Hazard Waste Engr
Hazard Waste Engr CHE 650
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Biomass Bioenergy amp Biofuels Energy Environmental Impacts and Sustainability Kansas State University January 46 2006 Mark Schrock 3 Biological and Agricultural Engineering I IP39 9 39 Kansas State University Manhattan Kansas OHConsump onJhousandbbBMay 25000 Petroleum USA l Europe consumpt39on Trends A Former Soviet Union 20000 Middle East Africa Asia Pacific 15000 W 10000 5000 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year Source BP 2002 Oil Prices OPEC Production and Revenue 70 1981 l H39i toric Production 607 Approximate 2005 a 50 7 Q 2 99 3 19813 E w l g 30 7 19 020 ElAHigh Price Path 8 39 Emmet PritE Path 20 7 986 5mg 20K 500 billion 400 billion E 0 1Q 1998 300 billion 10 1973 200 billion OPEC ISOrevenue CUI39VeS 0 l l l l 0 20 40 60 80 1 00 OPEC Production million bpd TRB 2000 9 I Global production of conventional oil will begin to decline sooner than most people think probably within 10 years CJ Campbell and JH Laherrere Scientific American March 1998 World liquids production ultimate 2000 GD conventional 750 Gb nonconventional 0 One Really Knows There s plenty of cheap oil says the US Geological Survey Eric Niiler annual production Gba 1925 1950 195 2000 2025 2050 2075 2100 2125 Scientific American September 2000 year Comparing the Energy Market to Agriculture US Vehicle Fuel I l V j a Consumption 1999 13 1V M Billion Gallons Gasoline 123 Diesel Fuel 33 Source DOE Agriculture s Energy Potential Energy contained in US grain crops total aboveground biomass Record Grain Residue fglyr Biomass Biomass Enefgl Grain Bushels Weight Weight Energy2 Gaso39lne EQUIV Millions1 Record lbsbu lbsbu B39Omass BillionBTU Millioans BllllonGaI Corn 11800 2004 56 56 1321600 9912000 854 Gram 1120 1985 56 56 125440 940800 81 Sorghum Wheat 2785 1981 60 100 445600 3342000 288 Soybeans 3120 2004 60 50 374400 2808000 242 Total 1465 Notes 1 USDANASS 2 Assumed 7500 BTUlb 3 Assumed 116000 BTUgal US Gasoline Consumption 123 Billion Gallon Conclusion Energy is a MUCH larger market than food Relative Food and Energy Prices 60 Prices in Current Dollars 5o 77 Wheat lBushel 1973 1 Bushel bought1 Barrel Crude Oil IBarrel 2005 17 Bushels bought 1 Barrel 4o Winter Wheat 3 Crude Oil C E 69 3 W 2 n 20 10 I 2005 1 Bushel of Wheat bought l 1 GALLON of Diesel fuel 39 v quot 0 T 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Will Energy Put a Floor Under Grain Prices 14 12 17 Crude Oil Price I Wheat Price Equal Energy Basis Assumed LHV Crossover 2004 Wheat 7500 BTUlb Crude 19000 BTUlb A Price Ratio A m v I wv V 1980 Year On an energy basis Grain Sorghum is currently less than half the price of crude oil 1990 2000 The Successor to Petroleum for Transportation has NOT been Identified BioFuels ETOH Biodiesel Methane PV or WindgtgtHydrogengtgtFuel Cell PV or WindgtgtBatteries CoalDerived LiquidsgtgtlC Engine or Fuel Cell ALL Major Auto Makers and DOE USDA etc Have Active R amp D Hydrogen Issues SupplyCost Storage Range Safety Hybrid 3004 battery 4i MDS Prediction This WON T be cheap seeneranw braking Ford s new Focus FC V has been hybridized with the addition of a BOOV Sanyo battery pack and a Continental Teves regenerative brake byewire system Moving Transportation Beyond Petroleum Conserve Change Transportation Mode Mix Transition to Renewables Comparing Transportation Modes Current Fuel Diesel Electricity Coal Wood Future Fuel Above plus 39 Fuel Cells 3 1 Degree of Freedom always on track Steel On Steel Low C Weight Tolerant Wide Fuel Flexibility Our most omnivorous mode of transportation Fast Passenger Rail French TGV Japanese Bullet Train First TGV powered by Gas Turbine ca 1972 Changed to Electrical Power in Response to Arab Oil Embargo 1974 In Regular Service since 1981 Power pack 393 3 IGPU pancagraph Aux 39 we su pig 5 passengersfbaggage man block transform I 1 a smiling antenna I 80 of France s Electricity is Nuclear Automatic coupler Container Freight MultiMode Ship Train Truck Truck Walerburne Class 1 Railroad Pipalma E v 2 3 Energy intensity BTUIton m Thousands Comparing Transportation Modes 2 Degrees of Freedom Moderate Weight Sensitivity Current Fuel GasoHneSD Diesel CI Future Fuel Liquids Fuel Cell Battery Comparing Transportation Modes i Current Fuel AvGas SI Jet A JP4 Turbines Future Fuel Liquids nc Biodiesel Alternatives Fuel Cell etc are tenuous Three Degrees of Freedom Very High Weight Sensitivity Very Demanding Fuel Requirements