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This 49 page Class Notes was uploaded by Durward Wiegand on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 670 at Kansas State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/214963/che-670-kansas-state-university in Chemical Engineering at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Biofuels and Feedstock Potential by Ron Madl Director Bioprocessing amp Industrial Value Added Program an Co director Center for Sustainable Energy ansas State UniverSIty rmadksuedu Kansas State University Manhattan Ks January 9 2008 Outline Energy Consumption Drivers for Biofuels Biofuel Processes Feedstock Options Competition for Land Usage HMMg Jr ea ng u m Emmy Thousand Metric Tons of Carbon Wugmea R K f Facts and Figures World Energy Use Renewables 80 Natural Gas 229 68 Far EastOceania Africa Middle East Eastern EurodeSR Western Europe r Ill39llllln39 Central amp South America United States so 150 Quadrillion Btus Facts amp Figures US Energy Use Renewables 7 Commercial 164 Industry 369 A Reside al 19 A7 4 1 2 Transportation 27 Petroleum 391 quotA 1015BTU 1 QUAD A burning Match 1 BTU A stick of Dynamite 2000 100 hrs ofTV 28000 1 gallon of Gasoline 125000 Annual food for one Person 3500000 Heat St Louis HouseYear 90000000 Apollo 17 to the Moon 5600000000 Hiroshima Atomic Bomb 80000000000 Oklahoma energyyear 1000000000000000 US Energy consumption 106000000000000000 World Energy consump 400000000000000000 Peak Oil Defined as the point in time when production rate begins to decline Usually coincides with N 50 of 0 remaining in an oilfield American peak was reached in 1973 Global peak predicted in 20102020 Nu 39 v 5 139 W 5 E i 1 1 E 3 a39 7 L a d S f 3 3 I 5 I J a 11H 11164 HIM 20m AA Bartlett Math Geol 32 1 2000 Drivers for Renewable Fuels Global population growth 1803 1927 1960 1974 1987 1999 Improved quality of life Fossil fuel availability Securityindependence Climate change Energy policy The President s PropOSeo l Energy Policy Jimmy Carter Televised speech April 18 1977 Tonight want to have an unpleasant talk with you about a problem unprecedented in our history With the exception of pre venting war this is the greatest challenge our country will face during our lifetimes The energy criSIs has not yet overwhelmed us but it Will If we do not act quickly It is a problem we Will not solve in the next few years and it is likely to get progressively worse through the rest of this century We sim l must balance our demand for energy with our rapidly shrinking resources By acting now we can control our future instead of letting the future control quot51 US Consumption of Renewable Energy a39 52 Wind 15 Hydtoelectt in 46300 Ethanol Fuel 15 Wood and Waste 45 Total Renewable Energy 5 Quads 77 of US Energy Consumption Process for Converting Starch to Biochemicals I Current Process Starch Tank Tapioca Liquefaction Jet Cooker 120 C 58min 95quotC 90min Puri cation Ion Exchange Saccharification cabin Fermentation 4 4 4 gt 39I V 39 o Q o vi A5 39b c E r N luconlc E to La i O o D I I 39 zl l 00 636 o t a 99 o o 9 a 6 Fructose Fuel Alcohol Chemicals Specialty x nformauon and wages cougesy of BB ntemauona y 9 Ethanol Industry at a Glance Number of operating ethanol plants gt120 Plants under construction or expansion 86 Announced plants 300 2006 production 46 billion gallons Projected production capacity 95 BGPY at end of 2007 RFS Program mandate 75 BG by 2012 Size Newer plants 100 MGPY Process dry or wet Daily water usage 15 million gallons Historic feedstock percentage Corn 97 Sorghum 2 Other 1 Coproducts from Corn Dry grind Process One bushel of Corn Corn DryGrind Facility FT W gt u 2 i Dpa i leesTUCk Fezd Using Corn in Modified Corn Processing David Johnston SUGAR STARCH CELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCK present plesent future a V J 1 J TECHNOLOGY BIOMASS eq com stover switchgrass HYDRO YSIS loin am uni STARC H ber emrackion e g corn wheat rice SUGAR eg Dane inice ETHANOL 1blend E85 Cellulosic Ethanol More abundant underutilized resource Processing coproducts Crop residues Dedicated energy crops Pretreatment process needed New enzyme systems 5carbon sugars need to be fermented need special yeast to