori stage I 2 The preoporationall stage an 3 The concrete operational stage 0 4 The formal operational stage 41 51713 51713 The adolescent the muzlcrnrtc lFreudl s Personality DeveHopme nt Agents of Soc i aiza1tion 9 People and groups thaw irm uence ovur39sef ccmcaept emwotionus attimjdeg and bel avior I Prirrnary agents a Family I School 0 Media 42 51713 Gender Sex Biology I This about clitterehices 1 pe opie based om biological Cl39lE l39a39ClEll39ll5tliC5 for exaimple I Pihysioali iilharacteristioa ciha raCter i5tiis that are preserit only ierusiu eyv to men oihliy or womeh only 0 primary sex chairacteristiics genitaiia I 5EIfLquotJFiIdEli f l39llaiilquota39lte39l5tll39ls Feoiail and body hair Social Expectations I O l7Ei5 biological sex usuallily establishes a pattern of social eacpectationa 0 iFerniininity and maiscuiliniity are Ciultiurail conicepts with have uctuatinig meariings I Theyquot are lea rned di1 Ferently Iby diiiteireriit memibers of ouilture 0 Theyquot are relative to the historical amid ciuitiural contezuzts in which they eririervge I Genderi 43 51713 Gender I Refers to the llearned behaviors and E pE39E t EItiOl liS that are associated witli the two EgtElaIIE5 I This is set by CLltLll39E and 39SEJ39IE391f I Changes tltiroughtirrie arid his39torquoty 0 AttribuI39les and designations rney ihange depieindingi on the place aniil the lUl39urE Understanding Gender Gender is part of the social structure Gender speaks of unequal power relations between men and women Socialization into Gendelr a Gender sociailliizatiolni the ways in which society sets clhiildreni onto diif Ferent courses in lllfe because they are male or Feimalie n We receive gender messages from I I1t JLJlF39l 39al39l l liI I zlschool 0 3 mass media forms ofcornmunication diirected to large taiudiences 44 51713 Gendieir Sociaii 2at ion I Geindering er the siiu iali2aiiii39un of persi iis i t a f39jiIviE iiiiE39rTLE39l bEigIl391ErthE nmment the pairents iwd out the SE21 of theiir I The r r1iZiir39l39 different prgnzesses i1ywI1ich1he epeetatIc n5 aissaciated with being a boy man and beiimgi 2 girl iwir i 1ani are passed ril thireuglwi society Processes of Gender ili d e mtilty Four pirocesses inimlvedi in a chid39quots Ieamirig oFgei1der identity begins with primiairy sociiailizatieii agent 39c39ie Famiiliy I Wlaniipulation oi Cainaliizaitioin D39I ChEquot1lF1iEiiI igi I Veii39baiIApipeiatiDn an Activity Exposiure Giencier Identity I An indw iduai39s sp eci c de iniiticm of self based cm that persQi1 s understanding of what it meainsto be a main nr woman 0 Choice tn wnfurm er breailx with sLJciial e1ltpiec39ratiiir1s sociiaii sarictiioris 45 51713 Gender Roles The expectations for behaviour and attitudes that the culture defines as appropriate for men and women Sepiaraliion of Piubiiitc front Privattet T Hiraditiionali Gender i is A Eootnomio politiceli and 4 illvomestio and personal sociali a iairs concems A Subject to social norms J lndividuali personal and sanctions conscience A Open to public scrutiny 4 Priivatei intimate A iwlale concern 4 Female sphere t3 v A 1 in Sociailizattion tquotIiI39D Ugh the Life Course 46 Sotciailizaition through the Life Course o The stages I Chilidlimod Adolescence YouhgiAduthoad The MiddlleYeaar5 s The Olrcliertfearsi Secondary Socializatiori o The process of learning what is appropriate ihelhavior as a member at a smaller group withiri the larger society I lit begins with Hate adtlescemce early adultihood and continues to the end 01Fhe s llife o Ht is ctmwposed 1f smaulier changes than these occurring in primary socinaliizaaticnh Totai Institutions I 5 broad categories 0 1 for the iincapaible and harmless I 2 for the incaiipabilwe and cwrtami nat ed 0 3 fortlhe threaitehirng I 4 For the i i5tFquotUim39El t3 purposes I 5 for retreat and trainirng 47 51713 Characteristics of a Total lll lS tlt UtlOrl a All aspects of lufe in the same place I Large number of people treated the same way 0 All phases ofthe day are tight schreduilled i Medicall model is t1 t egtn applied I Elmlzmdy thearry emf human naturequot Interaction in Total IMnstltutions 0 Social rrnobilmty between strata grossly restricted 0 Social dletannce often great and fnrmally prescrilbed 0 Control of communicalti0n lbetweeh levels 0 l3a55age of lnfornmation restlricterd The Slhawslhahk Redemptiolr1 39 6 quot p39J 48 51713 10 Resocialiization I Leairriiirig new inorms vailiuies attiiiiJdes and beh aviiiors tiiiati match a riew situation iii liiie o It occuirs earih time we learn someitilhing contrary to our fii eVi OU experiences Are humans saphistiicated quot jUstquot macriine s Are We iPrisoners of Soci1aliizait ioin i Socmiliovgisiis do not tvhinlilt of people as robots Sociaiizaitioni is powerful but UHE vseliif is I7ii1aimii Each of Us is aictivveiy invaliredi W the social v0r15tiructiiJni of the seilif 49 51713 11 51713 Questions biterjapenaccedu P G Thankyou 12 50 51713 Dr JDSIEPMFIE Bit Ie r P e0pe who Shave 50 mething win cummonl and wiho believe that whart they have in common is sigmi cant 51 51713 A W Ireateindiwduas who 39tErnporarlly slwaare the same phf5lC l space IJLJI whn do not see them selwre5 belang ng mgether 6 tf1nk cuf tihemselve5 as elnmg r1g Irogether and they mterait with one another 939 Aczateoz m1r15istsnFpecJpe who share siimilar characteri sthcs Thedyad I A two rnemlzaeur grrnup I Very Intimate but unstabile gwen at5 SIZE Thetnad an Athree member group I More stable than a dyad and more types of interaction is possible 52 Primary