Aircraft Weight Sensitivity Example Boeing 747 400 from Tokyo New York TakeOff Weight 375 Tons Landing Weight 250 Tons Fuel Burn 125 Tons Fuel Reserve 25 Tons I musm i 7474100 L 5244 m 231 u 10 m u I J 7166 m t c if EV r r IIquot N L quotI Vi 7 n v 139 v z 13 4 M 34 new I 12580 mp 1 E3332 Source Boeing Forms of Photosynthesis Green Plants Purple Bacteria c3 Efficiency of Photosynthesis Sunlight to Sugar 11 is Absolute Top Theoretical Efficiency Losses are Estimated at Evolutionary Survival 2025 Respiration Structure etc 20100 So New Practical Peak 5 Source Smil Efficiency of Photosynthesis Crassulacean Acid Metabolism i Separates in time energy absorption And carbon fixation Most Common Limit to Photosynthesis is WATER Lowest Transpiration Loss 400500 moles H20 per mole CO2 Fixed Source Smil Comparing Photosynthetic Pathways C3 quot Saturation of Radiation Wlm2 300 None Best Temperature C 1525 3045 Moles H20 per mole CO2 Fixed 9001200 400500 Maximum Daily Growth glm2 3439 5054 Daily Max Average for Season glm2 13 22 Source Smil yum Example Photosynthetic Ef Given Average Radiation 210 Wm2 y Grain Yield 200 buacre Grain Energy 17 MJkg Growing Season 150 days Total Season Radiation 210 Wm2 3600 24 150 272 109 J m2 Grain Energy 200 56 17 24722 21 105 MJha Photosynthetic Efficiency Grain Only 21 105 MJha 272 109 J m2 077 L ciency of Com u A s I Qv t m 1 i J39 39 I V g 39 A 4 e d V 3 39 i9 24 47 k I y n 1 V M 3 If Stover is arvsted and MOGIGrain 1 d Photosynthetic Eff Would Doube To 15 Solar Conversion Efficiency C3 Crops 0107 Best C4 Sugar Cane 1525 Global Mean 03 Kansas Farmland 05 5004000ac PV Array 12 2000000ac Source Smil BioEnergy Issues Does it Really Produce Energy Energy Profit Ratio Energy Out I Energy In Energy Profit Ratio US Domestic Petroleum 30 25 Energy Profit Ratio 3 1o 77 Production vs Mining 5 0 i 1915 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 Year Agricultural Energy Inputs Production Direct Field Operations Irrigation Grain Drying Management Embodied Fertilizer Seed Chemicals Machinery Energy Outputs Fuel CoProduct ETOH DDGS BioDiesel Gluten Feed Others Seed Meal Pesticides Others The CoProduct may have more value both and BTU than the fuel Energy Inputs for Corn Production Total Inputs 49753 btu l bu Seed I Fertilizer III Energy III Custom Work I Chemicals IE Misc 17000 btubu 27000 btubu Source Shapouri Duffield amp Wang 2004 Energy Balance for Ethanol Production Corn Production Corn Transport Ethanol Conversion Ethanol Distribution Total Energy Used Net Energy Ethanol Energy Value Energy OutIn No Credits BTUGal 18713 2120 ii 1487 72052 4278 iiib 106 WlCredits WlCredits Adjusted BTUGal BTUGal 12350 18713 1399 2120 30586 49733 1467 1487 45802 72052 30528 30528 76330 102580 167 142 Source Shapouri Duffield amp Wang 2004 Opportunities for Improving Ethanol s Energy Balance Corn Fertilization especially Nitrogen Ethanol Processing Cogen Biodiesel Energy Profit Ratio Biodiesel Feedstocks wide variety of plant 0quot and animal fats The most comprehensive analysis Sheehan et al 1998 considered Soybean oil gt300 page report Conclusion Soy Biodiesel EPR 321 Other feedstocks esp nonlegumes will have lowerhigher EPR A b v M o V r u I Fossil Inputs to Soy Biodiesel MJ FossilMJ Biodiesel Soybean Agriculture 00656 Soybean Transport 00034 Soybean Crushing 00796 Soy Oil Transport 00072 Soy Oil Esterif incl MEOH 01508 Biodiesel Transport 00044 Total 03110 Source Sheehan et al 1998 Other Biodiesel EPRs Energy OutEnergy In Corn Oil Illinois 395 Cotton Seed Oil Texas 176 Crambe Kentucky 311 Peanut Georgia 226 Spring Rape Canada 418 Safflower California 339 Soybeans lllinois 456 Sunflowers North Dakota 35 All Crops Dryland Production Source Goering amp Daugherty 1982 Basic Esterification Vegetable oils Recycled Greases Dilute Acid Sulfur Esterifi cation methanol Methanal We G39FGETiquot Crude h odiesel recavery Glycerin Re ning re ning Glycerm Biocliesel Low Pressures Low Temperatures Esterification Reduces Viscosity 50 4 W E3 45 D J 0 ri gt 30 X 15 F U 3 quotL D I 7 Ir 39 T O 20 40 BO 80 Temperature deg C FIG 1 Viscosity of soybean oil soybean oil esters and diesel fulel in centistokes as a function of temperature C H Dlescl 5 Ethyl 5 4 methyl 2 assoybem quot139 Source Clark etal1984 KSU Biodiesel Properties Unit Specific Gravity kglL Viscosity Cst Lower Heating Value MJIkg Cetane Number Flash Point C Diesel MESO 08285 08690 23 355 4243 40 4549 48 74 gt100 Source Clark et al 1984 KSU Power From Soy Esters 7 