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Popular Music in America

by: Roosevelt Lynch

Popular Music in America MUSI 102

Marketplace > George Mason University > Music > MUSI 102 > Popular Music in America
Roosevelt Lynch
GPA 3.65

Mark Bergman

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Mark Bergman
Class Notes
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Popular in Course

Popular in Music

This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Roosevelt Lynch on Monday September 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUSI 102 at George Mason University taught by Mark Bergman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see /class/214977/musi-102-george-mason-university in Music at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 09/28/15
POST WAR ERA 19461954 Music Industry began targeting young people for the rst time 0 Production follows access to market capitol Most mainstream popular music dominated by conservative tastes because of o Desire to settle down in postwar years Expanding economy gave many Americans home ownership opportunities Cold War con icts and threats fostered a need for comforting music Increasing routinization of music industry Payola scandal I Industry pays DJ s to put their records on heavy rotation Relationship between Major Labels and marginal markets materializes 0 Major labels conservative music with wellestablished performers I Marketplace Advantages 0 More financial resources 0 Better name recognition 0 Payola promotion I Marketplace Disadvantages 0 Looked down on teenage market 0 Overproduced music of dubious quality 0 Independent Labels focused on marginal markets I Advantages 0 More diverse musical in uences 0 More keenly attuned to changes in the teenage market I Disadvantages 0 Fewer financial resources 0 Often unable to keep artists they developed TECHNOLOGY 0 Use of Magnetic Tape recording I Increased recording fidelity I Allowed for recording over mistakes I Allowed for overdubbing I Best known innovator was Les Paul 8track inventor Battle of Speeds most records played at 78 rpm o In 1948 Columbia introduced 12inch LP spinning at 33 U3 rpm I Could accommodate over 20 minutes side I Made of vinyl not shellac I Made a big difference for Classical and Broadway fans I Songs were and still are 4 minutes long due to listening habit o In 1949 RCA invented the 45 I Record design allowed for stacking of singles I Allowed consumers to purchase only the songs they wanted rather than prepackaged collections Became primary medium for distributing hit singles O O O O FM Radio Broadcasting 0 Better sound quality 0 Less subject to disturbances TV o Exerted most powerful change on American Culture 0 By early 50 s TV is center of leisure activity for millions of Americans 0 Combined aspects of previous media I From Hollywood combination of sound and moving images I Like radios and records could be brought into family parlor Became main outlet for corporate advertising By mid1950 s was the most important medium for launching new stars BIG SINGERS o Promoted to a teenage audience 0 Helped by recording ban from 1942 7 44 o Helped by crosspromotion film especially SINATRA o Began career with big bands Harry James and Tommy Dorsey Promoted solo album on network radio Continued recording during recording ban Promoted on radio movies press to teenage market First documented example to modern pop hysteria 0 Vocal style in uenced by long instrumental lines COLE 0 Most successful black recording artist of postwar era 0 Along with Mills Brothers and Louis Jordon first Af Ams to cross over to white pop charts 0 Recorded jazz trios but biggest pop hits were sentimental ballads JOHNNIE RAY Marketed exclusively to teenage audience One of the biggest international stars of the early 50 s Began his career working with black RampB performers in Detroit Developed a highly emotional performance involving sobbing sighing and stretching each syllable of a song out 0 Had crossover success in black community URBAN FOLK MUSIC WEAVERS Combined unlikely in uences 7 Inspired by rural folk music and protest songs of Woody Guthrie Performed by urban intellectuals Many practitioners were persecuted for their politics Best known group was the Weavers lead by Pete Seeger I Performed at union rallies colleges and urban coffee houses I False accusations of being communists forced Decca to cancel their recording contract Developed niche market for future artists including worldbeat artists 0 O O O O O O O 0000 SOUTHERN MUSIC RampB and Country replaces Race and Hillbilly Southern migrants were an important market for popular music In 50 s country and RampB promoted on radio and jukeboxes Recording ban did not affect southern musicians as much 0 O O O JUMP BLUES First commercially successful category of RampB in postwar era Smaller bands were more costeffective than big bands Boogiewoogie based party music 0 LOUIS J ORDON lead Tympany Five with crossover success to white audiences Inspired early RocknRoll in uences by blues and TPA Used Crossmarketing short lms were shown in movie theaters Combines in uence of blues and TPA BLUES CROONERS o Blend ofblues and pop 0 Urbane and cool approach to the blues 0 Leroy Carr Scrapper Blackwell Cecil Grant Charles Brown CHICAGO BLUES ELECTRIC BLUES Directly in uenced by Country Blues w electronic instruments 0 MUDDY WATERS Most popular blues musician in Chicago bottleneck guitar steady rhythm Blues callresponse distortion In uenced rock musicians like Eric Clapton and Rolling Stones RampB WOMEN 0 RampB played an important role in presenting stylized