relationships I First group E ltu13 EWiE C Ed in ilife I iririepiaceablle I Security Tliraifts 1 Small 0 Per 5iuna n1rIE F TiEI TliEJn I Endurri39r391g As5i5tane of ail kinds Q Erquotnm7n0r1al to FmanLTial Seccuridlary reliationships I Weak emotininiail ties betiwieen parsrm5 1 Shmtyterm Trait5 I Large membership 0 Gina our actIrIt39y cJrwier1tatiur1 0 F ormaiand xniite Exampies I Cownrkers i F llitiiii l EJIquotgEIIWiZEItiD 5 VDiuzntary D rgan iat ican Fnrmal Drg2ana39tIon I Utiliitanian I Ihhjrmaitive 0 CCErvw39E 53 51713 51713 u Sotia cap39ita I A 5CJ II392IlOgiCEIll tUlT1uEp t THaIrE FrEfSTDl IE39ir ndIwIdLIaI and r3lectwr E39SD Ur39IE5 ava iabE to a pversnn 0 Social rnetwmlx u The web nfties you have with m1ers 0 Two roles I nstru enta 0 Task nuruented O Erpr e5s39we Q LF E0pe 0I39El39TI tE39d 54 51713 9 Authontar1an 0 Leader makes uecismna I fT m pHia EE39 tram members I Derrwcr aquotm 0 Member InmmILe39EmEn I Lanssezvfamre I Mauwrw lets g rQupfurctIDmur115 uwn I MNGLRUUIPS and DU TGFtDUF39S 9 Loya ty to IINHGRQLIP Q Upposition to OUTGRDUF39S 55 51713 0 Groups we use as standards to evaluate 0urseNlvres I Exxa m pese Family frrwiexndsl sneigslhbors teachers 9 it determines ingroupfo utegmtup 56 The Asclh Experiment denmn5mrate5a1e pcnweir of JEEP wFES5lJH39E The Milgram expe rimEmt dFn11C1n5tratE5t hvE In uence of authority Both the monstrafte the ea5e UfFa1Hir1 g mm quotGroup Thinkquot 57 51713 51713 D Grnuup1hink U A type af col ectivve tLmnel vision I Fquotr ef ven11tin4g1gxroupthink rreqmres free expressiion 0fcDntraSAti ng ideas Illlusirm of 39nnUuinerab iluty C0 Fertw39E r atnona izatlnn Belief in inherem morrality Stereufvped views D foutgrnupI5 Mrect pressure on di5s enters SE f39 CEn5Dr5hl p Illlusicm of U EIquotIi39rT1it yF Self appomted miwnd guards 58 51713 H H H Fta icuna model de5ig nec to pe rfcn rm CC m pHE at tasks ef ci entHy 9 Nlax WebEr39S ch aracteri51tics of bureaucracy 9 Specaanliimtion Uf dunes I Hirarchy ofo ces u Fru ea arndnegulal1rms W Tech nncalmmpeteMnce Impsr 5m391a l n w Frnrma l written cnmrnunivatinn5 Burreaucratic alE ierna tinr1 Buarea uc r atic rlnef ciency and ritualiarsm Buireaucratic sinertda Goal dVi 5pla c em em OFigarchnr 59 n Ap pI1iatirm of sciemi I principles EU the rurflnlng of a business CHI Large urgamzation 0 Id entlfy tasks and time meedeul far tavsks Au a39gze In pen Orn tasks 391quotIDi39E ef CuEn tIy Prmrnde In entimas for wurker ef ciency Ef ciency Camcullabihity UnirFcrmit arnd Predinztabilsity quot ContraI through ALIt0matimI Q Who gets ahead inn a 1largecorporatIon 0 Ccurpcnravtse Culture I MU lths Et i0 E 5 I Good citinzen 60 51713 10 51713 11 61 51713 Dr Josephine Bitler DEVIANCE R i Behavior violating societal norms criminal and noncrlmlnal KILL GIVE YOU SOME DEVIANCE IS not the act Itself but the reaction to the act that make something deviant WAIT FROM A SOCIOLOGKIAL PERSPECTIVE DEVIANCE IS MORE THAN THAT DEVIANCE R Three causal factors of deviance Time Place Public consensus 62 51713 63 51713 64 I was a woman trapped in a man39s body comas Norms make social order possible by laying out standards of behavior for social interaction 65 51713 M p7 W DEVIANCE VARIES ACCORDING TO NORMS NO ACTION IS INHERENTLY DEVIANT PEOPLE BECOME DEVIANT HOW OTHERS PERCEIVE AND LABEL US DEVIANCE INVOLVES POWER RULEMAKERS RULEBREAKERS AND RULE ENFORCERS NORMS AND APPLYING THEM ARE LINKED TO SOCIAL POSITION FGRJNAIAL INFCDRIVIAL NEGATIVE POSITIVE TIHE ATTEMIPTS A SOCIETY NIIAKES AT CONTROLILIING TIHOUIGHT AIND IBIEIHAVIIOR PASSIVE SOCIALIZATION SOCETY39S RULES EXIST IN OUR MINDS FEELINGS OF SHAME AND GUILT RESOCIALIZATION COERCIVE METHODS OF ALTERING A PERSON39S SELFIMAGE AND CONCEPT CRIMINALJUSTICE SYSTEM THE INSTITUTION THAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR REACTING TO ALLEDGED VIOLATIONS OF SOCIETAL LAWS SPECIFIC NORMS 51713 66 51713 DEVIANCE CLARIFIES MORAL BOUNDARIES SOMETIIIFS THE HARDER set boundaries for what is right or wrong l TRY THE GOODER TO BE THE WORSER I GET AFFIRMS CULTURAL VALUES only have what is right if there is wrong PROMOTES SOCIAL UNITY people respond to serious deviance with collective outrage reaf rm moral ties that bind people together ENCOURAGES SOCIAL CHANGE deviant people suggest alternatives to status quo and encourage change TAKING A LOOK AT CRIIME CRIME THE VIOLATION OF STATUTES ENACTED INTO CRIMINAL LAW BYA LOCALITY STATE OR THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT I CRIMES AGAINSTTHE PERSON I DIRECTVIOLENCE ORTHREAT OF IT I CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY I INVOLVESTHEFTOF PROPERTY I HATE CRIMES I CRIMES MOTIVATED BY RACIAL OR OTHER BIAS I WHITECOLLAR CRIME I THOSE COMMITTED BY PEOPLE OF HIGH SOCIAL POSITION INTHE COURSE OFTHEIR OCCUPATIONS I CORPORATE CRIME I CRIMES COMMITTED BY CORPORATIONS AGAINST EMPLOYEES AND CONSUMERS 67 WELL 39 GUESS THE TYPICALquot CRTMIJNAL THAT PRETTY MUCHIHTSTHE AGE M an IV I IIIquotI U39SwT39ZPlI39II39lE IS COMMITITED BY PERS UTN5 BETWEEN THE AGES OF 15 AND 24 THEREAFTER THE RATES BYAGE DECLINE I GENDER I 711 OF PROPERTY CRIMES AND 831 OF ALLVIOLENT CRIMES ARE COMMITTED BY MALES I SOCIAL CLASS I POOR I RACE AND ETHNICITY I SOCIETY FACES ALARMING RATE OF CRIME COMMITTED BYYOUNG BLACK MALES REASONS MUST GO BEYOND RACE SOCIETY AND OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURE POPULATION BUTACCOUNT FOR ONE THINKTHAT RACE THIRD OF ALL ARRESTS FOR PROPERTY CAUSES CRIME CRIMES AND 402 OF ALL ARRESTS FOR VIOLENT CRIMES WHY RACE IS RELATED TO SOCIAL STANDING