3 KW 45 301 Power 15 0 39 T 39 I r 17 l 1500 1000 2100 2400 2700 Engine Speed rpm FIG 3 Power kW vs speed for John Deere 4239TF engine art full rack for soybean oil esters and diesel fuel H Diesel H ethyl H methyl Source Clark et al 1984 KSU Desirable Traits for Energy Crops Legume or low protein product Perennial low energy inputs Low Processing Energy Good Yields on Dryland Two Paths Adapt food crops to energy production Domesticate new energy crops Soybean Glycine max Temperate Legume Annual Cultivated for 3000 yrs Seed Yield 31 Mglha Oil Content 1726 Remem Oil Yield 650 kglha Seed Yield 2 Mglha 30 bulac Oil Content 18 Oil Yield 360 kglha 46 galac Sunflower Helianthus annus Temperate Annual Seed Yield 37 Mglha Oil Content 3540 Oil Yield 1400 kglha Ref CIGRV Seed Yield 17dry34 irr Mglha Oil Content 40 Oil Yield 7001400 kglha 90180 galac Ref KSU Hybrid Trials Peanut Arachis hypogaea Temperate Annual Legume Seed Yield Oil Content Oil Yield Seed Yield Oil Content Oil Yield 5 Mglha Ref CIGRV 2000 kglha 25 Mglha irr O 48 6 Ref KSU ASAE MCR85142 1200 kglha 150 galac Castor Ricinus communis Temperate Perennial Grown as Annual Ricin potent toxin Seed Yield 5 Mglha Oil Content 3555 Re cmv Oil Yield 2250 kglha 285 galac Lubricant Castrol Grown in SW KS amp TX panhandle WWll era Rape Idaho Biofuels Program low erucic Rape Brassica napus Temperate Annual Pacific NW Canada China Seed Yield 3 Mgha Oil Content 3340 M C39GR V Oil Yield 1100 kglha 140 galac Safflower Carthamus tinctorius Temperate Annual Pacific NW Seed Yield 45 Mglha Oil Content 2537 Oil Yield 1300 kglha Ref CIGR V Crambe Crambe abyssinica Temperate Annual GermanFrench Tests dry Varieiies 1995 cssswzczn Si1e I A E Yield Wh 1934 1903 91 dm Oil 3 1379 3 Icontent VANquot Oilyield quot13 752 717 91 um 599 538 dt 100 kg Erucic acid 31 599 57 9 CE BS DdCR two910346 A E A 11111 1432 V 2320 3715 333 35A 380 553 BM Seed Yield Oil Content Oil Yield 5 Mglha 36 1800 kglha 225 galac Ref CIGR V PlantDerived Liquid Fuels Four Options Table 1 Liquid biofuels by feedstock and land class Arable Land Nonarable Land Starch and CelluloseBased Ethanol from Grain Cellulosic Ethanol from Ethanol from Crop Residues aggednygials herbaceous and LipidBased Biodiesel from Annual Biodiesel from Perennial Oilseeds Oilseeds Expanding Land Available for Energy Perennial vs Annual Agriculture Factors that Render Land NonArable Steep Slopes Shallow Topsoil Sandy Topsoil 7 Surpus or Deficient Water r i r 7 a a 5i Variabe Climate 7 E Rocks quot mI u quotif quotL quot135 31 2 3 Perennial Agriculture SHOULD BE far less vulnerable Class IV Land Marginally Arable Sandy Topsoil High Erosion amp Low Water Capacity Perennial Windbreak J a I I I Temporary Windbreak reduces wind erosion Winter Wheat intended crop I 39 Water Table lt 5 m Deep Why Force Marginal Land Into Annual Agriculture Kansas Cash Rental Rates Rangeland 3112ha NonIrrigated Cropland 8892ha Kansas Land Use Rangeland 67 x 106 ha Cropland 127 x 106 ha Total Land Area 212 x 106 ha Biodiesel From Perennial Oilseeds Potential Benefits Utiize Marginal Land High Energy Profit Ratio Low Processing Energy Kentucky Coffee Tree Gymnocladus dioica Large 20 m tall Legume Cotyledon 32 protein 23 fat Oil Yield 200 Ilha Chinese Tallow Tree Sapium sebiferum Tropical Perennial Invasive Weed in Florida Texas Seed Yield 14 Mglha Oil Content 55 Oil Yield 7700 kglha 970 galac Ref CIGR V Jatropha curcas Tropical Shrub 3 m tall E Africa a Seed Yield 8 Mgha Oil Content 50 Oil Yield 4000 kglha 500 galac Ref CIGR v African Oil Palm Elaeis Guineensis West Tropical Africa Oil Yield 2200 kglha 280 galac Ref CIGR V Kansas Transportation Energy vs Land Resource 2500 2000 CRP Range 110 Cropland CRP A Range 1500 i 1000 I 13 Current Diesel Gas Use I CRP Only 39 7 13 Current Diesel Use 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Fuel Yield galacre 500 Annual Production or Consumption Million gal Energy vs Prosperity ta lCap GDP 3lga Gasoline For DECADES 50000 Y 45000 9 Switzerland 40000 U39S39 7 0 35000 7 Japan 9 30000 Q 0 25000 France 7 Canada 20000 15000 10000 5000 Ru55Ia China o i i i i i i i i 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 Energy Use kg Oillcapita Source Economist World in Figures 2006 t The Americans will always do the right thing after they ve exhausted all the alternatives Sir Winston Churchill Brief General Energy amp Environmental Overview Tim Ca rr Kansas Geological Survey KU Richard Nelson A Engineering Extension KSU World amp National