sexual politics Male stereotypes included the dejected lover sexual predator etc o RUTH BROWN Best known black female vocalist of early 50 s church in uenced 0 BIG MAMA THORNTON Began career in Black vaudeville later had hits like Hound Dog Reprimanding lyrics become atheme in RampB Roles for women focused on their relationship with a man SWING Fletcher Henderson 0 Widely Credited with inspiring the rise of Swing 0 Made frequent use of call and response technique 0 More owing rhythmic feel than 2beat syncopated music I Use of walking bass I 4 on the oor drumming I ride symbol Benny Goodman o Neatness and Smoothness appealed predominately to white middle class audiences 0 Cross country tour of 1934 credited with launching the swing era 0 First prominent white band leader to hire black musicians Mills Brothers 0 Most successful and longest lived of swing era vocal groups 0 Siblings who adapted jubilee quartet sacred tradition to secular themes 0 One of the first black musical groups to be broadcast on network radio 0 Success of Paper Doll partially attributes to an AFM recording ban BIG BANDS Relied on TPA songs blues and call and response techniques Basie o Developed distinctive style in KC then considered a frontier town 0 KC style more closely related to country blues riff based 0 Used head charts with more rhythmic intensity than E Coast bands 0 Use of boogiewoogie piano style Ellington o Widely regarded as one of the most important 20 11 C American musicians o Came from middleclass background 0 Began career playing jungle music at the Cotton Club 0 Used new colors textures and forms mutes screeching glissandi etc Miller 0 Most popular band in the world during late 30 s early 40 s 0 Most commercially successful swing band leader 0 In The Mood held 1 position for 12 weeks I Incorporates 12bar blues into TPA AABA form I Riff construction I Predictable and unsurprising Escapist COUNTRY Appealed to white southemers migrating to industrial centers Spread nationwide by radio 0 Grand Ole Oprey important radio program for spreading country music 0 Most Hillbilly musicians not affected by recording ban 0 WWII helped spread in uence of country music I Stimulated ruralurban migration domestically I Brought southern servicemen in contact with those from the north and Midwest I Themes of patriotism sentimentality played well during wartime SOUTHERN INFLUENCES ON COUNTRY ROY ACUFF 0 Most important Hillbilly singer of swing era 0 Became famous on Grand Ole Oprey 0 Notable for very stylistic traditional music 0 First big hit was Great Speckled Bird I Portrays church as embattled institution I Notable use of new instrument dobro reminiscent of bottleneck guitar from country blues I folksy and downhome image and performance style WESTERN INFLUENCES ON COUNTRY MUSIC Unlike the south which was associated with images of tradition and religious piety the west as 39 with v t 39 J and the future GENE AUTRY 0 First successful singing cowboy Popular heroic image of 1930 s and 40 s 0 Began career imitating Jimmie Rogers 0 Film appearances launched his singing career 0 Had crossover success by combining crooner s smoothness with a less pronounced regional accent contrasts with Acuff o Expanded audience for country audience 0 Images in Country Music are increasingly tied to popular film SONS OF THE PIONEERS o PLAY COOL WATER I Vocal harmonies in uenced by groups like the Mills Brothers I Founded by Len Slye Roy Rogers I Borrows archetypes and images from Hollywood films WESTERN SWING 0 Most important figure is Bob Wills I Popular in Western territories I Combines musical elements including Southern string band Call and response from big bands Mexican Mariachi bands Use of TPA in uenced AABA form Irving Ber Cole Port George G 20 s and 30 s dominated by professional tunesmiths many Jewish 3 songwriters exemplify excellence in both quality and quantity Porter Gershwin Berlin TPA songs were generally escapist Did not usually deal with racism or unemployment Lyrics about privacy consumption and romance Genaric Universal themes think Halmark cards Almost always 15I person 0 Written with everyday languageslang o More intimate style related to microphone use Tapped into aspirations of ethnically expanding middle class Jewish immigrants played a central role in music business ljn Incorporated ragtime influences syncopation Russian immigrant born Israel Baline Most productive varied creative of TPA songwriters Hits include White Christmas and There s no Business Began career as song plugger First big hit Alexander s Ragtime Band in 1911 Wrote for film and stage including Marx bros Al Jolson One of his most famous shows is Annie Get Your Gun er Well educated grew up in a wealthy family Known for witty lyrics word play and subtle sexual innuendo Ex of his style Just One of Those Things and Let s Do It Some songs show Latin influence like Begin the Beguine ershwin Bridged gap between pop and classical music ex Summertime Died at age 37 One of most widely known American composers Achieved success as concert composer and TPA composer Incorporated stylistic devices from African American sources Most ambitious work is the opera Porgy and Bess EMBRACEABLE YOU shows compositional craft I Call Response ear leading in performance Use of sequence in instrumental sections Crooning style RACE AND HILLBILLY RECORDS HILLB Terms used by record industry from 20 s late 40 s Similarities include o Originated mainly in the rural south 0 Based on long standing folk traditions 0 mixed rural traditions with aspects of national culture including minstrelsy vaudeville TPA 0 Spread by