CRIMES OFTEN COMMITTED BY WHITES ARE UNREPORTABLE CRIMES WHICH CAN SKEWTHE STATISTICS CULTURAL VALUE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MINORITY GROUPS uwcvy ewrery eevuery cevrevy 31 59 6 seconds 1 seconds YHIHIIIES munutes 5 539 I so 9 to as 9 J 15 40 20 3s 3029 AggunvuuU Rubbcvv Fuvcibic Murdcv and Amull Raw Non Ncgligcvvl Munmghlur cvuv39 every 3 7 Cu se2ltoruIs xmonIx Larceny Burglary Motor Theft VohlcThcft 68 51713 51713 The CrIirniIna Justice System ICJIS 0 Iquot 9 Al O 39 0 W0 LA ER RETRIBUTION I MORALVENGEANCE INFLICTED DETERRENCE I DISCOURAGE FUTURE DEVIANCE I REHABILITATION I REFORM OFFENDERS WHILE IN PRISON I SOCIETAL PROTECTION I TEMPORARY REMOVAL OF OFFENDER THROUGH INCARCERATION I PERMANENT REMOVAL BY DEATH 69 SOCIA SUBCL SUCC I Inner Block Gan ares prom alter tova ofgro ofga 0 midd altern succ I goals Iifesty som ideas values ange I WHENYOU LAY DOWN WITH DOGS YOU WAKE UP WITH FLEAS SOCIAL LEARNING OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR IS NOT UNLIKE ANY OTHER FORM OF BEHAVIOR RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF ASSOCIATION IS CENTRAL TO THIS APPROACH IFASSOCIATES ARE PRONETO VIOLATION OF NORMSTHEN ONE IS ALSO MORE LIKELY TO TAKE PART IN SUCH BEHAVIOR PERSONS LEARN HOWTO NEUTRALIZE ANY FEELINGS OF GUILT AND SHAME FORMS OF REWARD AND PUNISHMENT FOR BEHAVIOR IS PROVIDED BY ASSOCIATES 70 51713 51713 ANTICIPATION OF CONSEQUENCES I ATTACHMENT I FAMLY PEERS AND SCHOOL HELP US FORM ATTACHMENTS I OPPORTUNITY I DEGREE OF CONFIDENCE A PERSON HAS ABOUTTHE FUTURE AND OPPORTUNITIES I INVOLVEMENT I TIME AND ENERGIES LINKED TO LEGITIMATEquot ACTIVITIES I BELIEF I BUY INTO CONVENTIONAL MORALITY FquotEQP IE BECDWIE DEVIANTAS WIE RESPOND TO THEIR ACTIDNIS BY LABELING THEM AS quotD EVA39ITquot E I PRIMARYDEVIANCE I EPISODES OF NORM VIOLATION THAT MOST PEOPLETAKE PART IN WITH LITTLE HARM DONETO SELFCONCEPT I SECONDARYDEVIANCE I WHEN PEOPLE MAKE SOMETHINGquot OF ANOTHER39S DEVIANT BEHAVIOR THEY MAY ACTUALLY HELP PUSH THE PERSON INTO REPEATED NORM VIOLATIONS AND A NEW DEVIANT IDENTITY I RE TROSPE C TI VE LABELING I INTERPRETING SOMEONE39S PAST IN ORDER TO MAKE IT CONSISTENTWITH PRESENT DEVIANCE CUNIINIHECIIIIQIN BETWEEN IPRIIMARY AND SECUMIDARY DEVIANCE Initia 39I1fquotT39I I nal Act Amie pta Fm DE IIEHEE r F LabeIs Ampli zatirzm 10 71 51713 I Mental disease vs I The transformation of enta ine55 moral and legal issues Thomas Szasmays Into medical matters mentai mess is a myth Alcoholisma disease not Only tries to enforce a bad persOr conformity to standards of 39 DW9 AddCT0n people39powerFul enough to Obesity gettheilrown wayin Child Abuse society Social De nition as to what I HOmOseXUa39ty is illness or not B395eXUa39tV g 11 72 51713 Sociali Stra 39i ica on i 3quot B Social Strati cation 0 A hierarchical arrangement based on control of basic resources 0 Example people are ranked according to income 73 Key Concept ol Sttatitication 0 Social lnequallity m a social three that contrilbutes to some indivlcllualls or groups having uneqiual access to valued t39esoutc39es services and pOSl lilOl391Sllt391 society Kerbo zoo o t1 51713 a quot39 Does Social Inequality Evolve 0 A3 society becomes n1ore tech11ologicall y cotnplex divisions of labor increase thereby increasing social differentiation IKerl3o 2ooo1o P T iCHN OLOl w so cial st rat l cation sluclalim ualit lquotquotSII39J I39l5 UflalDiZJltl39 q Y HU39lEhll cl1l39lErentIa39t1on Dimensions of Social Inequality 0 Income 0 Wealth 0 Occupational Prestige 0 Schooling 0 Ancestry 0 Religion 74 51713 R S tife CSFia riamp ei iDifference Social inequality Maltes 0 Heaith 0 Values 0 Politics 0 Family and Gender 0 Crime and the Judicial System 0 New Technology Lgt7 Social Strati cation Systems 0 May be open or closed 75 51713 Basic Principles of Social Mobility G Atrait of society Doesrlquott reflect lii1dliiiViiIil Llial diIquotferemc39es but society39s stiructuire 0 Persists over generations i Social moibiliity i391appeins slowly i Universal but variable Wliile unliveirsall it varies in type 0 llnvolves not just inequaiiitey but beliefs lldeioliogies justify existeinee of social stratii catiom Mobility 0 llntergeneratiional G llntergenerational i Class 391 Caste 0 Slavery Intergenerational mobility 0 Up or down from one generation to the next 0 Think of your parents education job and income 0 Compare to your plans for near future 76 lntraegetnerationai mobmty 0 M0verneut within your lifetime M if I am born into the working class but over 20 years go up intu the upper nticidliie eilass The ctass system 0 Ccntmlu of resources prestige caf job 0 Position comes at least in part through achievement 39 Up and downward mobility 0 The American Dream Jlttereasetd i rusing costs Tk i U Gteatet dE I39I39taJt 1diS for education i lack 0tiob secutity j 39T H i gt A caste system 0 India South Africa 0 Status is determined by parents ASCRIBED characteristics 0 Occupation race 0 Endogamy 0 Even after being abolished customsremain 12 77 51713 51713 L9quot F Q Slavery 0 People are owned 0 Ancient Greece Roman Empire US Caribbean Brazil 0 American feature nl In391i39f39L39 114quot392 r r r 7 rquotquotV Slavery in the global economy 0 27m forrnal slaves toda39y in India Pakistan Bangladesh Nepal but every country has some f39orrn of slavery Bonded labor or debt bondage D Adoption 0 N39o139lteclmical traditional labor 0 Clhild labor J Includes children sold as sex slave Women 78 Gtlobat Strati cation 0 Unequal diS39I3939I3UtiDI1 of wealth ipower 39 Prestige gt quot