convert to ethanol Chapple 2006 Ladisch 1979 Pretreatment gives Cellulose Lignin enzyme acceSSIble substrate Amomhouq Pretreatment Reg10n US Biomass inventory 13 billion tons amp From Billion ton Vision DOE amp USDA 2005 Net Energy Balance Product Ener Out Ener In Gasoline 081 Ethanol from grain 13 amplacemhnology Ethanol from grain 167 Optimumtechnology U 2 0 0 Conservative estimates Diesel 083 Biodiesel 32 Source Congressional Research Service RL32712 May 18 2006 Cellulosic Ethanol Energy Balance Estimates 5 years ago 1012 Ratio 23 years ago 35 Ratio Current Estimate 20 Why Improved recognition of costs associated with harvest transportation amp storage Harvest Issues Multiple passes thru field Soil compaction Organic matter retention Density of biomass limits transport Moisture content of biomass Transportation Issues Density of Biomass Handling steps add costs Biomass form should be easily conveyed at plant location Efficient transportation for bulky crops Storage Issues Storage Location In field Satellite depots Conversion plant Change in composition Protection from elements Conclusions on Cellulosic Biomass Conversion Each time biomass is handled adds costs New machinery will be required to manage costs New process management paradigms needed Six demonstration plants have been approved for federal funding P em F53 1 BE Biorenewable Resources 1 E15 Biorenewable Resources Lignoce ulosic M11 feedstock Quencher Mill Flue Cyclone gas Vapor gas Wows Pyrolysis char products hqmd 3555 H0 storage Hopper E Pyrolysis 4 Chm reactor MC Pyrolysis Motor Auger H q i d Fluidizing Combustor Biorenewable Resources Robert C Brown Products of Fast Pyrolysis 39 ML Pmduct Yields wt mf Water 115 122 Char 122 77 Gas 78 108 Pyrolytic Liquids 555 557 Gas Cnmpnsition wt mf Hydrogen 002 CO 382 534 C02 337 478 Hydrocarbons 052 59 Pymetic Liquid Cnmpnsitinn wt mf Sacc arides 325 243 Anhydrosugars 545 577 Aldehydes 1014 1404 Furans 035 Ketones 124 14 Icohols 20 117 Carboxylic Acids 1101 852 Pyrolytic Lignin 205 152 Phenols Furans etc 114 152 Biorenewable Resources Robert C Brown World Transport Vehicle Trends Diesel Direct Impact on Biofuels Production and Demand Global diesel volume has grown by 40 in 5 years 0 US market 2007 ltlt 1 2017 12 0 Eastern Europe 2007 15 2017 50 Conditions for further expansion of diesel look right Hi h energy rices diesel 33g o more e ficient versus gasoline Diesel technology has come of age 0 Global focus on CO2 US will need diesel to hit fuel economy targets One Driver World Transport Vehicle Trends Diesel Direct lmraoi t on Biofuelg Production and Demand Global share of diesel market has increased 40 in the last 5 years in ma Car Sales Conditions for further expansion of diesel look right 0 Global focus on CO2amp Energy Security J High energy prices iesel 33 more efficient versus gasoline v mm H San not dirty diesels anymore Where are the oilseed fe stocks going to come from to quotfuelquot this increase Renewable Oil Resources USA production per year 2005 252 billion lbs of major vegetable oils 113 billion lbs of fats animal amp grease Global production per year 2005 245 billion lbs of major vegetable oils 24 billion lbs of fats animal amp grease 270 DIIIlO bounds W Drivers for Biofuels Govt Mandates US Renewable Fuels Standard 35 billion gallons by 2017 20 of projected total consumption EU 575 by 2010 10 by 2020 25 by 2030 China 36 B gal diesel used in 2006 18 B gal biodiesel from animal fat low rade Plans 90 B gal biodiesel in 2007 China has said it aims to use 200000 tons of biodiesel by s b 2020 2010 and 2 million ton Why Energy Security Peak Oil amp Climate Change How will these intersect with market forces where exactly will the feedstocks come from and at what price Acreage in Crops Millions of acres 5 yr Ave 07 08 USDA 08 09 Pro39ected Corn 796 936 880 Soybeans 742 637 700 Hay 624 618 618 Wheat 595 604 622 Cotton 141 109 100 Grain Sorghum Q A M Principle Crops 2979 2981 2994 CRP 370 359 349 Total crop land in the United States 4416 million acres US Corn and Soybean Planted Acreage MIHIOIW Acres 100 I Corn Soybeans 1007 1500 1901 1003 1995 1597 1990 2001 2003 1005 2007 1080 1090 1992 1904 1906 1090 2000 2002 2004 2006 US Wheat Planted Acreage l