migration 0 Formed basis for major post WWII styles including RampR RampB Country 0 PLAY LEADBELLY AND GUTHERIE JOHN HENRY ILLY MUSIC Early name for Country and Western Developed out of British folk songs and ballads Also in uenced by minstrelsy vaudeville and TPA Promoted by Ralph Peer and Polk Brockman o Founded Okeh records in 1923 0 Released the first commercially successful hillbilly record by Fiddlin John Carson Distributed by radio unlike race music PLAY OH BROTHER CLIP Most hillbilly musicians were not professionals 0 One exception was Vernon Dalhart I Originally a light opera singer Represented hybrid form of hillbillyTPA Crossover hit Two important paradigms in early country music that are still with us 0 1 images of hearth home and family values 0 2 restless wandering and hard living ER FAMILY CART 0 Lead by Doc Carter with his wife and sister in law 0 Doc Carter collected and re worked material from black and white musicians and copywritten the material 0 Maybelle Carter developed an influential style of guitar playing 0 LISTEN TO GOSPEL SHIP 0 Form is Strophic Chorus Instrumental Verse x3 Chorsu JIMMIE ROGERS o Heavily influenced by African American musicians o Incorporated TPA influence contrasting sections 0 Associated with high lonesome sound 0 Some lyrics conceal sexual messages 0 Cultivated image of a footloose rambler hard drinker o PLAY EXAMPLES BLUE YODEL WOODY GUTHRIE 0 Class consciousness 0 Known for protest songs particularly during the depression 0 Had large influence on urban folk movement ROCKN ROLL 1954 7 1959 GENERAL Marginal Styles begin to dominate center 0 RampBCountry signi cant on mainstream Vitality of Am Economy lead to increase in record sales and record player sales Independent labels reemergewere wiped out by depression Common misconceptions about RocknRoll 0 Rock and Roll not a new style Not a single style of music Not the rst time music is marketed to a youth audience Not rst form to integrate black and white musical styles RocknRoll is a marketing term like TPA Hillbilly etc 0000 RocknRoll music 0 Became a de ning characteristic for a generation 0 With TV and Film played essential role in inventing the teenager as a commercial and cultural identity Facilitated marketing a from racialregional to generational Made use ofthe cover rerecording ofa song I Often involves adapting song s style I In 1950 s white performers often covered black artists 00 NONPERFORERS Alan Freed o Invented term Rockn Roll I Used for promotional purposes I Term originally had sexual connotations o Promoted both black bands playing to an integrated audience 0 Career destroyed by Payola scandal SONGWRITERS AND PRODUCERS 0 Increasing number of performers don t write their own songs 0 Role of the producer becomes more important I Responsible for characteristic sound of the recording I Lieber and Stoller important songwritingproducing team I Wrote many hits for bands like the Coasters and Elvis EARLY ROCKN ROLLRampB CHUCK BERRY o Celebrated teenage culture 0 Greatest RocknRoll in uence on musicians I Clever lyrics and quality songwriter I Fine vocalistPioneering guitarist LITTLE RICHARD 0 Known for visual amboyance Appeared in movies cross marketing Sexually ambiguous identity Falsetto singing uptempo songs Boogie Woogie in uenced piano style 000 URBAN FOLK MUISC Bob Dylan Established himself in NYC in early 60 s Supported by increasing cultural and political awareness of baby boomers Stood out for o Remarkable quality of original songs I Poetic lyrics Use of irony o Rough hewn performance style Went electric in 1965 at Newport Folk Festival His songs were successfully covered by more pop friendly artists Successful album artist but not singles artist Simon and Garfunkel One of the most enduring folk rock acts The Sounds of Silence was inspired by Dylan s electric success Paul Simon later created adventurous world beat albums Counterculture BEAT Label for innovative rebellious radical aspects of 60 s musicalpolitical culture Rock music was an important part of the definition of counterculture Developed it s own sense of jargon including long hair beads tie dyes and embracing exotic cultures Critiqued values of mainstream Associated with liberated sexuality and drug experimentation LES SGT PEPPER At the time it was made the most expensive album to make Evoked influence of Indian classical music Directly addressed audience as if it were a live concert Use of innovative studio techniques First album they made after deciding to quit touring Redirected attention away from singles to the album 0 Tracks merge together last track on record does not end Offered a sophisticated cultural critique Psychedelic Rock Featured wild imagery long instrumental improvisation and associated with counterculture movement San Francisco Music Scene Jefferson Airplane 0 First nationally successful band to emerge out of SF scene 0 Developed a hard edged style with emphasis on open forms instrumental improvisation and visionary lyrics 0 Despite anti commercial rhetoric received a large advance from RCA 0 Lead by Grace Slick 0 Use of guitar distortion Responses to conservatism in the 70 smusic industry Progressive Countg contrary to mainstream county Willie Nelson 0 O O O Bridged the gap between rock country and honkytonk Associated with Outlaws Adopted progressive concept to country Achieved success with Red Headed Stranger I Follows story of mistreated outlaw Waylon Jennings O O 0 Associated with Outlaws Began career as a member of The Crickets Cultivated image of a rebel Townes Van Zandt 0 Never had a top 40 country hit 0 Became an underground cult