vquot Weaith and poverty worldwide 0 Life styles and life chances are vastly different withir and iamong the na tim1si of the world 6 The gap betweein rich and poet i5 widietiiing 9 11960 they were ot391iy gm 0 The tieh ire mow Box richer than the pooit 1S 5 wquot39 F The gap gets bigger 0 In some places the gap is bigger than in US 0 Brazil 0 Chile Eamt I 79 51713 Globa result 0 Economic inequality 51713 Measuring wealth and poverty 0 Absolute poverty 0 Relative 0 Subjective 80 51713 T v quot39 quot iPg Absollutee 0 People do not have basi c necessities T fn 39quot39quot39 Re I airive 0 Have basics but way below average income i quotquot H F Subjective 0 What earners make compared to what they expect and want 39 I 4 3391 81 51713 Extent of Poverty 0 ls quotpoverty life threatening lln some African ctountries halfquot of anr1ual deaths are children under the age of 1o 0 Every 1o rninutes 3oo people around the quotworld die of hunger 0 1 billion people suffer from chronic hunger in the world Poverty and Children In Poverty and chilclrerl 1oo million children in poor countries are forced to work the streets eg beg steal selling sex 1oo million children have deserted their families and live on the streets Many girls with little or no access to medical assistance become pregnant 50 million street children are found in Latin American cities In Darfur 39St1dan irnpoverished children are forced to join armed groups provide physical labor without pay and work as sex slaves 10 82 51713 Fst Worl Rich industri1i2ed nationsj na un Second Wor ld D eveloping nations lndustriali zed na tion5 i39uiodeJ39tte stn m al d of39Iiwing Third World Less oleveltopetrl nations Least industrialized Poorest nations short life nations expectancy high moI39tait39 Irate Ll nderrl eveloped nati on 5 Di I ari C h no1uindtisttialized na ricults Clhahging lTermi nology 6 New terminology HighimcotneNatio1 is with the highest standard of living a Middleim1confteSontewhtat pootter Itations with economic development typical For the world as a whole 6 ll0W39ll39iCO4 I39 E N tll0Fi1S with lowest productivity and extensive poverty 0 The extent of global inequality is much greater than these comparisons suggest W39ell off people in rich countries live worlcls apart from the poorest people in low income countries High ncome Countries 0 First to develop during industrial revolution two centuries ago 0 Enjoy over half the world s income 0 More income means control of world s nancial markets 0 Control of nancial markets means control of other countries 11 83 IHglh income eiconomieis G zgnations 6 High standard ofliving Hddie ncaume Coumwries 0 Limited industriaIlizatio n G Many people are rural and engage in ragricultural acitivities P A general lack of good education medical care and safe water 0 Examples Russia Eastern European countries Latin America and some African cmmtries VHddle mcomei economieis 9 About 1 ofthe world pop 0 Have a gmd deal of debt to l1391gh ir1c0me countries 84 51713 12 51713 K2F V Low tncome Cou mes Mostly poor rural ecornorrlies I Agrariar1 with some ll1Cl7L1SlII39y39 I Life expectanqr is very shorlt 9 Examples Africa and much of usia p 8 T r L0VWlFl C0l TEr econom IES 0 Most people farm 0 Nonurbaln i Molstly Asia Africa 391 Feminiiation of quotpoverty 0 Child labor common 13 85 wuesfions biterjapenaccedu References Bienstock Ric Esther Felix Golubev and Simcha Jacobovici 2006 Sex Slaves Retrieved from http wwwpbsorgwgbhpagesfrontlineprograms programsinfo24o8html on June 7 2010 86 51713 14 51713 QQampL QLampS5 ac Sociall stratifiicatiiion lh the United States stretil icetioin typiically com prises three layers x ltipper class middle class and lowelr class 19 Each class may be further subdivided into smaller classes Q9AL QLA E l THE UNTLiD TATE x The Upper Class 5 of the population as UpperUppers People who have inherited wealth are known as Blue Bloods or society includes less than 1 percent of society at LowerUppers Appear to be just as privileged but have newly acquired wealth the main difference is that these people are the working rich 87 51713 at The lvliicldle Glass 4045 of the population at Llpper lv39lidrles 80000 to iLBO000 a year at Aveirage li39liiddllles 4000080000 a year Typically work in less prestigious whitecollar occupations middle management high school teachers and sales clerks or in highly skilled bluecollar jobs such as a building contractor x The Woiriking Clllass 2500040000 a year 33 of the population This population is somewhati below the national average and they have little or no wealth x The Lower Cllass Low income makes this population unstable and insecure In 2000 the federal government classified 311 million people as poor x The Working Poor The working poor command the sympathy and support of people on both sides of the poverty debate Twenty percent of poor heads of households worked at least fifty weeks of the year and yet could not escape poverty 88 THE e NltlTED THE EKTIENT QF 39J e PQVER1TY ac Factors of Poverty Age Pace and emrmieity Gender and family patterns x Tlhe femmization of poverty Edueaticm Geegraephy 89 51713 WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR POVERTY at Blame the Poor at Blame Socilety at Weighing the Evidence WHY ARE PEQPIEE POOR at Social Structure at Individual crlaracteristilcs HPLAINING POVERTY x People counted among the officially poor in the United States are far better off than the poor in other countries Subjective poverty x Millions of people in the United States have too little