Energy Essen a Quick vewiiew World Energy 551 Demand Toll Regional Figure Ii World Marketed liner54339 L mwsun nptlmn Figure i WailLI lilailrau jiljtl Enough Cumminglei 12y WilliQUE Reg inn 197390239325 a l lf Iii39 11IT1I am r i39 39 I39quotquotv lquot quotlquot39l39 I blmgmg tau 1 we TMQ1I LLl39IlLHlII ELulmuviuz 3 39 i ll Earn an 39 i39l I EI quotI3939 TH i Total world energy consumption expected to increase by 2025 40 in US China s economic growth is expected to be the highest in the world and have the world s largest economy mg Emw mmmm a Fag m39 Ip F E Mmma 11 a 30 Fouls lual consumption r f 4 7 EILEEN F3 5 7 1 40 2 3 M 1 ngmm Lg w E 5 2a 3 3 r o 3 I 700 VYuurI 1 can t 900 2000 739 3410 I Fi gum 7392 Warm Cam39imn Dic xide Emissions 350 9 E L5 r m om IL W by P if 3m 0am Manna Lou Ha mu 239 lirm Tram Iquot E u 7 T I i 360 H 5mm Erma tlvmr F 1m mammalch on l l i 5 g E The Environmental Impact Factor Coal abundant resource but potentially huge environmental consequences Petroleum only viable liquid fuel but potential resource problems and a contributor to GHG emrssrons Figure 2 Annual Production Scenarios with 2 Percent Growth Rates and Differm leurco Lavols Docllnl RIFI10 l l l uses Elf nllll M Ulltim I39dcanny My Low 95 39f 7 wish 5 9 o 1900 1525 1950 m WWW New axmmmwmumwunwmnmwn WA Nuclear waste disposal problems potential proliferation aspects but no real unsolvable envrronmental problems Renewables diffuse intermittent costly but sustainable and environmentally riendly and a means for climate change management Consider the Total Picture Resource Allocation fossil fuels and renewables Efficient Energy Use efficiency and conservation Effect on Environment air soil and water quality Development and Implementation of Alternative Energy Sources and Technologies Economics true cost and lifecycle accounting Where Energy Comes From h 1 939 v 32 33 1 a vf Ovenliew The Challenge Energy Today 214 MMBOED US 456 MMBOEDay Energy 2025 300 MMBOED US 602 MMBOEDay Energy Basis for Civilization The Resource Is Adequate I I 1 W 39 3 I V quot 3 l l l r i if i i I 39 gt V 39 i I I l i K 5 b I In L J I 7 China Oil Consumption is forecasted to increase 15 in 2004 OECD Oil Consumption is forecasted to increase 1 in 2004 PPHP WPPPP 10 Humanity s Top Ten Problems Next 50 Years Richard Smalley 2003 1996 Noble Laureate in Chemistry ENERGY WATER FOOD ENVIRONMENT POVERTY TERRORISM amp WAR DISEASE EDUCATION DEMOCRACY POPULATION Wmldl Energy L GDP vs Energy Consum ption 14000 UAE 12000 E 395 3 5 10000 g Q Kuwait E Q Iceland United States a 8000 9 O 5 5 canada Singapore E g 6 000 QTrinidad ampTobago Sweden QFinland 5 39 9 9 N V Saudi Arabia Austral way 5 ozamblque Q Be39QIllm 395 a New Zealan Q Netherlands 2 4 000 Russg Czecn S Korea GermanyQ frangJaPan 3 39 L Estonia 39 UK Q Switzerland Turk emstan Slovakia srae Ireland 8 Oman Q Slovenia Austria De mark gt Q Q OGreece Spain Italy 9 2 000 Q g I Q Portugal in Argentina Chile Uruguay 0 i l 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 GDP per capita million Int at PPP US Energy Efficiency Energy Use Per Capita The Need for Action Today 16 billion people one quarter of the world population have no access to electricity In 2030 14 billion people 17 of the world population will still not have electricity 24 billion people rely on traditional biomass wood agricultural residues and dung for cooking and heating El Energy Today 214 MMBOEDay 0 US 456 Million BOEDay El Energy 2025 300 MMBOE Day 0 US 643 MMBOEDay El Growth 1829 Million BOEDay 0 Over the next 25 years El Portfolio of Energy Options 0 Technically Sound 0 Economically Sustainable 0 Significant in Size 0 Minimize Environmental Impact El Need for Investment 0 Technology 0 Education 0 People Life Cycle Assessments of Wind Energy and Other Renewables Gregory A Norris KSU 5 January 2006 Motivating Questions Which is better from an environmental point of view Wind or Photovoltaies Why How so Big utilityscale Wind vs small local Wind What are priorities for improving either How much better is Wind than ooal What are the True Costs of Energy Systems Impacts to Include Pollutants amp wastes Resource use 9 Human Health Resource depletion Pollutants amp wastes 9 Ecosystem Health Pollutants amp wastes 9 Human Health Respiratory Organics Carcinogens Particulates Climate Change Radiation Ozone Layer depletion Pollutants amp wastes 9 Ecosystem Health Ecotoxicity Acidi cation Eutrophication Land use Resource use Resource depletion Mineral resources