hero of progressive country 0 Songs successfully covered by other artists 0 In uenced by English Ballads and Mexican corridos 0 Use of poetic imagery o Poncho and Lefty featured complex enigmatic characters Re ae Style 0 Mixture of Caribbean folk music and African RampB 0 First rock style to come out of the Third World Jamaica 0 Became popular in US as the soundtrack to a Jamaican film The Harder They Come 0 Associated with Rastafarian movement 0 Lyrics often focused on Political messages and class consciousness Jimmy Cliff 0 Star of The Harder They Come 0 Popular with young collegeeducated adults 0 First Jamaican musician to gain recognition in US Bob Marley 0 Best known proponent of Reggae style 0 Achieved worldwide popularity 0 Songs successfully covered by other artists like Eric Clapton 0 Made use of coded messages Punk Reaction against conservatism and pretense in popular music Incorporated radical political imagery both progressive social values and fascist imagery Selfconsciously rebellious Featured simpli ed musical concepts Featured dark and ironic lyrics US Punk Ramones 0 Featured short pop in uenced songs Often used fast tempos and high volume Use of lyrical irony sarcasm and drug references Incorporated 50 s imagery Noticeable lack of instrumental solos Had large in uence in the UK 00000 Velvet Underground 0 Lead by Lou Reed and John Cale o Incorporated in uences from musical avantgarde 0 Lyrics featured sexual deviancy and drug addiction Talking Heads PunkEarly New Wave 0 In uenced by minimalist aesthetic simple repeating gures 0 Use of simple riff driven songs 0 Incorporated nerdy intellectual imagery Other in uential Punk artists include The Stooges New York Dolls and Patti Smith British Punk SeX Pistols Most outrageous of 70 s punk bands Use of nihilistic lyrics Political songs generated significant controversy Other Bands include the Clash and The Dammed OOOO General trends in the 1980 s Music industry recession Cited causes include Economic policy of Regan administration Competition from other forms of entertainment Decline of Disco Pirating music onto cassettes Corporate consolidation Further fragmentation of marketplace Prices for recordings increase Increased reliance upon established artists Explosion of new technologies including Digital recording Introduction of the CD Drum machines samplers sequencers and MIDI Introduction of MTV The music industry increasingly relies upon established artists including Michael Jackson Prince Achieved cross over popularity with Thriller Collaborated with artists from other musical genres 0 Paul McCartney Vincent Price Eddie Van Halen Appealed to multiple age and racial groups Broke the color barrier of MTV Created a sexually and racially ambiguous identity Known for exceptional productivity Exerts control over all aspects of his public image owns own recording studio etc Public persona consists of a variety of con icting images Used cross merchandising to great effect Public image bolster by films and videos Madonna Generated strong reaction both positive and negative Film career helped generate celebrity status Controversial for sexually explicit video images Incorporated religious symbols Used music career to comment on sexual stereotypes Cultural Factors affecting Popular Music Death of iconic popular musicians of the 60 s Jim Morrison 1971 Jimi Hendrix 1970 Janis Joplin 1970 o Breakup of the Beatles 1970 Nostalgia for 1950 s Happy Days Grease Crocodile Rock I Continues tradition of British Invasion I Capitalizes on 50 s nostalgia I Sound of John s voicepiano playing are central to records appeal Consolidation of the music industry 0 Reliance on established stars 0 Marginalizing of independent labels 0 Emergence of specialized genres MOR Easy Listening Adult Contemporary Country Pop Bubble Gum etc Reliance on Top 40 radio programming I FM radio previously freeforrn surpasses popularity of AM radio I Focus on AOR Pop Rock Chicago Adult Contemporary Barbara Streisand SingerSongwriter Carole King Soft S0111 O Jays Country Pop John Denver Bubble Gum Jackson 5 Disco Disco Infemo 0 Soft S0111 Motown in uenced smooth romantic style that featured black performers One of the most commercially successful forms is the Philadelphia Sound 0 Produced by Kenny Gamble and Leon Huff o Performed by O Jays and Harold Melvin and the Blue Notes Had great crossover success Less assertive in lyrics and rhythms than 60 s soul Mainstream Country Successfully reached out to middle class listeners Country Pop artists had major pop chart successes John Denver Pop oriented country 0 0 Charlie Rich Rockabilly performer 0 Glen Campbell Westem Swing Artist 0 OliviaNewton John Later moved to pop style 0 Dolly Parton Country roots wpopfriendly material Hardcore Country Typified by Bakersfield Sound Attempt to move back to HonkyTonk roots Characterized by o Twangy sound 0 Electric instrumentation 0 Strong backbeat o Opposite of Nashville sound Artists included Merle Haggard Buck Owens and Ernest Tubb MINSTRIL SHOW first from of musical and theatrical regarded by European audiences as distinctively American Reasonably interpreted as more than just a form of overt white racism Origins white working class urban neighborhoods in NYC who may have identi ed their own sense of marginalization with African Americans also referred to as Ethiopian music or Blackface entertainment Performed by blacks and whites Dominant American popular music form from 1830 7 1890 Class politics are important in early minstrel music but less important later Featured very little syncopation In 1890 s Minstrel shows begin to decline