Musics of the World
Musics of the World MUSI 103
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Popular in Music
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Roosevelt Lynch on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUSI 103 at George Mason University taught by Gregory Robinson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/214976/musi-103-george-mason-university in Music at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
12314 Cultural Evolutionism a theory designed to explain cultural difference held that all societies evolved from a primitive to modern state simple to complex Problems assumes that there s only one way of being modern and primitive racistprejudice Ex Europe more evolved monophonic to harmony more melodies more developed Indian music distinct pitches more melodic quotnuancequot quotsophisticationquot 12 notes in between on piano ideas committingcausing devastating things led to reexamining categories Ethnocentrism the privilege of one over the other 12814 Rousseau quotmusic is the fine art of combining tones in a manner pleasing to the ear 18quoth century Blacking quotmusic is humanly organized sound 20quoth century Stokes quotwhat only social group considers it to be not a cop out concrete and definitive Ex men in Africa cancelling mail orders postal workers recitation of the Quran Islam ritualtext Christopher Small Reading Prelude notion of music as an object vs activityaction musicking ex playing at Kennedy center performance playing in the kitchen pleasure Ethnomusicology study of different music from different regionscultures all 3 an academic field or method of study study of music in its cultural context pay the way people dress etc ethno musicology study of people making music Merriam s 3 part model for music analysis 3 Part Model 1 Sound 2 Practices 3 Ideas or Concepts Musicology tends to focus on sound historical research Ex Mozart s letter to his dad musicological field work go to the place ethnomusicology Musical Example in class Don Giovanni Mozart seducer of women kills father first scene opera balance is important with Mozart music woman s voice escalates uneven out of balance music gets louder and is stronger for the male 13014 Music is NOT a universal language communicates across cultural barriers Ex audio of Spanish music mandarin music meanings are generated in the moment of performance different interpretations Ex Elvis Presley timbre sounds and how they convey meaning reciprocal dialogue Cultural Universal every culture involves some form of music Musics change in one component can change other components 1 different music language 2 have limits 3 one component changing another variety Relativism Cultural Relativistic view your experiencesexpressionsvalues that are realitive to your culture 1 No universal scientific or objective criteria for all criteria are inherently subjective arbitrary and bias determine qualitive 2 Evaluate music in the terms that it is trying to succeed best way 3 Depending on definition music is fundancing music no Mozart Musical Instruments 1 Aerophones instruments that present sound through the vibration of a column organ 2 Chordophones instruments that present sound through strings 3 diophones instruments that present sound through the body of the instrument themselves xylophones scrapers etc 4 Membranophones instruments that present sound through a membrane stretched across a frame drums 5 Electrophones instruments that present sound electronically 6 Pitch vibration at a particular frequency abstract idea 7 Note a pitch sustained for a set duration of time particular instance 8 Internal the difference in frequency between quottwoquot pitches 9 Octave the difference in frequency between one pitch and another one and half or double its frequency equivalency 10 Scale a set of pitches that divides the octave and forms the basic materials of a piece Western music doo ro me minor scale 11 Melody a single string of pitches that an audience recognized as a whole and that forms the emotional focal point of a piece 12 Accompaniment a combination of notes that support the melody without drawing attention away 13 Harmony 1 a secondary melody that accompanies the main melody the harmony 2a combination of melodies in harmony 14 Consonance good pitches 15 Dissonance bad pitches 16 Timbre the quality of sound at a given pitch RhythmTime 1 Beat a single rhythmic articulation 2 Rhythm the movement of music through time 3 Meter a way of organizing sound into a repeating succession of strong and weak beats to 4 duplemeter multiples of 2 triplemeter one out of every 3 4 Tempo the speed at which beats occur 5 Syncopation 1 instrumental or vocal articulation that emphasize metrically weak beats 6 Polyrhythm a rhythm that combines 2 or more rhythmic patterns simultaneously 7 Textures ways of combining musical voices Textures 1 Monophony a texture that features one single melodic line 2 Homophony a texture that features multiple voices on different pitches moving at the