income to lead healthy lives x Almost 42 percent straddle the fence thinking both government and individuals share this responsibility 90 51713 51713 TRENDS IN CHILD WELLBEING 20002007 1U39 W EQQNQMIQ SECURITY Alpena Ml Aljper1allMI Ghllidralm in Fbvlarty 2005 2007 of Michigan Ages 01 203 228 193 Ages 51 111 194 174 Alpena llllll Alpena Mi State cf Michigan 2006 2008 Students receiving 389 445 413 free reduced price school ILll ChE5 1 1Family income for eligible student5 is helnw 185 pmrerty level CHILD HEA TH w r39r lpl Alpena Ml Alpena Ml 19982000 20052007 Michigan Less than adequate prenatal care 127 150 225 L0w birthweight babies 61 101 84 Infant mortality per 1000 129 78 Child deaths ages 114 per 100000 351 189 Unavailable data 91 Alpena MI lpenaa ME 9932000 Michigan Bi 39 th 5 120 1JE nS 5335 154399 DEF 1000 369 303 335 Teen deaths per 100000 353 is 511 PRIE FEN Ev K 1 H E F 110 142 5 EH EIgtlE lESIT SEE8881 Njpena MI Alpana MM 2000 2003 mMIhI39gan 39 1 Chilidlren in 583 313 45 iwm stigatedlfam llies Confirmed victims 55 3239 395 139 Chilidlren in outif 30 40 59 home care I ERH96TlRlgt 39 Fourth grade Eighth gr 92 51713 K M J u QUESIIQNS E1TliRJAJPENAEQ QU 1 39 Q 391 r I39 391 quot 39 5 L v r 39 E L V3 mwmm I wl x n 5 A in 1 K 1 L 39 b 2 w E 1 4 IL H L 14 H1 u w M u 1 THANKYOUm 93 51713 51713 MMr kX39 39 u Dr Jloosephine Eifler SE1 mud The Eod394 Intersexualpeople hermaphrodite s Possessing so me combination of female and male genitalia 94 51713 m T r39c1n55exuc39ls gt Pewple who Tee emoTiChc1llquot ih1ked Te one sex TDLJT are DiQegite g The c Ther 39 OTTeh expre ss eci Tee ihg 9 quotTT The be 39 Q Ci CDTr739eHquotT D QI ideas QBDLJT T39ae39N FHCIIEIE Dhd Terholes TrL nTlt Cl d behave E mrr11ir hrii er hr139T rWrquot1Ti1IT IflH Il C1ITiIi JTF391 Tr chwTher pmr r3ru HeTerosexUeiT quotquotHeTeToquotquot The mher ef Twe Hor nosexLM1TT quotquotHc3m0quot39 The same Bisexuc1i39T STTOhg OHTr39OC CT T To T3DTh sexea Asexue ITT No sexual oTTIr390CTieh 95 51713 96 51713 59 of oii women work Women hold primory resporiisibiiliw for househoid duiies Our CUiiUl39B gives rnore respon5ibiii ry for pdreniing re women On overoge women eorn 77 Cenis ior every doiior edrned by men Sorhe worllt defined ds men39s woriltquot39 A siudiy conduciied in The lore W805 Wives working iu iiririe did I hour dhd i0 minutes less houseworkddy ihdn fulliime homernoikers On dverdge American men do 2035 of The housework end hidi core Husbands of women Working fu iime did i minu re5 more hou5ewoir39kdoy Thosn h39u5bonds of fu rirne hornemokers 98 Arsceptance of women as worlkt rrs crud prrfe5sIoncI3 w391r r39e3c1sed r1LIeVsTirmirg of rT1oTher 39mxQd C1r1 ruJrE female Idemify Gr en1ter Equalify in rT11rquotIh1I power Er Er JKdEJ Wm of the Ir13i39ru nwrgnic1 expr39essI39we C iIC 1D TD r1Ty39 E 39pc1r asiCar1 of mt1 2 fc1mIxr roles rahe 1 0nep rs Gender r39cnlles hqw9 bracnn 1e cm InTrIn5 pcirfr of OF5e 39xquotE95 1 Put our I39r3le5 The 50quotquot 39 5jfl39LCjfJIquotB remforcas TI39c1dITIrmcIH I39rnle5 99 51713 Nrnosphere of hypersexucn zcj orw Medic Peem Can uhe w S0ciC1lSc1ncT on Pro5 TDT 100 51713 51713 I E39I Higheesf rcfrea Ckf oTher high inc0me countries Se2 educzcntion in s h005 h I6 uJfior1 Cl prntIeI39Tu The tieil39quot err11ee 1eerLr39nincfivrnr1 rrl er1 pisregrnrr39 Roe vwade 1973 Esfolblished Iegql i access To cnbermem Proh0u39Ce Eu JPUH O wemu1n 5 rnq Q C mecase OTEJDWIDH Pro u1Te AborTi39on is mor39c1 y wrong C39ir39cUmsT 1nCes of the 2 Cl39eg ClHC y39 1quottlkn39339 0 big dl elrelnc how people see This igsue 101 Fecmpzm le tr1 rJi39FfFrva F1 ire of 39ru39hc1f I3 5rquot1 139 pcmmcrgrcm hl Crun6r T ClbL pclmcw rcxpjlw Esme pain 9 promo Jira a in 1urciv5 quotJhe selling ofsexualservic es Socialand culturalties Stmn ltestin10W inc0me coun neswheret Patriarchyisstrong Cppo1tunitiesto eama hvmg are Iestncted Typesofpmstitution Callgi s Worketsincontrolled pa ors Streetwalkets A Vic timle sscrime Poicestage on occaslonalcrac downs Iawenforcementis likely to taIget J0hns who attempt to buy sex 9 In oaron OI uquot 0 102 51713 Mi39liiaw 39 I 31 US milii rc1r w pew395orine are women mid l5 Di all deployed forces Culrure infuences our views of wcm39ien in The m iitt39Jr1r Aculture ofrape Sexualviolence includes ve1balabuseIape and assaut Rape Aviolent actthat uses sex to hurt humi1ate or contmlanotherperson Date rape oracquaintance rape Forcible sexualviolence agamstwomenby men they ow Myths about rape Rape always involves strangers Women provoke their attackers Rape is simply sex 103 51713 10 3 In The l9 Th C quot 39TlUl vquot rnen ClC1lquotT IEC2T The n lDTquotlquoty395li3C1TT y39 CTTSCITDTTHE Their wives Sexual r1ssoulT539 ropes ClTTell39lquotl3DTEd ror e5 and lDl W395lrCC1l CJSSCJUTTS Cernpus ond Lll39ll 39ElSiT l39 gender moenre Much gender linlzsed nolenCe 39L39lCLJTquot5 In The home Femole qeniTol ll39lquotlJTllC1TJr l Our 5CieTy mighT encourage more violence ogoinsT rnen Thon women Our CulTLJre Tends To define mo5CLJiniTy in Terms of oggrelssion ond violenCe Men lives involve mre sTres5 oncl i5oloTion Thon women s lives Yourbody asa battlegmund 104 51713 11 51713 61 Is the pr39egncm r man Pmjn or w3mcm3 12 105 51713 13 106 Inequalities of Race and Ethnicity Dr Josephine Bitler IVhat is Race Race 5 90 of human genetic variation exists within racial groupsquot 54 almost no consistent genetic differences exist between members of different groups 5 Less than 1100 of 1 of our genes is related to what society calls race 107 51713 51713 Scienti c Categories