in popularity and vaudeville becomes more popular NAMES TO KNOW George Washington Dixon first white performer to establish a reputation as a blackface entertainer Thomas Dartmouth Rice Demonstrated potential popularity and profitability of minstrelsy with the song Jim Crow He imitated the African American dance the cake walk Jim Crow blackface minstrel character invented by Rice based upon hybrid stereotypes of African Americans and rural whites that satirized politicians and the social elite STEPHEN FOSTER First person in the US to make his living as a fulltime professional songwriter Grew up on the Western Frontier near Pittsburgh Wrote parlor songs in the Irish tradition and Ethiopian songs Factors in Foster s success include o Minstrel troupes performed his songs on tour 0 Sheet music production expanded during the mid 19m C in part b c of music education 0 Expanded domestic production of cheap pianos standard feature of middle class parlor or living room like an entertainment center 0 Copyright protections did not exist for composers they protected publishing rms becomes important later JEANIE WITH THE LIGHT BROWN HAIR by Stephen Foster In AABA form Tuneful melody based upon a musical hook DANCE MUSIC AND BRASS BANDS Early published dances were based upon dances popular in England and tied with social functions Grand Ball became an important venue for music waltz polka mazurka Regional variations existed across class and race lines ex California Gold Rush slave balls on southern plantations and ethnic communities in NY BRASS BANDS Civil War 1910 brass bands town bands were a focus of American musical life Civil War increased popularity of Bands 500 bands in Union army alone Decommissioned army band members formed bands in their hometowns Colleges and HS formed bands ancestors of GMU symphonic band Almost all towns had a band shell in a park Military still maintains several professional bands John Phillips Sousa was known as the March King 0 Conductor of US Marine Band 0 Arguably US first supergroup 0 Hits included Stars and Stripes Forever 0 Toured constantly Italian concert bands and business bands were also popular during this time TIN PAN ALLEY At the end of the 19m C music publishing became centered in NYC Established publishers of classical music challenged by innovative new publishing rms many of which were founded by Jewish immigrants 28m St became known as TPA evoking the clanging of many pianos Popular songs printed as sheet music were promoted by song pluggers who promoted music in department stores Hits performed in vaudeville nationwide like The Tonight Show Black theaters had a separate booking agency Theater Owners Booking Agency White songwriters include Charles K Harris Paul Dresser Harry von Tilzer A well known Black songwriter was James A Bland o Wrote plantation songs about rural African American life eX Carry Me Back to Old Virginny 7 once the state song for Virginia 0 He had amiddle class background 0 Criticized by some for pandering to misconceptions about Af Americans 0 Championed by some for authentic African American music 0 Used existing images of African Americans to access mass market AFTER THE BALL First Megahit selling over 5 mill copies Written down by dictating the song to an arranger and promoted by a song plugger Self published and Harris success inspired other independent publishers most of whom went out of business in the depression Strophic Form with AABA elements Versechorus form is from English Ballad tradition with emphasis on the chorus o Chorus in catchiest part of the tune 0 Name of the song is mentioned twice in the chorus Written in the waltz style popular dance of the day like much of the pop music we will study this semester Very sentimental and emotional in character 0 Tells the story of an old man who lost his true love due to a case of mistaken identity 0 RAGTIME Emerges in the 1880 s Represented emergence of African Am musical in uence Term comes from the expression to rag meaning to syncopate the rhythm of a piece of music in order to make it more exciting Best known composer ofthis style is Scott Joplin Piano is the most important ragtime instrument Ragtime represented a much greater musical in uence of African Americans on European Americans than Minstrelry Like RocknRoll and jazz ragtime became associated with rebellion against social conservatism PHONOGRAPH Invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison Early machines transformed sound on foil or was cylinders explain 1887 Gramophone disc invented easier to store Two large categories of popular music 0 Unsettling effects of social change immigration social geographic mobility technology lead to popularity of sentimental songs good old days 0 Interest in and excitement in new culture created a market for syncopated ragtime in uenced music including increased in uence of African American culture and class conscience Phonographs became a symbol of upward mobility like piano earlier Originally sold in furniture stores OVERVIEW Turn of the century was a time of great change in American society general CHAPTER 9 TEENAGE SYMPHONIES Dance Crazes The Twist o Chubby Checker I Name inspired by Fats Domino overweight euphemism game I Started freeform Dance Craze Hits I Increased widespread appeal I Records played in discotheques I Promoted on and associated with American Bandstand Phil Spector Performing Composing successes with 1 hit To Know Him Is to Love Him Apprenticed with Lieber and Stoller Associated as a producer with The Ronettes and the Crystals 0 Best known for work w girlgroups many were African American