same time 3 Polyphony features multiple independent melodic lines different pitches with different rhythms 4 Monody one melodic line with accompaniment 5 Heterophony a texture that features multiple voices performing the same melodic contour with very slight variations 2414 Indian MusicHistory 1 billion 2 hundred 10 billion people 29 languages spoken from more than a million people English colonial language Hindi North India primarily Dravidian Languages Religious diversity 7 major ones 1 Hinduism 2 Buddhism 3 Sikhism 4 Jainism 5 Christianity over 23 million 6 Hindustani north Indian classical traditionmusic similar to Pakistani 7 Karnatak Carnatic south Indian classical music Indus Valley Civilization 25001700 BCE written language still uncyphered Vedic Period 1700500 BCE Aryans Sankrits Hindu language classic Vedas series of handed down texts and preserved through oral traditions Prayers description of gods and nature oldest text in Hindu tradition ClassicalMedieval Period 500 BCE1400 CE a period of great intellectual and spiritual growth Buddhism major texts Mughai Dynasties 14001858 CE Central Asia come from Persian cultural world more influential in the north than in the south a lot of them converted to Islam Khanquot changed last name European Colonialism and Independence 1858present shipping productivity goes inequality innovation increased industrialization Products tea spices etc British East Indian Company would figure out which leaders did not get along with what leaders own most of Indian land Ex What if Walmart or target owned the USA 1947 India gained its independence from England Basic Principles virtuosity in improvisation monophonic monophonic 21614 Raga more or less scale Svara Pitch Radiating self Sargam syllables Sa RiRe Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa Ornamentation ex Indian singer Phrases Seasons Times of Day Tala Meter Additive Meter Layers of Sound 1 Melody 2 Percussion 3 Drone 4 Gat Tora 5 Instruments 6 Instruments 7 Sitar 8 Tabla Alap Gat Tora Jhala No percussion I I 39 Improvised Improvisation Extensive lines of improvisation Lowhighlow metered Very fast Bring the audience into Features percussion the sound of the raga accompaniment Show musicians Moderate tempo u Ammetric no repeating sound 21114 Sikhsaajcom Karnataktransliteration Kriti Tyagaraja South African composers singerviolinist voice violin Mridangam drum 1 Alapanam melody only ametric free improvised in the raga 2 Kriti Pallavi sprouting a two line piece of text with a melody associated with it Anupallavi continuation of the sprouting Pallavi refrain Caranam longest section 1 niraval 2 Svara Kalpana inverted free improvisation Pallavi repeat a line of textexpand it Pg44 listen Define Ghazai in Middle Eastern and Indian literature and music a lyric poem with a fixed number of verses and a repeated rhyme typically on the theme of love and normally set to music Film Music Indian has a huge film industry reciprocal relationship examples going as far back as 1930s draws a lot on the staging of mtvtv and indian dramas cultural resonances examples can be found on youtube 21114 Sub Saharan Africa engages a lot of different styles of music culture by culture results throughout different parts of Africa decisions based on colonial powers not a lot of national music as in European Latin America musics in Africa are more conjoined to cultural groups Common Elements Rhythmic Complexity Polyrhythm a rhythmic pattern that combines 2 or more rhythms simultaneously Uneven rhythmic patterns nterlock playing in spaces Dense Overlapping Texture sound that is really busy Buzzing Timbre mbira Descending Melodic Lines high to low register Call and Response it don t mean a thing Cyclical open ended form one piece to another Ostinato repeats over and over Community Participation notion of spiritualityideological underpinnings Core and Elaboration Parts high medium low mprovisation 21814 Cultures Mande of West Africa Ewe of Ghana and Togo Central African Forest People Social Hierarchy and Music s Social Function Central African Forest People applied from outside rather than internal Bambuti Pigme noquot less politically problematic term very little social hierarchy live in the forest huntergatherer existence polyphony sing because they believe it will wake the forest up spiritual exercise Mande of West Africa not as centralized still a lot of power very hierarchal professionals Jali Jalolu history of the empirehistorical events history amp council Kora primary instrument a harp 2 strings 3 octave range played similarly like mbira Kumbengo basic ostinato Birmintingo improvisational playing Ewe of Ghana and Toga in between central African forest people and Mande of West Africa not as much hierarchy social hierarchy African styles drumming Gankogui a double bell instrument made out of iron Axatse net of beads chord small medium and large drums that play interlocking patterns African Popular Music in the 20 h Century
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