of Race frquot Boas 1900 beginning of physical anthropology 5 Found no direct links among race brain size cranial capacity and intelligence levels 5 However Forensic anthropology use racial categories Purely for identi cation purposes No assumption that shape corresponds to culture or intelligence Race and Intelligence Intelligence is the capacity to process and evaluate information for problemsolving whereas knowledge is storage and recall of learned information Normal Curve and the Slant I ores I5 IQ tests 5 Stanford Binet 1905 i The Bell Curve 1994 5 Other kinds of intelligence 239 1983 linguistic logical mathematical bodily kinesthetic spatial musical interpersonal and intrapersonal isa 4 A social construction social construct is a concept or practice that is the creation or artifact of a particular group 12 Vhen we say that something is socially constructed we are focusing on its dependence on contingent variables of our social selves This thing the social construct being discussed could not have existed had we not built it t and we need not have built it at all at least not in its present form had we been a different kind of society had we had different needs values or interests we might well have built a different kind of thing or built this one differently The inevitable contrast is with a naturally existin object something that exists independently of us and which we did not have a and in shaping 108 51713 Race 5 Social categorization based on presupposed biological differences 5 Physical characteristics are in themselves meaningless They become important when they become a way of classifying groups as inferior or superior 1 A doctrine that involves political and economic interests that tells us more about the history of relations among peoples 139 It was created to decide who would have access to the goods and resources of society Census De nitions Race and Ethnicity a The US census divides the American population into 6 categories 2000 White non Hispanic 691 1 Hispanic or Latino of any race 125 Black or African American 123 1 Asian 36 American IndianAlaskan Native 09 Native Hawaiian Paci c Islander 01 109 51713 Mixed Race Identi cation 5 Bene ts Children of interracial parents do not have to choose the race of one parent over the other parent 5 Mixed race individuals can avoid identifying as other a category that implies rejection and alienation 5 Concerns Recognition of mixed race identity decrease the numbers within minority groups and disrupt the solidarity and loyalty based on racial identi cation Should the race cate 0 remain 8 FY part of the census Some people argue that since race has no biological existence the US government should cease collecting data about race American Sociological Association39s position H As long as Americans routinely sort each other into racial categories and act on the basis of those attributions research on the role of race and race relations in the United States falls squarely within a scienti c agenda As the United States becomes more diverse the need for public agencies to continue to collect data on racial categories will become even more important The continuation of the collection and scholarly analysis of data serve both science and the public interest 2 quot139rjum39shm39rmrM Ethnicity 110 51713 Ethnicity Social group distinguished by race religion or national origin Milton Gordon 39 Preferential endogamy 39 Culture Language Religion 1 Behavior Biological traits Ethnicity cont 51 Two people with the same racial identity may have different ethnicities ie Black 11 Sean Combs Diddy ie African American 1 President Obama ie Bi racial child second generation immigrant Two people with the same ethnicity may have different racial identi cation eg a white Hispanic and a black Hispanic 2oo6 Nearly 148 of US population is Hispanic Latino 55 About 23 of Hispanic population are of Mexican origin 1 The term Hispanic is a political construction 5 Why Minority Groups 111 51713 What is a minority group 5 Minority group 5 Mathematical de nition vs Social Disadvantage J Large groups do NOT mean advantage Minority Status Four Characteristics of Minority Status A Social and historical disadvantage 39 Visible characteristics A Self Conscious social group 39 Ascribed status r Cannot change this status Status is determined by physical characteristics 112 51713 Thomas Theorem 5 If men de ne situations as real they are real in their consequences 1928 Basis i All forms of discrimination including racism are based on three assumptions Race exists Each race has distinct genetic differences 39 Racial inequality is due to distinct genetic differences 5 Solomon Perel Prejudice 113 51713 Prejudice Negative attitude held by individuals toward an entire category of people You can be prejudiced and act upon it and engage in individual discrimination Can you engage in discrimination without being prejudiced Institutional and structural discrimination The Role of Socialization Stereotypes and the Media vi Learning prejudice through socialization 5 Through socialization individuals adopt the values beliefs and perceptions of their family peers culture and social groups Theories of Prejudice Scapegoat theory 6 Disadvantaged people who unfairly blame minorities for their own problems Authoritarian personality theory 9 Rigid moralists who see things in black amp white Con ict theory 5 Selfjusti cation for the rich and powerful in the United States Minorities might cultivate climate of race consciousness in order to win