U o 1 53 o U g lt c 9 E o Pquot o o 0 o 550 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 05 KSU Dept of Ag Econ Source USDA wwwaqmanauerinfo WASDE Report 33007 US Wheat Yields 2006 Estimate 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 05 Year Source USDA amp KSU KSU Dept of Ag Econ WASDE Report 33007 wwwaamanaaerinfo US Soybean Yields 4 O Actua Yield Trend Yield Lu U1 Lo 0 A 8 lt1 3 m V E 9 I U OJ 0 gt O U 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 05 Year Source USDAampKSU KSU Dept ong Egon WASDE Report 13007 wwwagmanagermfo US Corn Yield Actual Yield Tend Yield 95 00 05 Source USDA amp KSU KSU Dth ong Econ WASDE Report 11207 wwwag39nanagerjlfo Food Alcohol amp Industrial Corn Usage 2006 Estimate E a C In 3 m c Q a 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 93 95 97 99 01 03 05 KSU Dept of Ag Econ Source USDA wwwagmanagerlnfo WASDE Report 33007 World Corn Use Outpaces Production Consumption in 200607 5 75B Miiiion MT forecast to increase 7mm 3 setting a new Ban record EDD Production down from 200506 Stocks forecast to Sun be second lowest in 150 34ye rs a L i 2 L h i Q L sew e saw in v m mgwwmgzmws eee fee 3 eee he Production Consumption he an 96 US Acreage for Biodiesel 74 million A of soybeans produced 10 million tons of soy oil This would convert to 9 million tons of biodiesel 27 B gal Current US consumption of diesel is 52 B 2006 biodiesel production was 250 million gal 10 million A 360 million gal Blofuel Acreage Demand Starchbased EtOH 35 million A 151 B gal Cellulosic EtOH dedicated energy crop 75 million A 18 B gal Cellulosic EtOH crop residues 100 million A 8 B gal Biodiesel 10 million A 360 million gal Import oil and animal 640 mil gal Total of 120 million A 421 B gal renewable fuels 120442 27 of crop land Summary 140 B gal gasoline consumedyr 52 B gal diesel consumedyr Replace 30 of gasoline demand Replace 2 0o of diesel demand with crops from 27 0o of crop land Conclusions Biobased resources will supplement energy requirements but not replace petroleum Competition for grain and acreage Carryover is historically low weather will become key driver for food prices All renewable energy resources needed no silver bullet Reduction of energy demand will be required Thank You QUESTIONS Energy Content of Fuels MJIiter BTUUS gal Diesel GasoHne Butanol E 10 LPG Ethanol Methanol 409 32 292 2806 222 1959 15 147000 125000 104949 120900 95475 84400 62800 Additional Reading on Energy and Resource Consumgtion The Ehd of 00 a pauf Roberts 2004 A gre ew As a techhrcaf ahd bushess wrrter Roberm coyers the rahge of topch that affect us as we approach ahd pass peak 0H for the word Beyond am The yrew from Hubber s Peak a kehheth Deffeyes 2005 A etfoeum ehgheer ekpfahs Hubbert s peak for 0H productroh ahd outhnes a path forward wrth reduced 0H ayarfabmty Twrrght h the Desert The Comrhg Saudr 0 Shock ahd the World Ecohorhy a Mathew Srrhrhohs 2005 Srrh Saudra Arabra rhahy trrhes Hrs book ekpfarhs why t e ag The Hype About Hydrogen 7 Joseph Rorhrh 2005 s a past Undersecretary of Ehergy Rorhrh speaks to the many oyerfooked defrcrehcres of hydrogeh as a fuef It rs ah ehergy carrrer hot a source He argues that hydrogeh rs yery ohg terrh sofutroh a at best Collapse How Socretres choose to Far or Succeed 7 Jared Drarhohd 2005 puhtzer prrze wrhhrhg Guhs Gerrhs ahd steef author Drarhohd ahafyzes socretres39 patterhs of cohsurhp roh wrth popufatroh ekpahsroh orhe trahsrtroh mto sustarhabfe socretres a some don39t He draws pafaHe5 wrth today39s Wo d socrety The Popuatroh Bomb a Path Erhch 1968 A s s ah hyestrheht bahker specrahzrhg h ehergy He Wes h Houstoh ahd has yrsrted rhg Saudr OH frefds are at or hear peak g oh uhhrhrted popufatroh growth Hurhah popufatroh e s rssued hrs Warmng aboye 3 5 erroh wheh Erhch39s book was wrrtteh aboye o 5 erroh how a ahd strH trckrhg Thoughts oh LohgaTerrh Ehergy Supphes Screhtrsts ahd the SHth Lre Physrcs Today Jufy 2004 Ude urgmg screhtrsts to speak up more oh what they khow about popufatroh ehergy ahd hrhrts to ekpahsroh Afbert A Bart ett rs erherrtus professor of physrcs at the uhwersrty of Co orado at Boufder http re pppf govenergyipopuatfonipt70704 pdf
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