Founded his own record label Became associated with Wall of Sound technique 0 Multiple instruments doubling each part 0 Echo effects 0 Thick textures and use of string instruments Established a new model for the production and marketing of pop records 0 Smaller quantity of music produced but high percentage e of hits 0 Great concern with detail Worked in LA with a studio band called the wrecking crew o Shifted industry emphasis away from NYC TPA STYLE ARTISTS Brill Blldg 0 Building in which many important NYC songwriters worked I Like a Rock and Roll Tin Pan Alley o Wrote for many artists mostly for Indie labels 0 Carole King Gerry Goffm Barry Mann Neil Diamond Neil Sedaka I Some King Sedaka and Diamond also had performing career Motown o Founded by Barry Gordy I Successful songwriter later producer I Most successful African American label owner I Kept control of all creative and financial aspects of music making I Chose artists not just for musical ability but charismatic personality on and off stage 0 Named for Detriot Motor City Motown 0 Music marketed to young people of all races 0 Artists include Smokey Robinson the Miracles Diana Ross the Supremes Little Stevie Wonder Marvin Gaye Jackson Five etc Worked with an integrated studio band known as the Funk Brothers Moved to CA in 1971 BEACH BOYS 0 O RACE RECORDS 1 Until 1920 s most recorded music by African Americans were in the TPA style and market to white audiences Music Industry s discovery of black music can be traced to a 1920 set of recordings by black vaudeville performer Mamie Smith 0 Smith replaced a popular Jewish American star who specialized in Negro songs at a recording session 0 Despite a lack of promotion the recording was a hit 0 Lead to a series of hits in black communities Promotional phrase race music applied by Ralph Peer Okeh records 0 race was used in a positive context within the African Am community I Used by other record companies and black press I referred to an African American man with pride in his heritage o Af Am artists marketed to white audiences not classified as race music 0 Emergence of race records established a pattern in pop music with small independent labels taking the lead in discovering new talent I Ralph Peer Okeh records sent mobile recording units to record southern rural musicians I Paramount records sold records to promote their furniture business Wisconsin Chair Co I Black Swan founded 1921 was first black owned record company 0 Phonograph important to Af Am families in 1930 s 0 Af Am ownership of phonographs as high as 13 0 High phonograph ownership helped create national sense of African American culture CLASSIC BLUES In uential form of music marketed to African American audiences in deep south In uenced by TPA sensibilities Many early classic blues recordings in uenced by African Americans but were sung by whites and in uenced by minstrel music and coon songs First blues records sung by African Ams differed from country blues 0 Written by professional songwriters 0 Some songwriters were middleclass African Americans 0 Featured female singers marketed to whites and blacks Artists included I Alberta Hunter Ethel Waters I Gertrude Ma Rainey Mother of the Blues I Bessie Smith Empress of the Blues 0 Rainey and Smith developed singing style in black vaudeville clubs I Their singing style was more related to African American singing styles than minstrelsy ragtime or TPA 0 Created a kind of bridge between white and black communities 0 Hybrid forms continue to be popular 0 PLAY ST LOUIS BLUES I Hybrid form AABC I Call and response Louis Armstrong I Blue Notes Derived from African scales WC HANDY Most in uential Classic Blues composer College educated and professional teacher Cofounded Black Swan Records In uenced by blues and TPA sensibilities Referred to himself as the father of the blues OOOOO LOUIS ARMSTRONG 0 Challenges distinctions between artistic and commercial jazz In addition to jazz importance he also in uences popular music Grew up in New Orleans Moved to Chicago andjoined King Oliver s band Later joined Fletcher Henderson s band in NYC By 1930 s became the best known black musician in world Continued to have hits throughout his career Famous for both musicality and personality OOOOOOO COUNTRY BLUES aka rural downhome delta or folk blues Recorded in 1920 s but already in existence for decades Emerged in the Mississippi Delta From Memphis to Vicksburg LA 0 Site of most intense cotton farming 0 One of largest populations of slaves in North America 0 After Civil War many former slaves lived in extreme poverty I To escape farming many worked on trains and riverboats Country Blues gave voice to impoverished African Am workforce In uenced by a number of African Am folk styles including I Jump ups riff based tunes for dancing later jump blues I Story songs like John Henry ballad in uence I Work songs Field songs I Often featured regional styles I Spread through oral tradition I Became standardized and nationalized through recordings rather than sheet music 00 Versatile performer repertoire includes blues African American ballads ragtime TPA and church songs Discovered in 1929 by a talent scout for Paramount Sang many songs typical of blues genre 0 Nonlinear story telling focusing on highlighted incidents o Contained hidden meanings like Follow the Drinking Gourd 0 Famous artists include Charlie Patton thick heavy vocal timbre Leadbelly 12string guitar Eddie Son House Bottle neck slide guitar Robert Johnson reportedly sold his soul to the devil SOCIAL DANCE AND JAZZ 1917 7 1935 WWI increased American in uence overseas stimulated