greater power and privileges 39 Culture theory 9 Everyone has some prejudice because it s embedded in culture 39 114 K Racism a type of prejudice speci c to race Racism The prejudice that certain groups or races are innately superior to other groups or races based on characteristics that are 5 Physical 5 Cultural iv Both Traditional Racism 9 Spatial Racism i The patterns of metropolitan development in which some affluent whites create racially and economically segregated suburbs or gentri ed areas of cities leaving the poor isolated in deteriorating areas of cities and older suburbs 5 Internalized Racism v When peo le of color see themselves and their communities primarily t rough the yes of the dominant culture and apply to themselves the negative stereotypes 5 Individual Racism 939 People grow up with a sense of racial superiority whether conscious or unconscious 115 51713 51713 Modern Forms of Racism 4 Aversive Racism i 39 It is a subtle often unintentional form of prejudice exhibited by many well intentioned white Americans who possess strong egalitarian values and who view themselves as non prejudiced 939 One aspect of aversive racism is the presence of pro white attitudes as opposed to anti black attitudes xi Symbolic Racism Believe that racial discrimination is thing of the past and that racial minorities are trying to change the rules to get something without working for it H Maintain that minorities are the problem rather than focusing on the social aspects of poverty crime etc America s Ugly Chapter we IIEQVEN WHyTEi ails IPQIIlm iMExmuI Discrimination 10 116 51713 Discrimination 5 Individual Discrimination Behavior of individual members of one race ethnic gender group that is intended to have a differential and or harmful effect on the members of another race ethnic gender group Pincus Discrimination Cont i As institutional discrimination is built into the normal working relationships of institutions its perpetuation requires only that people continue quotbusiness as usual 5 Its eradication requires much more than good will 5 it requires active review of the assumptions and practices by which the institution operates and revision of those found to have discriminatory results Discrimination cont E Structural Discrimination Policies of dominant race ethnic gender institutions and the behavior of the individuals who implement these policies and control these institutions which are race ethnic gender neutral in intent but which have a differential and or harmful effect on minority Pincus 11 117 51713 L 1 Basis of Racial and Ethnic Groups Interaction Analysis of Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction if The degree of assimilation and acculturation that occurs between groups depends in part on Whether Contact between groups is voluntary or involuntary Whether majority group members accept or reject minority group members Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction Assimilation Formerly distinct and separate groups merge and become integrated 5 Secondary assimilation happens rst 5 Different groups become integrated in public areas and social institutions neighborhoods schools workplace and government 6 Primary assimilation happens second 5 Members of different groups are integrated in personal intimate relationships friends family and spouses 12 118 Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction 5 Amalgamation or marital assimilation Different groups marry and have children Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Group Interaction VF Acculturation process leading to assimilation 5 Learning another group39s culture eg language customs Pluralism 5 A state in which racial and ethnic groups maintain their distinctness but respect each other and have equal access to social resources What Awaits us in the Future 119 51713 13 51713 Race and Ethnicity in the US l Native Americans F White AngloSaxon Protestants 39 African Americans Asian Americans 9 Chinese Japanese Korean Filipinos l Hispanic Americans 5 Mexican Puerto Ricans Cuban Americans 39 Arab Americans W39hite Ethnic Americans Population Projections The US began as a land created by immigrants 5 It will remain a land of immigrants Projected minority growth by Census Bureau 5 2023 white children will become the minority 5 2042 overall white population will become minority New projections by Census Bureau 5 2033 white children will become the minority a 2052 overall white population will become minority Population Growth Rate 9 US has the highest population growth of all industrialized nations E Growth is based on immigration and fertility rates of young immigrants primarily Hispanics 5 61 percent of population growth in the last decade was based on birth rates of Hispanics 5 What happens if the population growth slows stops or decreases H Where will the workforce to drive our economic engine come from t eg production social security etc Will the US have to compete with other industrialized nations for immigrants 39 Census 2005 14 120 51713 Questions bitlerjalpenaccedu Thankyouu 15 121 Marriage amp Families Dr Josephine Bi er Soc 11 u tu on Socha1 u tu on I 39Hoiding sociefy roge rherby providing ordered and s rruc rured ways of doing Things rha r continue over iong periods of Time and rend To perpe rua re sociai inequaii ry39 I 39S rab1e se rs of sTa ruses roles groups and organisaTions rhciT provide The foundcrrion for addressing fundamenfai sociai needs Newman D M 2000 Sociology Exploring fhz archifzcfurz of everyday life 