Fossil fuels What are the True Costs of Energy Systems Value of a human life a LI R i What are the True Costs of Energy Systems Outline Method 1 Life Cycle Assessment Method 2 Risk Damage Assessment LCARA Example Weatherization LCA Examples Wind Energy Photovoltaic Electricity Coal vs Wind Method 1 Life Cycle Assessment Product life cycles and their total systemWide impacts Environment Economic and Social Cradle to Grave Quantitative Dataintensive Standardized ISO Becoming Global LCA De ned ISO 14040 97 Life Cycle Assessment Framework Goal amp Direct Applications scope Product Development Def39n39t39on amp Improvement I Strategic planning KIA23993 I I Interpretatlon Public policy making Marketing I Other lmpact Assessment gt Life Cycle Inventory Analysis Releases to environment H Extractions from environment Life Cycle Impact Assessment What do all these ows mean Prototype Global Warming Potentials Other Common Impact Categories Ozone Depletion Acidi cation Eutrophication Smog Formation Human Toxicity Health Eco Toxicity Risk Analysis Risk Assessment Risk Characterization Risk Communication Risk Management Policy Relating to Risk Exposure amp Health Assessment EmuCum i Atmosphericfateamptransport 7 7 w 7 7 397 V WMUREMHHM rjHMJHLUH39 1 Census Data GIS Doseresponse via Epistudies M w w LHH i Aggregating Health Impacts DALY DisabilityAdjusted LifeYear Mortality 9 lifeyears lost Morbidity 9 years lived at lower quality Way to combine mortality amp morbidity impacts into a single measure of e ective lifeyears lost World Health Organization WX Example Methods Summary s HealthNVealth re 1 Wx Scenarios New and existing homes meet IECC2000 by increasing insulation Loan program for nancing the upfront cost of insulation 25 interest rate 20 years maximum loan term Loan paymentsenergy savings until paid in full 2 annual participation rate for existing homes 58 of new SFH 81 of existing homes will participate Fraction of US total Enduse energy savings and health outcomes by State 01 008 006 7 Premature deaths avoided 004 a i Energy savings 002 Source Nishioka et al 2002 10year horizon All new SF homes from 1999 standard practice to IECC 2000 Results for PM Pathway Health bene ts of 1 year of energy savings for 1 year s housing cohort 7 fewer fatalities i In 200 fewer asthma attacks U D ampL f E 3000 fewer restricted activity days Health benefits of 50year measure life for 1 year s housing cohort 350 fewer fatalities J u 10K fewer asthma attacks 0 0 I Ji39 1 U 150K fewer restricted activity days Results for GHG Pathway T01 1999 FUND model Climaterelated pathways considered Heat and coldrelated illnesses amp deaths Vectorborne diseases e g malaria Infectious diseases due to sealevel rise Via population displacement infrastructure Psychological disorders Via sealevel rise Results for GHG Pathway Health bene ts of 1 year of energy savings for l year s housing cohort 20 fewer fatalities 400 fewer DALYs Health bene ts of 50year measure life for l year s housing cohort 1000 fewer fatalities 20K fewer DALYs Annual Mortality Risk Results Via Financial Savings 0015 0012 3m H f 7 r C 30 60 90 120 150 HH income K white male white female black male black female Source Keeney 1997 Results via Financial Savings Conservative assumption Net zero annual economic impact until cost of insulation measures paid for by energy savings with 25 interest rate Health bene ts of 50year measure life for l year s housing cohort 600 fewer fatalities 7K fewer DALYs Summary Reduced Mortality Via SingleYear Cohort 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Reduced Mortality PM Climate Finance Outline Method 1 Life Cycle Assessment Method 2 Risk Damage Assessment LCARA Example Weatherization LCA Examples Wind Energy Photovoltaic Electricity Coal vs Wind Scope 800 kW Utility Wind Construction and operation of Wind power with necessary change of gear oil Capacity factor 20 Gear oil changed every second year Fixed parts lifetime 40 years Moving parts lifetime 20 years Efficiency 25 Wind conditions Average European 1 MJ Exectncnk atwmd power p1ant800kWRER U 100 4 9439 Wnd power mam 800M nked partsRERH U 133 Wnd power want 8 owng partsREFM U 861 86 Stee1 1owra110yed at mamRER 9 06 00010 kg rom Um 51ee1188 at mamRERU 20 5 0 000204 kg Copper atregwona1 StoragePER U 50 2 3 45Er5 kg Copper pnmary at refmeryRLA U 241 800 kW Utility Wind 4 88Er5 kg Copper pnmary at re neryPER U 117 617E kg Ferromcke1 25 N at mamGLO 134 0 0001 1 kg SteeL Convenequot chrormum Stee1188 at