and reorganized the national economy and demonstrated the possibilities of technology Industrial jobs create migration to Northern cities Automobiles and telephones become available to the middle class Records lms and newspapers create a sense of national culture TECHNOLOGY AND THE MUSIC BUSINESS Music industry begins relying more on record sales than sheet music sales 1919 First hit to be popularized as a record before released as sheet music By mid20 s record sales surpass sheet music sales 1925 invention of the electronic microphone 0 Changed the way music could be recorded Instruments could be highlighted etc Commercial radio is started in the 1920 s and competes with record companies Network radio begins in late 20 s NBC ABC CBS Columbia Broadcasting System 0 Radio shows broadcast from concert venues 0 Further contributed to the formation of anational culture people across the country in large and small towns could all listen to the same music Esp important during the Depression as most people couldn t afford to go to concerts but could afford a radio 0 Sound Film was introduced in 1927 talkies with the Jazz Singer singing in blackface Economic Depression wiped out smaller studios and lead to consolidation of major studios o By 1930 s most music publishing rms were bought my lm studios 0 Lead to more conservative musical trends 0 Limited public s exposure to music outside the commercial mainstream and large companies liked things that way 0 Other than TPA and ballroom songs the only major forms of music available were niche markets I EX Classical Race Music Hillbilly Ethnic records FREAK DANCES Many changes in social dancing and popular music at turn of Century 0 Greater in uence of African American dance forms 0 Dance crazes based upon simplified black styles were taught by professional dance teachers I EX Texas Tommy Turkey Trot Bunny Hug Foxtrot Dances were often considered scandalous Accompanied by orchestrated syncopated ragtime music Bumpers were sometimes inserted between dancers to keep them apart Some dances were outlawed by civic and moral authorities Cultural Factors affecting Popular Music Death of iconic popular musicians of the 60 s Jim Morrison 1971 Jimi Hendrix 1970 Janis Joplin 1970 o Breakup of the Beatles 1970 Nostalgia for 1950 s Happy Days Grease Crocodile Rock I Continues tradition of British Invasion I Capitalizes on 50 s nostalgia I Sound of John s voicepiano playing are central to records appeal Consolidation of the music industry 0 Reliance on established stars 0 Marginalizing of independent labels 0 Emergence of specialized genres MOR Easy Listening Adult Contemporary Country Pop Bubble Gum etc Reliance on Top 40 radio programming I FM radio previously freeforrn surpasses popularity of AM radio I Focus on AOR Pop Rock Chicago Adult Contemporary Barbara Streisand SingerSongwriter Carole King Soft S0111 O Jays Country Pop John Denver Bubble Gum Jackson 5 Disco Disco Infemo 0 Soft S0111 Motown in uenced smooth romantic style that featured black performers One of the most commercially successful forms is the Philadelphia Sound 0 Produced by Kenny Gamble and Leon Huff o Performed by O Jays and Harold Melvin and the Blue Notes Had great crossover success Less assertive in lyrics and rhythms than 60 s soul Mainstream Country Successfully reached out to middle class listeners Country Pop artists had major pop chart successes John Denver Pop oriented country 0 0 Charlie Rich Rockabilly performer 0 Glen Campbell Westem Swing Artist 0 OliviaNewton John Later moved to pop style 0 Dolly Parton Country roots wpopfriendly material Hardcore Country Typified by Bakersfield Sound Attempt to move back to HonkyTonk roots Characterized by o Twangy sound 0 Electric instrumentation 0 Strong backbeat o Opposite of Nashville sound Artists included Merle Haggard Buck Owens and Ernest Tubb 1990 s Fragmentation of commercial styles leads to breakdown of traditional center and periphery Singles market continues to shrink Notion of outsider becomes an important means to promoting music Hip Hop began in African American and Caribbean Am communities in NYC in 1970 s Included distinctive style of graffiti dance music dress speech etc Included expressions of local identity Shaped by disco techniques Use of mixing and backspinning and scratching and rapping turntables developed by Kool Herc and Grandmaster Flash INFLUENTIAL EARLY RAP SONGS Rappers Delight by the Sugarhill Gang helped popularize rap and expose the style to a national audience Features party oriented lyrics The Message by Grandmaster Flash Established trend of social realism in rap Featured grim portrait of life in the south Bronx Launched an entire stream of rap including political raps and gangsta rap RAP MUSIC LATE 80 S EARLY 90 S Beastie Boys from 1986 year of first two multi platinum rap albums indicated expanding audience for rap including white audiences First successful white rap act Represented a fusion of rap with punk Run DMC had multi platinum album in 1986 Arguably the most influential act in rap music From middle class neighborhood in Queens Style featured literate rhythmically sophisticated rhymes Often completed last few words or each other s phrases Sampled from heavy Metal First rap group to headline national tour and appear on MTV Introduced style of dress hats gold chains etc Public Enemy It Takes a Nation to Hold Us Back was a breakthrough in 1988 merged rap style with social and political commentary Samples music from a variety of sources MC Hammer and Vanilla Ice In 1990 s many rappers embraced mainstream pop elements Pop friendly artists were