122 51713 51713 Eam y as a Sociallnstitution I Family I create and regulate Variousconceptsofhow people relate to one another I and whattheirrights obligations and dutiesmay be asa consequence I and the maintenance and perpetuation ofsociety through socialization I nship Syste m I The socialorganizationofthe family I parentsand children I grandparents aunts uncles and cousins I nonrelated personisconsidered askin I changesormultiple kinroles 123 51713 Family I Relativesby descent maniage Iemaniage oradoption I People who cooperate economically and may share a common dwelling and who may Iearchildren Extended Family I Consistsofgrandparents aunts uncles cousins and inlaws I Maybe formed through maniage orbirth 391ypesofFamijes I Family oforientation I Family ofcohabitation 124 Pb ur Func tio ns 0 f the Fa mily 1 2 3 Intimacy Cooperative economic unit Reproduction and socialization Assignmentofsoc ialroles and c lass status Advantagesto living in Families 1 2 3 Continuity ofemotional attachments Close proximity Familiarity with family members Fconomic bene ts Eam y Fbrmation 125 51713 51713 Mate selection Music What39s Most Attractive Mate Selection Social In uences I Marriage resources I nancialassets status Value s taste s and knowledge I Third parties I families neighborhoods communities and religious institutions I Demographic factors I size and sexratio ofgroupsyoubelong to and the social composition ofthe localmarriage markets Components oflove I According to psychologistRobertStembergoVe can be built from passion intimacy c ommitme nt I Inlongtermrelationshipsz I passion peaks quickly and tapersoff I intimacy risesgradually butremains ata higherplateau I c ommitment develops mo st gradually but plateaus at a high level 126 Marriage I Alegalunion I Sexualunity I Economic cooperation I Ch d rearing I Permanent Ie gal marriage I Protection underthe law I Legaldefnition ofmauiage 127 51713 Rights amp Bene ts ofMarriage I Spousalemployee benefits I life insurance I Medical I leaves I Child custody I Decisions I Death I Divorce Rights amp Bene ts ofMarr139age I Burial I Propertyrights I Dissolution I Death I Medical I Decisions Rights amp Bene ts ofMarriage I Governmental I 3931Xes I Public assistance I Prernaritalagreernents I Spousalprivilege I Irnrnigration I Elderc are I Facility assignrne nt 128 51713 Shared Features ofMarriage I Establishes I Sexualrights I I nship obligations I Legitimacy I Rolesirrcommunity and society I Irrhe rita nc e Marriage Patterns I Ehdogamy I Marriage between people ofthe same socialcategory I Exogamy I Marriage between people ofdifferentsocialcategories 391ypesofMarriage I Monogamy I Marriage thatunitestwo partners I Polygamy I Marriage thatunitesa person with two ormore spouses I Po1ygyny Marriage thatunitesone man and two ormore women I Po1yandry Marriage thatunitesone woman and two ormore men 129 51713 51713 Ma Iital sa tisfa c tio n I Factors Underlying Marital Satisfaction 1 Eonomic forces I Dissatisfaction and divorce are more common among groups with high poverty rates I Satisfaction ofboth husbands and Wives increaseswhenwives enterthe paid labor force Factors hde ying Maliial Satisihction 2 Divorce laws I When people ale free to end unhap y maniages an Iemany happinessincleases among manied people In c ountnes Wheie getting a divorce is IIIOIB dif c ult husbands and Wivestend to be lesshappy thanin countrieswhere getting a divoxce iseasier 130 Factors Underlying Marital Satisfaction 3 39he family life cycle I 14 ofdivorcestake place inthe rst3 yearsofa first marriage I 12 ofalldivorces take place by the end ofthe 7th year I Nonparents and parentswhose children have left home enjoy the highestlevelof maritalsatisfaction Factors Underlying Marital Satisfaction 4 Houseworkand childcare I Maritalhappinessishigher among coupleswho share houseworkand child care I 39he farthercouples are from equitable sharing of responsibilities the more tension among allfam y members Factors Underlying Marital Satisfaction 5 Sex I Sex improves during a marriage I 39lhe relationship between maritalsatisfaction and sexualcompatib ityis reciprocal Each factor in uences the other 131 51713 10 The C ha ng ing Fa mily Shine Sexl armage I Permitted Connecticut Massachusetts Iowa Vermo nt New Hampshire New Jersey Recognized I DistrictofCo1umbia I New York I Rhode Island I New Jersey I Reneg I Ga1i arnia I Maine Dwome I Changesinlaw has made it easier I Marriage no longer perpetuatespropertyrights orstatus Purpose ofmarriage is personalsatisfac tion or happine ss I Economic independence of women 132 51713 11 Cohabitation I Arrangementswhereby two people decide to live togetherona long term or perrnanentbasisinan emotionally andorsexually intimate relationship Open Marriage I Typically refersto a marriage inwhich the partners agree thateach may engage inextramarital se Xual re la tio nship s Witho ut thisbeing regarded as in delity I 39here are many different stylesofopen marriage with the partnershaving Varying levelsofinputon theirspo use 39s ac tivitie s One pare nt Family I Aparentwho caresforone or more childrenwitho ut the assistance ofthe other biologicalparentinthe home I 39lhere are 137 million single momsand dadscurrently raising theirchildreninthe US I 218 million children underthe age of21 are being raised bya single parent I 39lhisrepresents263ofall children under21inthe S 133 51713 12 Singlehood Questions bit1e1ja1peI1ac c e du i I Ihanky0u 134 51713 13
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