MamRER U 12 6 U HI Copperquot concentrate at bene cwannRLA U 112 Copper concentrate at bene cwannRER U 125 800 kW Utility Wind Inputs to Turbine Production P View energy process 39Wind power plant BOOkW moving partstHl U39 Documentalion 39npu lompm System dascriptionl Known inputs from technosphare materials ffuels oil at U medium UCTE at at U chromium bre reinlorced HDPE Scope 800 kW Turbine Model Rotor nacelle electric parts and their disposal Energy for assemblingfabrication and transport Connection to the grid Total 0f1561 unit processes in system plus loops 1 p Vl nd power plant 8UOkW moving partsCHl U 206E4 kg 966E3 kg Copper at regional Glass bre reinforced storageRER U plastic polyam39de injection moulding at plantRER U 332 101 E4 kg 595E3 348E3 kg 492E3 kg eel converter Steel electric chromium Copper prim ary at Copper prim ary at chromium steel 188 at re neryRLAU re neryRER U steel 188 atplantRER plantRER U U 145 I 43E3 kg 527E3 kg 132E4 kg 252E4 k Ferrochrom ium Ferronickel 25 Ni at Copper concentrate at Copper concentrate at plantGLOU bene ciationRLAU bene ciationRER U highcarbon 68 Cr at plantGLO 8 9 132 800 kW Utility Wind Turbine Production Supply Chain Process contributions to total Human Health Impacts Ferrochromium hihearbon 68 Or at lant GLO U 7 98 Co er rlmar rat re ner IRLA U 28 55 Co err concentrate at bene ciatiunRLA U 706 N ion 55 lassfilled at lamRER U 5711 Coer rimar at re ner IlDl U 563 Co er concentrate at bene ciallonRER U A 99 Coer secondar rat refiner RER U 1 42 Ferroniekel 2 t antGLO U 203 ElaslinJRER U 414 Elmer Iron at lamGLO U 2 2B Remainin roceSses 2193 Copper primary at refineryRm U Analyzing 1 p energy Wind power plant BUUKW moving partsCHll U39 Method Ecorindicator 99 H V21 Europe El 99 HH f damage assessment 800 kW Utility Wind Turbine Production Supply Chain Process contributions to total Ecosystem Impacts Coer rimar at re ner fRLA U 3912 Ferrochrumium highcarbon 58 Or at piantJGLO U 2554 Remainin recesses 895 5 I Copper from imported at re neryDE U 202 I Disosul ic tailis off tea39 0 U 23 i Cuer secondar at re ner IRER U 299 quot Fermnickel 25 Ni at IanifGLO U 303 I Disposai nickel smeiier slag 0 water to residuai material land lir CH U 353 Cuer rimar ai re ner fRER U 388 Cuer rimar at re ner fini U 58 1 MJ E1ectnc1ty at Wmd powerp1ant81mp10n c SmallScale Wind 3 33E 0 0757 p VW39vd power mam 30W Wnd p0Werp1ant30kW xed partsCHM U movmg partsCHM U 0000102 kg Copper atreg1ona1 steek 10wraHoyed at tR StoragePER U 002M kg 0000157 kg P1g1r0n atp1antGLOU Ferrochrommm FerromckeMZSEVuNMat h1ghrcarb0n 68 Cquot at mam3L wantGLO U 000118 kg 0000332 kg 0000195 kg steek converter steek converter steek e1ectnc 1owra11oyed at chrormum Stee1 188 at chrormum Stee1 1881 at mamRER U p1amRER U mamPER U 10 13 7 82 7 84 8 89 15 2 partsOCE 45 8 0 000354 kg Stee1 1owra110yed at wantPER u 0 000223 kg Sleek converter 10wra110yed at wantPER U 10 1 MJ E1ecmcwty at Wmd powerp1ant2MW offshoreOCE U 100 Utilityscale wind 2 MW offshore 0 000108 kg G1assf1bre remforced Sleek converter Chrormum SIee1188 at mamREF U 189 Stee1 e1ectnc chrommm SIee1188 at mamR R U 114 Ny10n66 g1aa w11ed a 121 125 5 0055 kg Ferromcke1 25 NM at mamGL0 U 20 5 IlJl II Carcinogens Resp organics Resp inorganic Climate change Radialion Ozone layer Eooloxicily Acidi cation Land use Minerals 3 Eulrophicatiun Electricity 21 Wind power plant QMW offshore00E S Electricity at wind power plant Simplun EUkWJCH 8 Comparing 1 MJ energy Electricity at wind power planl EMW offshore00E S wilh 1 MJ energy Electricity at wind power plant Simplon EDkWCH 8 Method EcoindicalorQQ H V21 J Europe El 99 HIH f characterization Utility wind offshore vs Small Sc I39 Wind Fossil fuels Carolnngens Resp organics Resp Inorganic Climate change Radiation Dznne layer Ecataxlcity Acidi cation Land use Minerals 5 IEutrophioation at wind puwer 8 copy 39 39 production le photovoltaic at planti CH 5 Comparing 1 MJ energy 39Elemricity at wind power plant B DkWRER 3 copy withl MJ energy Electricity production mix photovoltaic at plantCH 339 Method EcoIndicator 99HJV21 I Europe El 99 HJH characterization Utility wind vs Utility PV Pollutants amp wastes Resource use 9 Human Health Resource depletion Pollutants amp wastes 9 Ecosystem Health Human Health Ecnayslem Quality Resources Electricity at wind power plant BEIEIkWJRER S Cnpy Electricity prnductinn mix phutnvnltaic a plantiCH 5 Comparing 1 MJ energy 39Eiectricity at wind power plant BDUkWKRER S copy39withi MJ energy Eiecmcity