often derided in the hip hop community GANGSTA RAP Associated with California Artists Characterized by smoother sound and more laid back vocal delivery Frequently made use of dark violent menacing themes Social commentary replaced by outlaw swagger Focused on images of sex drugs and violence Represented by bands like N WA Niggaz with Attitude Snoop Doggy Dog made use of laid back but lethal persona music released in two versions album version and a cleaned up singles version makes use of local references and hidden meanings like country blues TECHNO DANCE MUSIC Music presented by D s who often attempt to remain anonymous Performed at dance clubs and raves related to 60 s be in Associated with drug use Ecstasy Incorporates diverse influences including European Disco and Funk Often licensed for technology oriented television commercials and films HARDCORE West Coast style of post punk Represented by bands like Germs Black Flag Circle Jerks and Butthole Surfers Characterized by simple riff based songs screaming and extremely fast tempi Associated with slam dancing and moshing Concerts were often characterized by violence Sometimes associated with radical politics Dead Kennedys Holiday in Cambodia httpyoutubecomwatchvR1 1x32Woer ALTERNATIVE MUSIC Traditional definition of Alternative breaks down in 1990 s Sometimes refers to underground or independent music challenges status quo in some way Also used as a marketing label by corporations signifying authenticity Anti commercial sells Characterized by 0 Anti commercial sentiment Guitar driven Often included abrasive textures influenced by punk and heavy metal Frequently dealt with taboo subjects including AIDS environmentalism and reproductive rights 0 Supported mostly by white middle class and working class audiences Bands like R E M Nirvana and the Dead Kennedys symbolized characteristics of indie Rock 000 PROGRESSIVE ROCK STADIUM ROCK In uenced by spirit of Woodstock and Monterey Mutated into highly profitable mass market concerts Took place in civic centers and sports complexes Featured elaborate sets powerful amplification and light shows Characterized by excess AOR Album Oriented RockProgressive Rock Great attention went into each song on the album Featured thematically musically or conceptually linked songs 0 Many albums told a progressive story Use of high fidelity and multi tracking recordings Use of the synthesizer Exploration of serious and often mythological themes SOME EXAMPLES FROM THE 70 S AND EARLY 80 S ROLLING STONES EXILE ON MAIN STREET BLACK SABBATH PARANOID PINK FLOYD DARK SIDE OF THE MOON and THE WALL BILLY JOEL KEEPING THE FAITH KISS THE ELDER LED ZEPPELIN STAIRWAY TO HEAVEN Combines hard rock and Celtic folk music Often called anthem of Heavy Metal Music Most frequently requested FM radio song in the 1970 s Never released as a single if you wanted the single you had to buy the album Escalates in volume and intensity ie progressive MARVIN GAYE WHAT S GOING ON From an album with a theme of social justice Response to Urban poverty Vietnam and other divisive issues Song had commercial success despite Barry Gordy s reservations Bridged divide between AM and FM radio SANTANA OYE COMO VA Represented a growing rock trend towards multiculturalism Lead by Carlos Santana born in Mexico later lived in SF Influenced my rock Mexican American music and jazz Written by NYC based Latin percussionist Tito Puente Released as a shortened single version Unique sound print facilitated by Latin percussion fluid lead guitar and interlocking instruments LISTENING Learn to listen critically 0 Be able to identify in uences on popular music artists 0 Pay speci c attention to images sounds and iconography used by individual performers riff repeated pattern designed to generate rhythmic momentum hook a memorable musical phrase or riff groove evokes the channeled ow of energy in music ex swinging funky of pha rhythms timbre the quality of sound and often unique to a vocalist instrumentalist or producer Often part of an identifiable soundprint 0 note this is decidedly different that the affect or mood of the music Affect can be defined as the conscious subjective aspect of feeling or emotion and is much more subjective that timbre Identify significant popular music forms 0 Strophic Form 0 Blues Form AAB blues and VC blues 0 AABA Form MUSIC AND IDENTITY Popular music in uences and re ects aspects of cultural identity including 0 Ideas of gender race and sexual identity Popular Music is closely tied to stereotypes as cultural archetypes Stereotypes are often interpreted and reinterpreted by those in the stereotyped group and outside the stereotyped MUISC AND TECHNOLOGY Changes in technology have shaped the way popular music is created marketed and disseminated Some important technological changes included 0 invention of the phonograph record 0 network radio 0 electronic microphone 0 digital recording 0 sampling THE MUSIC BUSINESS Important roles in early American Popular Music include composers lyricists song pluggers sheet music publishers song publishers and performing stars Other roles become important with the rise of radio recorded music and multi media including Arranger Producer and AampR personnel 0 Arrangequot decides which instruments should accompany the song in what key the song should be performed how many times it should be repeated 0 Producer responsible for financing and often intervenes in the recording process 0 AampR Personnel Artist and Repertoire seek out new talent often visiting clubs and rehearsals to hear new groups


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