production mix photovoltaic at plantr CH S Method EcoindicatorBB H W1 1 Europe El 99 HfH I damage assessment Utility wind vs Utility PV Carcinogens Resp organics Resp inorganic Climate change Radiation Ozone iayer Ecoloxioity Acidi cation Land use Minerais Fossil fueis s IEuIrophication Electricity coal power plant UCPTE S Electricity at wind power plant BUDkWRER 8 copy Comparing 1 MJ Energy Eieclricity coai powarpianl UCPTE S with 1 MJ enargy EIECUiCin at wind powarplam BDUkWJRER 8 copy Mathod Ecoindicatorgg H V21 Europe El 99 HIH 1 Characterization Utility coal vs Utility wind Human Health Ecusyslem Quality Resources Electrinily C al power plant UCPTE S Electricity at wind puwer plant BDUkWJRER S copy Cnmpanngi MJ energy Electricity coal pnwer plant UCPTE 8 With 1 MJ energy Electricity at wmd puwar plant BUUkWJREP S nnpy Metha EcmndrcatanB H f2l Eumpe El 99 HH J damage assessment Utility coal vs Utility wind Sustainability and Policy Past Present and Outlook x i 739 a s i in Q 3 5 3 r i C J 2 a management of affairs 139 1b management or procedure based primarily on material interest Sustainability and Policy 2a a de nite course or method of action selected from alternatives and in light of given conditions to guide and determine present and future decisions 2b a highlevel overall plan embracing th overall goals and acceptable procedures esp of a governmental body the future and presented in a plan that takes into account overall goals O 0000000006 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPNIENT What is it Is it possible Sustainable Development is meeting the Lads of the present Without compromising the ability of future 0 generations to meet their own 2 Leds World Commission on Environment and Development WCED 1987 O two key concepts 39 3 The concept of needs in particular the essential needs of the world s poor to which priority should be given and g The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment s ability to meet present and future needs Thus the goal of economic and i 439 social development must be V de ned in terms of sustainability 39 in all countries and implies a 5 Sustainable Development as Commonly Understood Concept is anthropocentric focused on the human species Ethical question of value of other species is ignored 39 7 Concept is ambiguous and impossible to operationalize J 2 Sustainable Development as Commonly Understood 7 Concept of a sustainable subsystem in an unsustainable global system is fundamentally oxymoronic Concepts like sustainable community sustainable rm sustainable product must be seen as generic indications of goodwill toward environmental issues not an achieved end state 2 Sustainable Development as Commonly Understood 7 Sustainability must be a characteristic of the global system as a Whole including human activity in its totality and the underlying biological chemical and physical systems 7 Sustainability requires ecological balance 7 economic security and social equity across generations Ecological Balance 39 Economic 39 ecurity Social Equity that level of human activity that can be continued inde nitely Without diminishing the capacity of the biosphere to support life or assimilate waste Solar and Electric Power in Transportation Ruth Douglas Miller Kansas State University ChE 650 January 2006 KS Deffeyes on Hubbert s Peak Chevron s ads say that we are burning two barrels of oil for every new barrel we find ExxonMobil is stating that since the mid 1980s we have been consuming more oil than we discover Shell has announced that they will now focus on drilling for natural gas and not oilquot httpwww nrinr etnn eventshtml Nov 2005 1 LL Glenn Morton Sr BP Geologist Reserves have no bearing on production rate it is production rate which fuels the world It does no good to have 1 billion in the bank if one can only withdraw 10 per day Countries past their peak in oil production have not been observed to increase their production with higher prices Hubbert predicted world production peak in 2000 All signs point to him being off by only five years on a 56yearold prediction ASA 2005 Annual Meeting Abstract Aug 2005 KSU s Solar Cars Solution Apollo CATalyst l7 39 lg I L4 I want one of those When will I be able to buy one Solar Rayce Car Specifications 10hour day average at least 25 mph in mixed driving over 10 days Array about 8 m2 car must fit in box Generates 122 kW power 15 kW typical Battery weight restricted so capacity is less than 5 kWh Driver weight fixed at 80 kg 176 lb min Rules specify driver eye height range ofvision Vehicle mass 170250 kg 375550 lb Gemini Queens Univ ASC 2003 How Far and How Fast Vl nning cars in 2005 averaged 46 mph over 2950 miles including intown traffic Many cars travel 65 mph on highways Free speedquot array alone typically just under 40 mph now may be upwards of 50 mph Battery energy up to 200 miles at 35 mph Motor limitations probably set max speed to 80 mph Stage start V nnipeg MB Comparison ICE Solar raycecar Mass 1500 kg 200 kg Available 1120 kW 122 kW power Range 300 milestank 200400 miles in daylight lt200 mi pack alone Payload 5 people 3 large One person no cargo suitcases Cost US 20000 US 200000 mostly solar cells KSU Paragon 2005 How do solar cells work Diode junction has no free charges to conduct current Sunlight gives bound charges energy to conduct themselves out ofjunction Efficiency how much of solar spectrum can cell convert to electricity Electron and Cuvrenl Flow In Solar Cells Photons Elenmns Q Pnslllve roman quotSiliconl pSlllcon Hnles 39 Curlrant u la r Electron Flow Flow N I M 952 Figural Source httpwwwmicdcomjaVasolarcell Charging at Medicine Hat 2005 Solar Cell Availability AmorphousSilicon 5 10 efficient 7NV Silicon polycrystalline 5 10 efficient 7NV Silicon monocrystalline 1520 efficient7kW Galliumarsenide multi junction 2030 efficient 100NV and up UniSolar shingles Source hn39p wwwu i solar cominterior asp id67 Physical Differences Multiple junctions absorb photons at multiple 1 I Monocrystalline structure conducts all excited electrons out with little loss fragile as thin glass Amorphous materials lose on efficiency gain on b39l39t cost ruggedness flexi m cmn u wu UniSolar aSi cell structure Source httpwwwuni solarcom nteriorasp 39 7 Operating Cost ICE 30 mpg US 3gal 300 mi 30day Solar car free as sunshine Full battery pack 5 kWh 008kWh 40 cents for nearly 200 miles even in rain Battery pack charge time 5 hrs in good sun with a 12kW array 10 hrs from grid Disadvantages Solar cells are expensive and very fragile 7NV 10K without assembly costs A lot of solar cells makes for a large awkward vehicle Best batteries Liion are highly sensitive and produce toxic gas if mishandled Batteries cannot be charged very quickly ETS Quebec Liion battery fire FSGP 04 Alternatives Petrolelectric hybrid Best choice at present Potential for small oncar solar array Or home solar charging station Hydrogen fuel cell Hydrogen is a portable fuel like petrol Splitting water is very inefficient More efficient to split petroleum carbon emissions and scarcity Oncar Solar Array Small car has 115 m2 roof area for array Van has 25 m2 area 20efficient silicon solar cells 200400 Watts Cost 7watt 2100 plus assembly electronics and you need a hybrid In town typically generate 100 W every 5 mins with regenerative braking feelgoodquot solution but with standard car minimal practical benefit Onhome Solar Charging Station Plenty of roof area cheaper less efficient cells ok Battery weight unimportant use Pbacid OR charge one car pack while driving with the other Need good sun hybrid car Stored energy to recharge car overnight also other electric energy needs in home Reasonable solution for intown driving Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car Fuel cells generating 10 kW are available 75kW fuel cell system sells for 35000 A 500kg 2passenger vehicle can run about 80 miles on one standard tank of H2 Perfectly clean exhaust is water Safer than petrol H2 goes up and away does not stick to humansclothing Oxygen from air no 02 tank needed Hydrogen Problems How to store a very light gas that can find its way through very small holes H2 pipelines have been suggested replacing methane but H2 will leak out of anything especially under pressure Refueling with pressurized H2 is tricky Must pressurize to get enough energy Fuel cells don t like heat Texas CA Generating H2 from water takes more electricity than the fuel cell produces LongTerm Solutions Masstransit highly successful in Europe Ultralight vehicles since when do we need a 15tonne car to transport an 80kg human plus 50 kg of groceries Petrolelectric hybrid vehicles Safer battery packs greater energy density Solar panels on homes with charging stations Hydrogen may make sense if generated with renewable energy solar hydro wind close to its use site So when can I own one of those Buy a hybrid put solar cells on your roof and the answer could be tomorrow
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